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The inherent advantages and potential payoffs of the terahertz (THz) regime for military and security applications serve as an important driver for interest in new THz-related science and technology. In particular, the very rapid growth in more recent years is arguably most closely linked to the potential payoffs of THz sensing and imaging (THz-S&I).This book presents some of the leading fundamental research efforts towards the realization of practical THz-S&I capabilities for military and security applications. Relevant subjects include theoretical prediction and/or measurement of THz spectroscopic phenomenon in solid-state materials such as high explosives (e.g. HMX, PETN, RDX, TNT, etc.), carbon-fiber composites, biological agents (e.g. DNA, RNA, proteins, amino acids) and organic-semiconductor nanostructures. Individual papers also address the effective utilization of state-of-the-art THz-frequency technology in military and security relevant scenarios such as standoff S&I, screening of packages and personnel, and perimeter defense. Technical papers introduce novel devices and/or concepts that enhance THz source and detector performance, enabling completely new types of sensor functionality at THz frequency (e.g. detection at nanoscale/molecular levels), and defining new and innovative sensing modalities (e.g. remote personnel identification) for defense and security. Therefore, the collective research presented here represents a valuable source of information on the evolving field of THz-S&I for military and security applications.
Tom Kibble is an inspirational theoretical physicist who has made profound contributions to our understanding of the physical world. To celebrate his 80th birthday a one-day symposium was held on March 13, 2013 at the Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London. This important volume is a compilation of papers based on the presentations that were given at the symposium.The symposium profiled various aspects of Tom's long scientific career. The tenor of the meeting was set in the first talk given by Neil Turok, director of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, who described Tom as “our guru and example”. He gave a modern overview of cosmological theories, including a discussion of Tom's pioneering work on how topological defects might have formed in the early universe during symmetry-breaking phase transitions. Wojciech Zurek of Los Alamos National Laboratory continued with this theme, surveying analogous processes within the context of condensed matter systems and explaining the Kibble-Zurek scaling phenomenon. The day's events were concluded by Jim Virdee of Imperial College, who summarized the epic and successful quest of finding the Higgs boson at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. At the end of the talk, there was a standing ovation for Tom that lasted several minutes.In the evening, Steven Weinberg gave a keynote presentation to a capacity audience of 700 people. He talked eruditely on symmetry breaking and its role in elementary particle physics. At the banquet dinner, Frank Close of Oxford University concluded the banquet speeches by summarizing the significance of Tom's contributions to the creation of the Standard Model.
Coined as the third revolution in electronics is under way; Manufacturing is going digital, driven by computing revolution, powered by MOS technology, in particular, by the CMOS technology and its development.

In this book, the scaling challenges for CMOS: SiGe BiCMOS, THz and niche technology are covered; the first article looks at scaling challenges for CMOS from an industrial point of view (review of the latest innovations); the second article focuses on SiGe BiCMOS technologies (deals with high-speed up to the THz-region), and the third article reports on circuits associated with source/drain integration in 14 nm and beyond FinFET technology nodes. Followed by the last two articles on niche applications for emerging technologies: one deals with carbon nanotube network and plasmonics for the THz region carbon, while the other reviews the recent developments in integrated on-chip nano-optomechanical systems.

Contents: PrefaceScaling Challenges for Advanced CMOS Devices (Ajey P Jacob, Ruilong Xie, Min Gyu Sung, Lars Liebmann, Rinus T P Lee and Bill Taylor)High-Speed SiGe BiCMOS Technologies and Circuits (A Mai, I Garcia Lopez, P Rito, R Nagulapalli, A Awny, M Elkhouly, M Eissa, M Ko, A Malignaggi, M Kucharski, H J Ng, K Schmalz and D Kissinger)Optimization of Selective Growth of SiGe for Source/Drain in 14nm and Beyond Nodes FinFETs (Henry H Radamson, Jun Luo, Changliang Qin, Huaxiang Yin, Huilong Zhu, Chao Zhao and Guilei Wang)Dynamic Conductivity and Two-Dimensional Plasmons in Lateral CNT Networks (Maxim Ryzhii, Taiichi Otsuji, Victor Ryzhii, Vladimir Mitin, Michael S Shur, Georgy Fedorov and Vladimir Leiman)Integrated On-Chip Nano-Optomechanical Systems (Zhu Diao, Vincent T K Sauer and Wayne K Hiebert)Author Index
Readership: Scientists, engineers, research leaders, and even investors interested in microelectronics, nanoelectronics, and optoelectronics. It is also recommended to graduate students working in these fields.
This book features the selected articles from the 25th annual symposiums Connecticut Microelectronics and Optoelectronics Consortium (CMOC), that focus on micro/nano-electronics and optoelectronics/Nano-photonics, to cover not only the technologies, but also the applications ranging from biosensors/nano-biosystems, to cyber security.

Enabling materials research involving growth and characterization of novel devices such as multi-bit nonvolatile random access memory with fast erase, high performance circuits, and their potential applications in developing new high-speed systems. Other articles focus on emerging nanoelectronic devices including topological insulators, spatial wavefunction switching (SWS) FETs as compact high-speed 2-bit SRAM circuits, quantum dot channel (QDC) FETs. Fundamental work on critical layer thickness in ZnSe/GaAs and other material systems impacts electronic and photonic devise integrating mismatched layers are also reported. While another article investigates linearly graded GaAsP-GaAs system with emphasis on strain relaxation.

Based on these technologies, area of analyzes multiple junction solar cells using semiconductors with different energy gaps, as a possible application were also featured; Pixel characterization of protein-based retinal implant, as well as a low-power and low-data-rate (100 kbps) fully integrated CMOS impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) transmitter were investigated as a potential candidate for biomedical application. While other articles looked at carbon nanofibers/nanotubes for electrochemical sensing. In the area of cyber security, two articles present encrypted electron beam lithography fabricated nanostructures for authentication and nano-signatures for the identification of authentic electronic components.

In summary, papers presented in this volume involve various aspects of high performance materials and devices for implementing high-speed electronic systems.

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