This Art Book contains 132 selected annotated reproductions of watercolors and paintings from J. M. W. Turner. Joseph Mallord William Turner was English artist, one of the greatest and most imaginative painters who put on a pedestal landscape painting. Although renowned for his oils, he is as well one of the coryphées of British watercolor landscape painting. Having been skilled academically, Turner seemed to spend the rest of his life developing an ever more loose style. He uncompromisingly studied nature and light. For his manner of painting he says: "My job is to draw what I see, not what I know." He had a extraordinary production of drawings and paintings; upon his death, he left nearly 30,000 pieces of his art work. He is usually known as "the painter of light" and his work is considered as a Romantic prelude to Impressionism.
Charles Marion Russell was an artist of the Wild American West. He created more than 2,000 paintings of cowboys, Indians. Recognized as 'the cowboy artist', Russell was also a storyteller. His works comprised a wide range of topics, including major historical events and everyday life in the West. He was noted for the frequency with which he portrayed well-known events from the point of view of Native American people instead of the non-Native viewpoint. Russell used as much color as a painter could on his mountain landscapes. As artist he arrived on the cultural scene at a time when the "wild west" was being chronicled and sold back to the public in many forms. Russell was fond of these popular art forms and made many friends among the well-off collectors of his works, including actors and film makers such as Will Rogers and Douglas Fairbanks.
Gustave Caillebotte was a French Impressionist, though he painted in a more realistic style than many other Impressionists. In common with his precursors Millet and Courbet Caillebotte tried to paint reality as it existed and as he saw it. Perhaps because of his close relationship with so many of his peers, his style and technique varies considerably among his works, as if "borrowing" and experimenting, but not really sticking to any one style. His work may have been strongly influenced by Japanese prints and the new technology of photography, though evidence of his actual use of photography is lacking. Cropping and "zooming-in", techniques which are also commonly found in Caillebotte's oeuvre, may also be the result of his interest in photography, but may just as likely derive from his intense interest in perspective effects. A large number of his paintings also make use of a very high vantage point.
Aubrey Vincent Beardsley (1872 – 1898) was an English illustrator and author. His drawings in black ink, influenced by the style of Japanese woodcuts, emphasized the grotesque, the decadent, and the erotic. He was a leading figure in the Aesthetic movement which also included Oscar Wilde and James A. McNeill Whistler. Beardsley's contribution to the development of the Art Nouveau and poster styles was significant, despite the brevity of his career before his early death from tuberculosis. Beardsley was a public as well as private eccentric. He said, "I have one aim—the grotesque. If I am not grotesque I am nothing." Wilde said he had "a face like a silver hatchet, and grass green hair." Beardsley was meticulous about his attire: dove-grey suits, hats, ties; yellow gloves. He would appear at his publisher's in a morning coat and patent leather pumps.
William Blake was English Romantic artist, draftsman, engraver, philosopher, and poet. He possessed visionary powers and in art as in life was an individualist who made a standard of nonconformity. Blake had a prejudice against painting in oils on canvas and experimented with a variety of techniques in color printing, illustration, and tempera. His work as an artist is almost impossible to divorce from the complex philosophy expressed also through his poetry. He believed that the visible world of the senses is an unreal envelope behind which the spiritual reality is masked. He refused the easy path of abstraction and foggy suggestion, remaining content with nothing less than the maximum of clarity and perfection. To most of his generation Blake seemed merely a strange, and his genius was not in general recognized until the second half of the 19th century.
Thomas Cole was an American artist, regarded as the founder of the Hudson River School, an American art movement that prospered in the mid-19th century. Cole's work was known for its realistic and detailed depiction of American landscape and wilderness, which feature themes of romanticism and naturalism. Cole was primarily a painter of landscapes, but he also painted allegorical works. The most famous of these are the five-part series, The Course of Empire, which depict the same landscape over generations—and the four-part The Voyage of Life. Among his other famous works are the Oxbow (1836), the Notch of the White Mountains, Daniel Boone at His cabin at the Great Osage Lake, and Lake with Dead Trees (1825). He also painted The Garden of Eden (1828), with plentiful detail of Adam and Eve living amid waterfalls, colorful plants, and deer. Thomas Cole influenced his artistic peers, especially Asher B. Durand and Frederic Edwin Church, who studied with Cole from 1844 to 1846.
An important Post-Impressionist French painter, Georges Seurat moved away from the apparent spontaneity and rapidity of Impressionism and developed a structured, more monumental art to depict modern urban life. For several of his large compositions, Seurat painted many small studies. He is chiefly remembered as the pioneer of the Neo-Impressionist technique commonly known as Divisionism, or Pointillism, an approach associated with a softly flickering surface of small dots or strokes of color. His innovations derived from new quasi-scientific theories about color and expression, yet the graceful beauty of his work is explained by the influence of very different sources. His success quickly propelled him to the forefront of the Parisian avant-garde. His triumph was short-lived, as after barely a decade of mature work he died at the age of only 31.
Gustave Moreau was a French Symbolist artist whose most important accent was the depiction of biblical and mythological figures. As a painter, Moreau appealed to the imaginations of some Symbolist writers and artists. He himself best explains the essence of his art: “I am dominated by one thing, an irresistible, burning attraction towards the abstract. The expression of human feelings and the passions of man certainly interest me deeply, but I am less concerned with expressing the motions of the soul and mind than to render visible, so to speak, the inner flashes of intuition which have something divine in their apparent insignificance and reveal magic, even divine horizons, when they are transposed into the marvelous effects of pure plastic art.” During his lifetime, Moreau produced more than 8,000 paintings, watercolors and drawings.
Albert Bierstadt was a German-American painter best known for his plentiful landscapes of the American West. To paint the scenes, Bierstadt joined several journeys of the Westward Expansion. He was the leading painter of these scenes for the remainder of the 19th century. He became part of the Hudson River School in New York, an informal group of painters who started painting along this scenic river. Their style was based on carefully detailed paintings with romantic, almost glowing lighting, sometimes called "luminism". An important interpreter of the western landscape, Bierstadt, along with Thomas Moran, is also grouped with the Rocky Mountain School. Bierstadt's technical skill, earned through his study of European landscape, was crucial to his success as a painter of the American West. His exhibition pieces were brilliantly crafted images that glorified the American West as a land of promise. Bierstadt was a prolific artist, having completed over 500 paintings during his lifetime.
William Blake was English artist, draughtsman, engraver, philosopher, and poet, one of the most remarkable figures of the Romantic period. In art as in life Blake was an individualist who made a principle of nonconformity. He had a prejudice against painting in oils on canvas and experimented with a variety of techniques in colour printing, illustration, and tempera. His work as an artist is almost impossible to divorce from the complex philosophy expressed also through his poetry. He believed that the visible world of the senses is an unreal envelope behind which the spiritual reality is concealed and set himself the impossible task of creating a visual symbolism for the expression of his spiritual visions. He refused the easy path of vagueness and misty suggestion, remaining content with nothing less than the maximum of clarity and precision.
To most of his contemporaries Blake seemed merely an eccentric, and his genius was not generally recognized until the second half of the 19th century.
To most of his contemporaries Blake seemed merely an eccentric, and his genius was not generally recognized until the second half of the 19th century.
John Atkinson Grimshaw was a Victorian-era artist, a "remarkable and imaginative painter" known for his city night-scenes and landscapes. His primary influence was the Pre-Raphaelites. He painted landscapes that typified seasons or a type of weather; city and suburban street scenes and moonlit views of the docks in London, Leeds, Liverpool, and Glasgow also figured largely in his art. His careful painting and skill in lighting effects meant that he captured both the appearance and the mood of a scene in minute detail. Grimshaw painted more interior scenes, especially in the 1870s, when he worked under the influence of James Tissot and the Aesthetic Movement. His later work included imagined scenes from the Greek and Roman empires, and he painted literary subjects from Longfellow and Tennyson. Grimshaw's paintings depicted the contemporary world but eschewed the dirty and depressing aspects of industrial towns.
Leonardo, like his contemporary Christopher Columbus, possessed an insatiable curiosity and desire for discovery of unknown worlds. Only observation, says many times Leonardo, is the key to knowledge and understanding. Throughout his life Leonardo seeks to understand and control the nature. He constructed machines and original installations built bridges, dissected human bodies and trying to break into the Providence of God; for me he is a semi-god, or at least the Son of God. This book reflects my passion for the creative genius of Leonardo and I have tried to gather and sort chronologically all his works known to me.Where it was possible and affordable, I briefly told the story of some of the masterpieces of Leonardo. Of course, to retell something an ingenious is too rather trivial, but the reader is free to simply enjoy the oil paintings and drawings. I wish you a happy minutes and hours with my collection.
Caspar David Friedrich was a German Romantic landscape painter, generally considered the most important German artist of his time and one of the most original geniuses in the history of landscape painting. He is best known for his mid-period allegorical landscapes which typically feature contemplative figures silhouetted against night skies, morning mists, barren trees or Gothic ruins. His primary interest as an artist was the contemplation of nature, and his often symbolic and anti-classical work seeks to convey a subjective, emotional response to the natural world.
Fra Angelico was Florentine painter and Dominican friar originally named Guido di Pietro. Vasari, who referred to Fra Giovanni as a simple and most holy man, popularized the use of the name Angelico for him, but he says it is the name by which he was always known, and it was certainly used as early as 1469. Angelico combined the influence of the elegantly decorative International Gothic style of Gentile da Fabriano with the more realistic style of Renaissance masters as Masaccio, Donatello and Ghiberti, all of whom worked in Florence. Angelico was also aware of the theories of perspective proposed by Leon Battista Alberti. Angelico's representation of devout facial expressions and his use of color to heighten emotion are particularly effective. His skill in creating monumental figures, representing motion, and suggesting deep space through the use of linear perspective, especially in the Roman frescoes, mark him as one of the foremost painters of the Renaissance.
Jan Steen was a Dutch genre painter of the Dutch Golden Age 17th century. Psychological insight, sense of humor and abundance of color are marks of his art. Daily life was Jan Steen's main pictorial theme. Many of the genre scenes he portrayed, as in The Feast of Saint Nicholas, are lively to the point of chaos and lustfulness. Many of Steen's paintings bear references to old Dutch proverbs or literature. He often used members of his family as models, and painted quite a few self-portraits in which he showed no tendency of vanity. Steen painted also historical, mythological and religious scenes, portraits, still lifes and natural scenes. His portraits of children are famous. He is also well known for his mastery of light and attention to detail, most notably in persian rugs and other textiles. He was prolific, producing about 800 paintings, of which roughly 350 survive. He did not have many students but his work proved a source of inspiration for many painters.
Anders Zorn was one of Sweden’s foremost artists who obtained international success as a painter, sculptor and print maker in etching. His fame abroad is founded mostly on his portraiture where he had the ability to capture the character and the personality of the depicted person. His incisive ability to depict the individual character of his model is, for example, apparent in portraits of prominent cultural personalities. The model's surroundings were important; Zorn believed that a portrait should be painted in an environment that was natural for the model. An artificial studio environment was not to his taste. Beginning in 1910, Zorn focused on developing his control of the technique and motif. He accomplished this with such certainty that the process of painting can assume the dominant role, sometimes to the detriment of the work's emotional expression.
Ivan Aivazovsky was Russian-Armenian artist, world famous for his seascapes and regarded as one of the supreme seascape painters of all times. He painted a lot of portraits and landscapes but over half of all 6000 of Aivazovsky’s oil works are seascapes. His technique and imagination in depicting the sparkling play of light on the waves and sea foam is especially respected, and gives his works a romantic atmosphere and realistic excellence that resonances the paintings and watercolours of J. M. W. Turner. Especially effectual is his capacity to depict diffuse sunlight and moonlight, sometimes coming from behind clouds, sometimes coming through a fog, with almost transparent layers of paint. A series of paintings of naval battles brought his dramatic skills to the fore, with the flames of burning ships reflected in water and clouds.
Petrus Christus was an Early Netherlandish painter active in Bruges from 1444, where, along with Hans Memling, he became the leading painter after the death of Jan van Eyck. He was influenced by van Eyck and Rogier van der Weyden and is noted for his innovations with linear perspective and a meticulous technique which seems derived from miniatures and manuscript illumination. Today, very few works are confidently attributed to him. The best-known include the 1446 Portrait of a Carthusian and c. 1470 Berlin Portrait of a Young Girl; both are highly innovative in presentation of the figure against detailed, rather than flat, backgrounds. Christus was an anonymous figure for centuries, his importance not established until the work of modern art historians. In the early to mid nineteenth century Gustav Waagen and Johann David Passavant were important in establishing Christus's biographical details and in attributing works to him.
This Art Book with Foreword and annotated reproductions by Maria Tsaneva contains 164 selected drawings and paintings of Paul Gauguin. Eugene-Henri-Paul Gauguin was French avant-garde painter, sculptor, and printmaker. His style cultivated from Impressionism in the direction of a personal variety of Symbolism, which sought within the tradition of Pierre Puvis de Chavannes to combine and contrast an idealized vision of primitive Polynesian culture with the scepticism of a sophisticated European. Gauguin was identified for his investigational use of colors and bold style that were absolutely altered from Impressionism. His work was prominent to the French avant-garde and a lot of modern painters like Matisse and Picasso. His brave testing with colors led in a straight line to the so called Synthetist style of modernism and traced the way to Primitivism and the come again to the idyllic and pastoral.
Jean-Louis André Théodore Géricault was an influential French painter and lithographer, known for "The Raft of the Medusa" and other paintings. Although he died young, he was one of the pioneers of the Romantic Movement. His stormy career lasted little more than a decade and in that time he displayed a meteoric and many-sided genius. His love of thrilling action, his sense of swirling movement, his energetic conduct of paint, and his taste for the horrid were all to become features of Romanticism. Géricault was, at the same time avant-garde in his realism: he made studies from corpses and severed limbs for The Raft of the Medusa and painted an extraordinary series of portraits of mental patients in the clinic of his friend Dr Georget. His work had enormous influence, most notably on Delacroix.
This Book of Quotes includes important phrases by Leonardo da Vinci adapted in corresponding English-Spanish paragraphs. The book is excellent way to read Paragraph by Paragraph Translation as each individual English paragraph is paired with the corresponding Spanish paragraph. The paragraphs are not long, so there is no need to do a lot of back and forth to see the English translation and the Spanish text. Leonardo, like his contemporary Christopher Columbus, possessed an insatiable curiosity and desire for discovery of unknown worlds. Only observation, says many times Leonardo, is the key to knowledge and understanding. Throughout his life Leonardo seeks to understand and control the nature. He constructed machines and original installations, built bridges, dissected human bodies and trying to break into the Providence of God. He could be called "Master of everything", everything that exists in the Universe, for his art and his inventions. Leonardo can be called the Son of God.
Artemisia Gentileschi was an Italian Baroque painter, considered one of the most accomplished painters in the generation following that of Caravaggio. In an era when women painters were not easily accepted by the artistic community or patrons, she was the first woman to become a member of the Accademia di Arte del Disegno in Florence. She painted many pictures of strong and suffering women from myth and the Bible - victims, suicides, warriors - and made it her specialty to paint the Judith story. Her best-known work is Judith Slaying Holofermes (a well-known medieval and baroque subject in art), which "shows the decapitation of Holofernes, a scene of horrific struggle and blood-letting". That she was a woman painting in the seventeenth century and that she was raped and participated in prosecuting the rapist, long overshadowed her achievements as an artist. For many years she was regarded as a curiosity. Nowadays she is regarded as one of the most talented and expressionist painters of her generation.
Claude Monet was an important figure in the Impressionism that changed painting in the end of the 19 century. Follow in the pathway of the Barbizon, Monet accepted and widened their dedication to close up observation and naturalistic depiction. While the Barbizon artists painted only brief sketches en plein air, Monet frequently worked openly on significant canvases outdoors, then reworked and finished them in his studio. He brought a vibrant vividness to his paintings by unmediated colors, adding a variety of tones to his shadows, and preparing canvases with pale primers as a replacement for of the shady grounds used in conventional landscape paintings. Although Monet helped perpetrate the myth that he did not, and maybe even could not, draw, nearly 500 of more than 2,500 his works are sketchbooks, drawings and pastels. Works by Monet in pastel on paper are very rare - there are just over 100 known to exist.
In the primary identified description of Bosch's artworks, in 1560 Felipe de Guevara wrote that Bosch was regarded simply as "the originator of monsters and chimeras". In the beginning 17-th century, the Dutch Karel van Mander explained Bosch's art as "marvelous and extraordinary fantasies"; nevertheless, he finished that the paintings are "frequently less enjoyable than frightening to look at." In the 20-th century, researchers have come to sight Bosch's vision as fewer unbelievable, and acknowledged that his art reflects the conventional religious faith systems of his time. His images of sinning people, his view of Heaven and Hell are now perceived as consistent with those of late medieval didactic literature and habits. Nerveless, some critics notice Bosch as example of medieval surrealist, and parallels are repeatedly made with the modern Spanish artist Salvador Dali. Other scholars try to interpret his images using the words of Freudian psychology.
Carl Larsson was a Swedish painter and interior designer, representative of the Arts and Crafts Movement. His many paintings include oils, watercolors, and frescoes. Larsson's popularity increased considerably with the development of color reproduction technology in the 1890s, when the Swedish publisher Bonnier published books written and illustrated by Larsson and containing full color reproductions of his watercolors. However, the print runs of these rather expensive albums did not come close to that produced in 1909 by the German publisher Karl Robert Langewiesche. His choice of watercolors, drawings and text by Carl Larsson, titled Das Haus in der Sonne (The House in the Sun), immediately became one of the German publishing industry's best-sellers of the year - 40,000 copies sold in three months. Larsson also drew several sequential picture stories, thus being one of the earliest Swedish comic creators.
Egon Schiele was an Austrian painter, a protégé of Gustav Klimt and important figurative painter of the early 20th century. With his signature graphic style, embrace of figural distortion, and bold defiance of conventional norms of beauty, Egon Schiele was one of the leading figures of Austrian Expressionism. Schiele was an extraordinary artist. His dominating theme was the human body, which he depicts in truly singular forms. The extraordinary ability to form the three dimensional body through dominating contour lines, his choice of very strong and forthright colors, the frequently ambiguous spaces, and his extraordinary sensitivity, which transforms even a seemingly quick drawing into a complete work of art, have allowed Schiele's fame to continue to grow. During his short but highly prolific career which ended with his premature death, Schiele created more than three thousand works on paper and approximately three hundred paintings.
Viktor Mikhaylovich Vasnetsov (1848 – 1926) was a Russian artist who specialized in mythological and historical subjects. He is considered the co-founder of Russian folklorist and romantic modernist painting and a key figure in the revivalist movement. It is ironic, but Viktor, whose name is associated with historical and mythological paintings, initially avoided these subjects at all costs. While living in France, Viktor studied classical and contemporary paintings, academic and Impressionist alike. It was in Paris that he became fascinated with fairy-tale subjects, starting to work on Ivan Tsarevich Riding a Grey Wolf and The Firebird. The vogue for Vasnetsov's paintings would spread in the 1880s, when he turned to religious subjects and executed a series of icons. He was central in moving realism towards a more nationalist, and historical style, believing that a true work of art conveys the past, present, and even the future.
John Joseph Enneking (1841 – 1916) was an American Impressionist painter. Enneking is a plein air painter, and his favorite subject is the November twilight of New England, and more generally the half lights of early spring, late autumn, and winter dawn and evening. He was a member of the Twentieth Century Club, Pudding Stone Club, Hyde Park Historical Society, Boston Art Club, Paint and Clay Club of Boston, and the Boston Guild of Artists. He exhibited at the following: Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics Association, Boston (medals); Paris Expo, 1900 (prize); Pan-Am Expo in Buffalo, 1901 (medal); Pan-Pacific Expo in San Francisco, 1915 (gold). Enneking made several painting trips to the White Mountains and became the artist-in-residence at Wilson Cottages and later in the Iron Mountain House. His work has been preserved at the Worcester Museum and the Boston Museum of Fine Arts.
John William Waterhouse was an English painter who worked several decades after the break-up of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, which had seen its zenith in the mid-nineteenth century, leading him to have gained the moniker of "the modern Pre-Raphaelite". Borrowing stylistic influences not only from the earlier Pre-Raphaelites but also from his contemporaries, the Impressionists, his artworks were known for their depictions of women from both ancient Greek mythology and Arthurian legend. He was a painter of classical, historical, and literary subjects. His early works were of classical themes in the spirit of Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema and Frederic Leighton. The latter works reveals Waterhouse's growing interest in themes associated with particularly tragic or powerful femmes fatales (Circe Invidiosa, Cleopatra, La Belle Dame Sans Merci and several versions of Lamia), as well as plein-air painting. In the 1890s he began to exhibit portraits.
Giotto di Bondone was Florentine painter and architect, already recognized by Dante as the leading artist of his day. His significance to the Renaissance can be gauged from the fact that not only the leaders in the early 15th-century transformation of the arts, such as Masaccio, but the key figures of the High Renaissance, such as Raphael and Michelangelo were still learning from him and partly founding their style on his example. The reasons for this are dual. Firstly, his art is notable for its clear, grave, simple solutions to the basic problems of the representation of space and of the volume, structure, and solidity of 3-dimensional forms, and above the entire human figure. Secondly, he was a genius at getting to the heart of whatever episode from sacred history he was representing, at cutting it down to its essential, dramatic core, and at finding the compositional means to express its innermost spiritual meaning and its psychological effects in terms of simple areas of paint.
Julian Alden Weir was an American impressionist painter, one of the founding members of "The Ten", a group of American artists dissatisfied with professional art organizations, who banded together in 1898 to exhibit their works. He received his first art training at the National Academy of Design before enrolling at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris in 1873. Upon his return to New York City in 1877, Weir became a charter member of the Society of American Artists and continued exhibiting his work at the National Academy of Design. His works as a young artist centered on still life and the human figure, which he rendered in a realist style not unlike the work of Édouard Manet. By 1891 Weir had reconciled his earlier misgivings about impressionism and adopted the style as his own. His work demonstrated a tendency for a lighter palette of pastel colors and broken brushwork similar to the Impressionists. During the remainder of his life Weir painted impressionist landscapes and figurative works.
Evelyn De Morgan (1855 – 1919) was an English Pre-Raphaelite painter. During her lifetime Evelyn De Morgan produced approximately 102 oil paintings and over 300 drawings. At first glance, works like Flora (1894), Cadmus and Harmonia (1877), Eos (1895) and Night and Sleep (1878) appear to be that of a typical mid-century literary painter influenced by the work of Spencer Stanhope, Watts and Burne-Jones. Consequently, this was the way in which most contemporary critics assessed her paintings: Many do reflect the usual conventions and literary themes of late Victorian art with its Pre-Raphaelite traces and neo-classical tendencies. However, looking closer, one discovers Symbolist works that employ the language of Christian allegory to reveal the artist’s engagement with the contemporary issues of her time. These works may be divided into three categories: spiritualist allegories, depictions of sacred heroines, and war paintings.
Jean-Baptiste-Simeon Chardin was French painter of still-lifes and domestic scenes remarkable for their intimate realism and tranquil atmosphere and the luminous quality of their paint. For his still lifes he chose modest objects (Le Buffet, 1728), and for his genre paintings unpretentious events (Lady Sealing a Letter, 1733). He also executed some fine portraits, especially the pastels of his last years. He was nominated to the Royal Academy of Painting in 1728. Despite the triumphs of his early and middle life, Chardin's last years were clouded, both in his private life and in his career. It was not until the middle of the 19th century that he was rediscovered by a handful of French critics, including the brothers Edmond and Jules de Goncourt, and collectors. Nowadays Chardin is considered the greatest still-life painter of the 18th century, and his canvases are coveted by the world's most distinguished museums and collections.
Tiziano Vecellio was the greatest artist of the Venetian School, recognized as immense genius in his own time and his reputation as one of the giants of art has never been sincerely questioned. Lomazzo described him as the 'sun amidst small stars not only among the Italians but all the painters of the world'. Poussin, Rubens, and Velazquez are among the painters who have particularly revered him. In many subjects, above all in portraiture, he set patterns that were followed by generations of artists. His free and expressive brushwork revolutionized the oil technique: His meticulous execution and concern for detail suggest the light, space, and variety of physical forms in his drawings too. He suggested textures through varying styles of line, carefully and economically placed hatchings even created air with line, as in the atmosphere that envelops the objects.
Paul Signac was a French neo-impressionist artist who, together with Georges Seurat, helped builds up the pointillist style. Signac also left several important works on the theory of art, among them From Eugène Delacroix to Neo-Impressionism, published in 1899; a monograph devoted to Johan Barthold Jongkind, published in 1927; several introductions to the catalogs of art exhibitions; and many other still unpublished writings. Under Monet's influence Signac neglected the short brushstrokes of impressionism to experiment with systematically juxtaposed small dots of pure color, intended to combine and blend not on the canvas but in the viewer's eye, the defining feature of pointillism. Many of Signac's paintings are of the French coast. He loved to paint the water. As president of the Société des Artistes Indépendants from 1908 until his death, Signac encouraged younger artists by exhibiting the controversial works of the Fauves and the Cubists.
Pierre-Auguste Renoir was French painter, important figure in the Impressionist movement. His early work reflected many influences including those of Courbet, Manet, Corot, Ingres and Delacroix. Under the influence of Gustave Courbet and painters of the School of Barbizon he turned to plein air painting. Together with Claude Monet he develops the new painting style of Impressionism around 1870; Renoir is regarded as one of its main representatives. As a celebrator of feminine beauty "Renoir is the last representative of a tradition which runs in a straight line from Rubens to Watteau." Renoir's artworks are famous for their vivacious light and saturated color, most frequently focusing on people in friendly and intimate compositions. The female nudes were one of his primary themes. In typical Impressionist manner, Renoir suggested the details of a picture through liberally brushed touches of color, so that his figures softly fuse with one another and their environment.
This Art Book representing 101 annotated reproductions of selected paintings from El Greco. El Greco (born Doménikos Theotokópoulos) was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. He is one of the not many old masters who benefit from extensive fame. Like few others, he was rediscovered from darkness by an enthusiastic faction of 19-century collectors and critics, and became one of the chosen members of the contemporary pantheon of great artists. For many later admirers, El Greco was both the archetypal Spaniard and a intellectual artist of the spirit. It was as a master who “felt the spiritual inner creation”.
John William Godward was an English painter from the end of the Pre-Raphaelite era. He was a Victorian Neo-classicist and a follower in theory of Frederic Leighton but he is more closely allied stylistically to Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, with whom he shared static landscape features constructed from marble. The vast majority of Godward's extant images feature women in Classical dress, posed against these landscape features, though there are some semi-nude and fully nude figures included in his oeuvre. The titles reflect Godward's source of inspiration: Classical civilisation, most notably that of Ancient Rome. Godward, too, studied such details as architecture and dress, in order to ensure that his works bore the stamp of authenticity. By 1919 his work was no longer held in admiration by either the critics or the public. He committed suicide in 1922, leaving a note saying that the world was not big enough for him and modern painters like Picasso.
Lord Frederic Leighton was one of the most famous British artists of the nineteenth century. He preferred to paint subject matter that was connected to ancient Greek and Roman mythology and intended for his paintings to be visually beautiful. Leighton's paintings have a reputation for bright colors and firmly drawn figures. Leighton's contemporaries included the French Impressionist painters and he would have seen the work of Monet, Renoir and others in both Paris and London. Leighton said of the Impressionists that 'Impressionism is a reaction from the old conventionalism, but an impressionist must not forget that it is the deep-sinking and not the fugitive impressions which are the best'. Leighton's role at the Royal Academy included the education of younger artists. His great ability for this is summed up in the words of one of his pupils; Hamo Thornycroft, wrote, 'he was the most energetic and took the greatest pains to help the students. He was, moreover, an inspiring master'.
Andrea Mantegna was a master of perspective and Andrea Mantegna was a master of perspective and foreshortening; he made important contributions to the compositional techniques of Renaissance painting. Like other artists of the time, Mantegna experimented with perspective by lowering the horizon in order to create a sense of greater monumentality. His stony, metallic landscapes and somewhat rocky figures give evidence of a fundamentally sculptural approach to painting. His human forms were distinguished for their solidity, expressiveness, and anatomical correctness. Mantegna developed a passionate interest in classical antiquity. The influence of both ancient Roman sculpture and the contemporary sculptor Donatello are clearly evident in Mantegna's rendering of the human figure. One of the key artistic figures of the second half of the 15th century, Mantegna was the dominant influence on north Italian painting for 50 years.
William Hogarth was an English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, social critic, and editorial cartoonist who have been credited with pioneering western chronological art. His work ranged from realistic portraiture to comic strip-like series of pictures called "modern moral subjects". Hogarth was far and away the most important British artist of his generation. He was equally outstanding as a painter and engraver and by the force of his aggressive personality as well as by the quality and originality of his work he freed British art from its domination by foreign artists. Because so much of his work has a 'literary' element, his qualities as a painter have often been overlooked, but his more informal pictures in particular show that his brushwork could live up to his creative genius.
Mary Cassatt was an American impressionist painter who depicted the lives of women, chiefly the intimate bond between mother and child. Cassatt is known for superior draughtsmanship in all the media, notably pastel. In Europe, Cassatt’s paintings were better received, increasing her prospects, and exhibited in the Salon of 1872, selling a painting. She exhibited every year at the Paris Salon until 1877, when all her works were rejected. Distraught at her rejection, she turned to the Impressionists, who welcomed her with welcome arms. Deciding early in her career that marriage was not an option, Cassatt never married, and spent much of her time with her sister Lydia, until her death in 1882, which left Mary unable to work for a short time. As her career progressed, her critical reputation grew, and she was often touted, along with Degas, as the one of the best exhibitors at the Impressionist Salon. She was awarded the French Legion of Honor in 1906.
William Bouguereau was a follower of classical art and had no wish for everything like novelty or the avant-garde. His sense of idealism was his guiding principle, regarding the ugly as worthless for representation. A skilled craftsman and master of human anatomy, he utilized a delicate palette and glorious light to sensitively capture nuances of personality and mood, vibrantly bringing the soul and spirit of his subjects to life. Bouguereau has left a large number of works and he is undoubtedly a key figure in 19th century French art. Although his work was widely collected by the English and more especially by the Americans in his lifetime, Bouguereau’s reputation in France was more indistinct—indeed quite low—in his later years. He remained a hard supporter of the academic training system at a time when it was criticized for stifling originality and nurturing mediocrity.
Albrecht Dürer was certainly the most significant painter and engraver of the Northern Renaissance. Living in Nuremberg, between Netherlands and Italy, he found inspiration in the two most important centers of art at his time. But instead of simply imitating, Dürer goes own way of discoverer. He has published hundreds engravings. At least 60 of his paintings have also survived and there are a thousand of his drawings and watercolors. The range of his work is just amazing. His woodcarvings made him famous all over Europe, and he is considered the best master in this area. As a painter, Dürer has the equal success as in the paintings of religious topics, also in those with secular topics. He painted portraits as well as altars. His drawings and watercolors even today strike us with a variety of techniques and were painted with an almost phenomenal precision. To summarize in just few words - Dürer is one of the most prominent figures for the development of the whole European painting.
Hans Holbein the Younger was German painter, draftsman, and designer who worked in a Northern Renaissance style, renowned for the precise rendering of his drawings and the compelling realism of his portraits. Holbein was one of the greatest portraitists and most exquisite draftsmen of all time. It is the artist's record of the court of King Henry VIII of England, as well as the taste that he virtually imposed upon that court, that was his most remarkable achievement. He also produced religious art, satire and made a significant contribution to the history of book design. He is called "the Younger" to distinguish him from his father, Hans Holbein the Elder, an accomplished painter of the Late Gothic School. Holbein has also been described as a great "one-off" of art history, since he founded no school. After his death, some of his work was lost, but much was collected, and by the 19th century, Holbein was recognized among the great portrait masters.
This Art Book with Foreword and annotated reproductions by Maria Tsaneva contains 185 selected drawings and sculptures of Auguste Rodin. Rodin is recognized worldwide for the exceptional authenticity of his anatomical sculptures. He strongly influenced twentieth century sculpture by his assemblage techniques and prepared the way for symbolism by adopting literary and mythological themes. It was the freedom and creativity along with his activation surfaces of sculptures through traces of his own touch and with his more open attitude toward bodily pose, sensual subject matter, and non-realistic surface – that marked Rodin's re-making of traditional 19th century sculptural techniques into the prototype for modern sculpture. Rodin's most original works departed from traditional themes of mythology and allegory, modeled the human body with realism, and celebrated individual character and physicality.
Gustave Doré was a French artist, engraver, illustrator and sculptor, best known for his illustrations of epic literature, such as those by Dante, Cervantes, Hugo, and Milton, as well as contemporary texts, such as those by Balzac. Doré worked primarily with wood engraving. He rarely completed any works with colors, leading to the speculation that he was color blind. His vivid work is characterized by images of the grotesque and bizarre. Employing over 40 block cutters, he eventually produced more than 90 illustrated books. Dramatic, chiaroscuro illustrations of the Bible and literary giants made Dore's name. He had a particular gift for illustrating nature and fairy tales. His work influenced that of Van Gogh and later, the Symbolists. Doré was mainly celebrated for his paintings in his day. His paintings remain world renowned, but his woodcuts and engravings are where he really excelled as an artist with an individual vision.
Guido Reni was an Italian painter of high-Baroque style. He was a typically classical academic but he was also one of the most elegant painters in the chronicles of art history. He was constantly seeking an absolute, rarefied perfection which he measured against classical Antiquity and Raphael. Because of this, over the years the Bolognese painter has been in and out of fashion, depending on the tastes of the times. He was very popular in eighteenth century, bit in the nineteenth century the violent criticism of John Ruskin broke down his reputation. However even his enemies cannot deny the exceptional technical quality of his work nor the clarity of his supremely assured and harmonious brushwork. He praised the clearness of light, the perfection of the body, and lively color. Toward the end of his life, Reni modified his style. His paintings became airy as to seem insubstantial and were almost completely monochrome.