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The Essentials For Dummies Series

Dummies is proud to present our new series, The Essentials For Dummies. Now students who are prepping for exams, preparing to study new material, or who just need a refresher can have a concise, easy-to-understand review guide that covers an entire course by concentrating solely on the most important concepts. From algebra and chemistry to grammar and Spanish, our expert authors focus on the skills students most need to succeed in a subject.

The first part implements this idea in terms of notions of convergence and summability of Fourier series, while highlighting applications such as the isoperimetric inequality and equidistribution. The second part deals with the Fourier transform and its applications to classical partial differential equations and the Radon transform; a clear introduction to the subject serves to avoid technical difficulties. The book closes with Fourier theory for finite abelian groups, which is applied to prime numbers in arithmetic progression.

In organizing their exposition, the authors have carefully balanced an emphasis on key conceptual insights against the need to provide the technical underpinnings of rigorous analysis. Students of mathematics, physics, engineering and other sciences will find the theory and applications covered in this volume to be of real interest.

The Princeton Lectures in Analysis represents a sustained effort to introduce the core areas of mathematical analysis while also illustrating the organic unity between them. Numerous examples and applications throughout its four planned volumes, of which Fourier Analysis is the first, highlight the far-reaching consequences of certain ideas in analysis to other fields of mathematics and a variety of sciences. Stein and Shakarchi move from an introduction addressing Fourier series and integrals to in-depth considerations of complex analysis; measure and integration theory, and Hilbert spaces; and, finally, further topics such as functional analysis, distributions and elements of probability theory.

Those familiar with mathematics texts will note the fine illustrations throughout and large number of problems offered at the chapter ends. An answer section is provided. Students weary of plodding mathematical prose will find Professor Flanigan's style as refreshing and stimulating as his approach.

Though the Japanese abacus may appear mysterious or even primitive, this intriguing tool is capable of amazing speed and accuracy. it is still widely used throughout the shop and markets of Asia and its popularity shows no sign of decline.

This volume is designed for the student desiring a greater understanding of the abacus and its calculative functions. The text provides thorough explanations of the advanced operations involving negative numbers, decimals, different units of measurement, and square roots. Diagrams illustrate bead manipulation, and numerous exercises provide ample practice.

Concise and easy-to-follow, this book will improve your abacus skills and help you perform calculations with greater efficiency and precision.

A unique feature of the book is its emphasis on applications. These include mechanical vibrations, lasers, biological rhythms, superconducting circuits, insect outbreaks, chemical oscillators, genetic control systems, chaotic waterwheels, and even a technique for using chaos to send secret messages. In each case, the scientific background is explained at an elementary level and closely integrated with mathematical theory.

In the twenty years since the first edition of this book appeared, the ideas and techniques of nonlinear dynamics and chaos have found application to such exciting new fields as systems biology, evolutionary game theory, and sociophysics. This second edition includes new exercises on these cutting-edge developments, on topics as varied as the curiosities of visual perception and the tumultuous love dynamics in Gone With the Wind.

Since many abstractions and generalizations originate with the real line, the author has made it the unifying theme of the text, constructing the real number system from the point of view of a Cauchy sequence (a step which Dr. Sprecher feels is essential to learn what the real number system is).

The material covered in Elements of Real Analysis should be accessible to those who have completed a course in calculus. To help give students a sound footing, Part One of the text reviews the fundamental concepts of sets and functions and the rational numbers. Part Two explores the real line in terms of the real number system, sequences and series of number and the structure of point sets. Part Three examines the functions of a real variable in terms of continuity, differentiability, spaces of continuous functions, measure and integration, and the Fourier series.

An especially valuable feature of the book is the exercises which follow each section. There are over five hundred, ranging from the simple to the highly difficult, each focusing on a concept previously introduced.

The numerous exercises at the end of each chapter make the book suitable for both graduate courses and independent study. Most of the text is accessible to graduate students in mathematics who have had a first course in real analysis, covering the basics of L2 spaces and Hilbert spaces. The final chapters introduce readers who are familiar with the theory of manifolds to more advanced topics, including geometric quantization.

Volume III concentrates on the classical aspects of gauge theory, describing the four fundamental forces by the curvature of appropriate fiber bundles. This must be supplemented by the crucial, but elusive quantization procedure.

The book is arranged in four sections, devoted to realizing the universal principle force equals curvature:

Part I: The Euclidean Manifold as a Paradigm

Part II: Ariadne's Thread in Gauge Theory

Part III: Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity

Part IV: Ariadne's Thread in Cohomology

For students of mathematics the book is designed to demonstrate that detailed knowledge of the physical background helps to reveal interesting interrelationships among diverse mathematical topics. Physics students will be exposed to a fairly advanced mathematics, beyond the level covered in the typical physics curriculum.

Quantum Field Theory builds a bridge between mathematicians and physicists, based on challenging questions about the fundamental forces in the universe (macrocosmos), and in the world of elementary particles (microcosmos).

As fields like communications, speech and image processing, and related areas are rapidly developing, the FFT as one of the essential parts in digital signal processing has been widely used. Thus there is a pressing need from instructors and students for a book dealing with the latest FFT topics.

Fast Fourier Transform - Algorithms and Applications provides a thorough and detailed explanation of important or up-to-date FFTs. It also has adopted modern approaches like MATLAB examples and projects for better understanding of diverse FFTs.

Fast Fourier Transform - Algorithms and Applications is designed for senior undergraduate and graduate students, faculty, engineers, and scientists in the field, and self-learners to understand FFTs and directly apply them to their fields, efficiently. It is designed to be both a text and a reference. Thus examples, projects and problems all tied with MATLAB, are provided for grasping the concepts concretely. It also includes references to books and review papers and lists of applications, hardware/software, and useful websites. By including many figures, tables, bock diagrams and graphs, this book helps the reader understand the concepts of fast algorithms readily and intuitively. It provides new MATLAB functions and MATLAB source codes. The material in Fast Fourier Transform - Algorithms and Applications is presented without assuming any prior knowledge of FFT. This book is for any professional who wants to have a basic understanding of the latest developments in and applications of FFT. It provides a good reference for any engineer planning to work in this field, either in basic implementation or in research and development.

1001 Calculus Practice Problems For Dummies takes you beyond the instruction and guidance offered in Calculus For Dummies, giving you 1001 opportunities to practice solving problems from the major topics in your calculus course. Plus, an online component provides you with a collection of calculus problems presented in multiple-choice format to further help you test your skills as you go.

Gives you a chance to practice and reinforce the skills you learn in your calculus course Helps you refine your understanding of calculus Practice problems with answer explanations that detail every step of every problemThe practice problems in 1001 Calculus Practice Problems For Dummies range in areas of difficulty and style, providing you with the practice help you need to score high at exam time.

Slay the calculus monster with this user-friendly guide

Calculus For Dummies, 2nd Edition makes calculus manageable—even if you're one of the many students who sweat at the thought of it. By breaking down differentiation and integration into digestible concepts, this guide helps you build a stronger foundation with a solid understanding of the big ideas at work. This user-friendly math book leads you step-by-step through each concept, operation, and solution, explaining the "how" and "why" in plain English instead of math-speak. Through relevant instruction and practical examples, you'll soon learn that real-life calculus isn't nearly the monster it's made out to be.

Calculus is a required course for many college majors, and for students without a strong math foundation, it can be a real barrier to graduation. Breaking that barrier down means recognizing calculus for what it is—simply a tool for studying the ways in which variables interact. It's the logical extension of the algebra, geometry, and trigonometry you've already taken, and Calculus For Dummies, 2nd Edition proves that if you can master those classes, you can tackle calculus and win.

Includes foundations in algebra, trigonometry, and pre-calculus concepts Explores sequences, series, and graphing common functions Instructs you how to approximate area with integration Features things to remember, things to forget, and things you can't get away withStop fearing calculus, and learn to embrace the challenge. With this comprehensive study guide, you'll gain the skills and confidence that make all the difference. Calculus For Dummies, 2nd Edition provides a roadmap for success, and the backup you need to get there.

In order to work with varying levels of engineering and physics research, it is important to have a firm understanding of key mathematical concepts such as advanced calculus, differential equations, complex analysis, and introductory mathematical physics. Essentials of Mathematical Methods in Science and Engineering provides a comprehensive introduction to these methods under one cover, outlining basic mathematical skills while also encouraging students and practitioners to develop new, interdisciplinary approaches to their research.

The book begins with core topics from various branches of mathematics such as limits, integrals, and inverse functions. Subsequent chapters delve into the analytical tools that are commonly used in scientific and engineering studies, including vector analysis, generalized coordinates, determinants and matrices, linear algebra, complex numbers, complex analysis, and Fourier series. The author provides an extensive chapter on probability theory with applications to statistical mechanics and thermodynamics that complements the following chapter on information theory, which contains coverage of Shannon's theory, decision theory, game theory, and quantum information theory. A comprehensive list of references facilitates further exploration of these topics.

Throughout the book, numerous examples and exercises reinforce the presented concepts and techniques. In addition, the book is in a modular format, so each chapter covers its subject thoroughly and can be read independently. This structure affords flexibility for individualizing courses and teaching.

Providing a solid foundation and overview of the various mathematical methods and applications in multidisciplinary research, Essentials of Mathematical Methods in Science and Engineering is an excellent text for courses in physics, science, mathematics, and engineering at the upper-undergraduate and graduate levels. It also serves as a useful reference for scientists and engineers who would like a practical review of mathematical methods.

* Assumes prior knowledge of Naive set theory, linear algebra, point set topology, basic complex variable, and real variables.

* Includes an appendix on the Riesz representation theorem.

The contributors are Jean Bourgain, Luis Caffarelli, Michael Christ, Guy David, Charles Fefferman, Alexandru D. Ionescu, David Jerison, Carlos Kenig, Sergiu Klainerman, Loredana Lanzani, Sanghyuk Lee, Lionel Levine, Akos Magyar, Detlef Müller, Camil Muscalu, Alexander Nagel, D. H. Phong, Malabika Pramanik, Andrew S. Raich, Fulvio Ricci, Keith M. Rogers, Andreas Seeger, Scott Sheffield, Luis Silvestre, Christopher D. Sogge, Jacob Sturm, Terence Tao, Christoph Thiele, Stephen Wainger, and Steven Zelditch.

Topics include Bessel functions of zero order, modified Bessel functions, definite integrals, asymptotic expansions, and Bessel functions of any real order. More than 200 problems throughout the book enable students to test and extend their understanding of the theory and applications of Bessel functions.

Whether you are a student struggling to fulfill a math or science requirement, or you are embarking on a career change that requires a new skill set, A Mind for Numbers offers the tools you need to get a better grasp of that intimidating material. Engineering professor Barbara Oakley knows firsthand how it feels to struggle with math. She flunked her way through high school math and science courses, before enlisting in the army immediately after graduation. When she saw how her lack of mathematical and technical savvy severely limited her options—both to rise in the military and to explore other careers—she returned to school with a newfound determination to re-tool her brain to master the very subjects that had given her so much trouble throughout her entire life.

In A Mind for Numbers, Dr. Oakley lets us in on the secrets to learning effectively—secrets that even dedicated and successful students wish they’d known earlier. Contrary to popular belief, math requires creative, as well as analytical, thinking. Most people think that there’s only one way to do a problem, when in actuality, there are often a number of different solutions—you just need the creativity to see them. For example, there are more than three hundred different known proofs of the Pythagorean Theorem. In short, studying a problem in a laser-focused way until you reach a solution is not an effective way to learn. Rather, it involves taking the time to step away from a problem and allow the more relaxed and creative part of the brain to take over. The learning strategies in this book apply not only to math and science, but to any subject in which we struggle. We all have what it takes to excel in areas that don't seem to come naturally to us at first, and learning them does not have to be as painful as we might think!

From the Trade Paperback edition.

After introducing the basic concepts of complex numbers and their geometrical representation, the text describes analytic functions, power series and elementary functions, the conformal representation of an analytic function, special transformations, and complex integration. It next discusses zeros of an analytic function, classification of singularities, and singularity at the point of infinity; residue theory, principle of argument, Rouché’s theorem, and the location of zeros of complex polynomial equations; and calculus of residues, emphasizing the techniques of definite integrals by contour integration.

The authors then explain uniform convergence of sequences and series involving Parseval, Schwarz, and Poisson formulas. They also present harmonic functions and mappings, inverse mappings, and univalent functions as well as analytic continuation.

The first part explores functions of one variable, including numbers and sequences, continuous functions, differentiable functions, integration, and sequences and series of functions. The second part examines functions of several variables: the space of several variables and continuous functions, differentiation, multiple integrals, and line and surface integrals, concluding with a selection of related topics. Complete solutions to the problems appear at the end of the text.

But while the importance of the calculus and mathematical analysis ― the core of modern mathematics ― cannot be overemphasized, the value of this first comprehensive critical history of the calculus goes far beyond the subject matter. This book will fully counteract the impression of laymen, and of many mathematicians, that the great achievements of mathematics were formulated from the beginning in final form. It will give readers a sense of mathematics not as a technique, but as a habit of mind, and serve to bridge the gap between the sciences and the humanities. It will also make abundantly clear the modern understanding of mathematics by showing in detail how the concepts of the calculus gradually changed from the Greek view of the reality and immanence of mathematics to the revised concept of mathematical rigor developed by the great 19th century mathematicians, which held that any premises were valid so long as they were consistent with one another. It will make clear the ideas contributed by Zeno, Plato, Pythagoras, Eudoxus, the Arabic and Scholastic mathematicians, Newton, Leibnitz, Taylor, Descartes, Euler, Lagrange, Cantor, Weierstrass, and many others in the long passage from the Greek "method of exhaustion" and Zeno's paradoxes to the modern concept of the limit independent of sense experience; and illuminate not only the methods of mathematical discovery, but the foundations of mathematical thought as well.

Featuring more than 100 stunning color illustrations and requiring only a modest background in math, Creating Symmetry begins by addressing the enigma of a simple curve, whose curious symmetry seems unexplained by its formula. Farris describes how complex numbers unlock the mystery, and how they lead to the next steps on an engaging path to constructing waveforms. He explains how to devise waveforms for each of the 17 possible wallpaper types, and then guides you through a host of other fascinating topics in symmetry, such as color-reversing patterns, three-color patterns, polyhedral symmetry, and hyperbolic symmetry. Along the way, Farris demonstrates how to marry waveforms with photographic images to construct beautiful symmetry patterns as he gradually familiarizes you with more advanced mathematics, including group theory, functional analysis, and partial differential equations. As you progress through the book, you'll learn how to create breathtaking art images of your own.

Fun, accessible, and challenging, Creating Symmetry features numerous examples and exercises throughout, as well as engaging discussions of the history behind the mathematics presented in the book.

The "lost notebook" contains considerable material on mock theta functions and so undoubtedly emanates from the last year of Ramanujan's life. It should be emphasized that the material on mock theta functions is perhaps Ramanujan's deepest work. Mathematicians are probably several decades away from a complete understanding of those functions. More than half of the material in the book is on q-series, including mock theta functions; the remaining part deals with theta function identities, modular equations, incomplete elliptic integrals of the first kind and other integrals of theta functions, Eisenstein series, particular values of theta functions, the Rogers-Ramanujan continued fraction, other q-continued fractions, other integrals, and parts of Hecke's theory of modular forms.

"The main object of this book is to dispel the fear of mathematics," declares author W. W. Sawyer, adding that "Many people regard mathematicians as a race apart, possessed of almost supernatural powers. While this is very flattering for successful mathematicians, it is very bad for those who, for one reason or another, are attempting to learn the subject." Now retired, Sawyer won international renown for his innovative teaching methods, which he used at colleges in England and Scotland as well as Africa, New Zealand, and North America. His insights into the pleasures and practicalities of mathematics will appeal to readers of all backgrounds.

Want to "know it ALL" when it comes to calculus? This book gives you the expert, one-on-one instruction you need, whether you're new to calculus or you're looking to ramp up your skills. Providing easy-to-understand concepts and thoroughly explained exercises, math whiz Stan Gibilisco serves as your own private tutor--without the expense! His clear, friendly guidance helps you tackle the concepts and problems that confuse you the most and work through them at your own pace.

Train your brain with ease! Calculus Know-It-ALL features:

Checkpoints to help you track your knowledge and skill level Problem/solution pairs and chapter-ending quizzes to reinforce learning Fully explained answers to all practice exercises A multiple-choice exam to prepare you for standardized tests "Extra Credit" and "Challenge" problems to stretch your mindStan's expert guidance gives you the know-how to:

Understand mappings, relations, and functions Calculate limits and determine continuity Differentiate and integrate functions Analyze graphs using first and second derivatives Define and evaluate inverse functions Use specialized integration techniques Determine arc lengths, surface areas, and solid volumes Work with multivariable functions Take college entrance examinations with confidence And much more!The math we learn in school can seem like a dull set of rules, laid down by the ancients and not to be questioned. In How Not to Be Wrong, Jordan Ellenberg shows us how terribly limiting this view is: Math isn’t confined to abstract incidents that never occur in real life, but rather touches everything we do—the whole world is shot through with it.

Math allows us to see the hidden structures underneath the messy and chaotic surface of our world. It’s a science of not being wrong, hammered out by centuries of hard work and argument. Armed with the tools of mathematics, we can see through to the true meaning of information we take for granted: How early should you get to the airport? What does “public opinion” really represent? Why do tall parents have shorter children? Who really won Florida in 2000? And how likely are you, really, to develop cancer?

How Not to Be Wrong presents the surprising revelations behind all of these questions and many more, using the mathematician’s method of analyzing life and exposing the hard-won insights of the academic community to the layman—minus the jargon. Ellenberg chases mathematical threads through a vast range of time and space, from the everyday to the cosmic, encountering, among other things, baseball, Reaganomics, daring lottery schemes, Voltaire, the replicability crisis in psychology, Italian Renaissance painting, artificial languages, the development of non-Euclidean geometry, the coming obesity apocalypse, Antonin Scalia’s views on crime and punishment, the psychology of slime molds, what Facebook can and can’t figure out about you, and the existence of God.

Ellenberg pulls from history as well as from the latest theoretical developments to provide those not trained in math with the knowledge they need. Math, as Ellenberg says, is “an atomic-powered prosthesis that you attach to your common sense, vastly multiplying its reach and strength.” With the tools of mathematics in hand, you can understand the world in a deeper, more meaningful way. How Not to Be Wrong will show you how.

The second edition preserves the book’s clear and concise style, illuminating discussions, and simple, well-motivated proofs. New topics include material on the irrationality of pi, the Baire category theorem, Newton's method and the secant method, and continuous nowhere-differentiable functions.

Review from the first edition:

"This book is intended for the student who has a good, but naïve, understanding of elementary calculus and now wishes to gain a thorough understanding of a few basic concepts in analysis.... The author has tried to write in an informal but precise style, stressing motivation and methods of proof, and ... has succeeded admirably."

—MATHEMATICAL REVIEWS

For this new edition the book has been thoroughly updated throughout. There are new chapters on nonlinear interior methods and derivative-free methods for optimization, both of which are used widely in practice and the focus of much current research. Because of the emphasis on practical methods, as well as the extensive illustrations and exercises, the book is accessible to a wide audience. It can be used as a graduate text in engineering, operations research, mathematics, computer science, and business. It also serves as a handbook for researchers and practitioners in the field. The authors have strived to produce a text that is pleasant to read, informative, and rigorous - one that reveals both the beautiful nature of the discipline and its practical side.

There is a selected solutions manual for instructors for the new edition.

Tensor Calculus contains eight chapters. The first four deal with the basic concepts of tensors, Riemannian spaces, Riemannian curvature, and spaces of constant curvature. The next three chapters are concerned with applications to classical dynamics, hydrodynamics, elasticity, electromagnetic radiation, and the theorems of Stokes and Green. In the final chapter, an introduction is given to non-Riemannian spaces including such subjects as affine, Weyl, and projective spaces. There are two appendixes which discuss the reduction of a quadratic form and multiple integration. At the conclusion of each chapter a summary of the most important formulas and a set of exercises are given. More exercises are scattered throughout the text. The special and general theory of relativity is briefly discussed where applicable.

The author first applies the necessary mathematical background, including sets, inequalities, absolute value, mathematical induction, and other "precalculus" material. Chapter Two begins the actual study of differential calculus with a discussion of the key concept of function, and a thorough treatment of derivatives and limits. In Chapter Three differentiation is used as a tool; among the topics covered here are velocity, continuous and differentiable functions, the indefinite integral, local extrema, and concrete optimization problems. Chapter Four treats integral calculus, employing the standard definition of the Riemann integral, and deals with the mean value theorem for integrals, the main techniques of integration, and improper integrals. Chapter Five offers a brief introduction to differential equations and their applications, including problems of growth, decay, and motion. The final chapter is devoted to the differential calculus of functions of several variables.

Numerous problems and answers, and a newly added section of "Supplementary Hints and Answers," enable the student to test his grasp of the material before going on. Concise and well written, this text is ideal as a primary text or as a refresher for anyone wishing to review the fundamentals of this crucial discipline.

The first part of this book covers simple differential calculus, with constants, variables, functions, increments, derivatives, differentiation, logarithms, curvature of curves, and similar topics. The second part covers fundamental ideas of integration (inspection, substitution, transformation, reduction) areas and volumes, mean value, successive and partial integration, double and triple integration. In all cases the author stresses practical aspects rather than theoretical, and builds upon such situations as might occur.

A 50-page section illustrates the application of calculus to specific problems of civil and nautical engineering, electricity, stress and strain, elasticity, industrial engineering, and similar fields. 756 questions answered. 566 problems to measure your knowledge and improvement; answers. 36 pages of useful constants, formulae for ready reference. Index.

- Teaches general principles that can be applied to a wide variety of problems.

- Avoids the mindless and excessive routine computations that characterize conventional textbooks.

- Treats algebra as a logically coherent discipline, not as a disjointed collection of techniques.

- Restores proofs to their proper place to remove doubt, convey insight, and encourage precise logical thinking.

- Omits digressions, excessive formalities, and repetitive exercises.

- Covers all the algebra needed to take a calculus course.

- Includes solutions to all problems.

Contents

1. A Few Basics

2. Exponents

3. Polynomials

4. Factoring

5. Linear & Quadratic Equations

6. Inequalities & Absolute Values

7. Coordinates in a Plane

8. Functions & Graphs

9. Straight Lines

10. Circles

11. Parabolas

12. Types of Functions

13. Logarithms

14. Dividing Polynomials

15. Systems of Linear Equations

16. Geometric Progressions & Series

17. Arithmetic Progressions

18. Permutation & Combinations

19. The Binomial Theorem

20. Mathematical Induction

21. Solutions

For those who slept through Stats 101, this book is a lifesaver. Wheelan strips away the arcane and technical details and focuses on the underlying intuition that drives statistical analysis. He clarifies key concepts such as inference, correlation, and regression analysis, reveals how biased or careless parties can manipulate or misrepresent data, and shows us how brilliant and creative researchers are exploiting the valuable data from natural experiments to tackle thorny questions.

And in Wheelan’s trademark style, there’s not a dull page in sight. You’ll encounter clever Schlitz Beer marketers leveraging basic probability, an International Sausage Festival illuminating the tenets of the central limit theorem, and a head-scratching choice from the famous game show Let’s Make a Deal—and you’ll come away with insights each time. With the wit, accessibility, and sheer fun that turned Naked Economics into a bestseller, Wheelan defies the odds yet again by bringing another essential, formerly unglamorous discipline to life.

The principal aim of analysis of tensors is to investigate those relations which remain valid when we change from one coordinate system to another. This book on Tensors requires only a knowledge of elementary calculus, differential equations and classical mechanics as pre-requisites. It provides the readers with all the information about the tensors along with the derivation of all the tensorial relations/equations in a simple manner. The book also deals in detail with topics of importance to the study of special and general relativity and the geometry of differentiable manifolds with a crystal clear exposition. The concepts dealt within the book are well supported by a number of solved examples. A carefully selected set of unsolved problems is also given at the end of each chapter, and the answers and hints for the solution of these problems are given at the end of the book. The applications of tensors to the fields of differential geometry, relativity, cosmology and electromagnetism is another attraction of the present book.

This book is intended to serve as text for postgraduate students of mathematics, physics and engineering. It is ideally suited for both students and teachers who are engaged in research in General Theory of Relativity and Differential Geometry.

- Real analysis, Complex analysis, Functional analysis, Lebesgue integration theory, Fourier analysis, Laplace analysis, Wavelet analysis, Differential equations, and Tensor analysis.

This book is essentially self-contained, and assumes only standard undergraduate preparation such as elementary calculus and linear algebra. It is thus well suited for graduate students in physics and engineering who are interested in theoretical backgrounds of their own fields. Further, it will also be useful for mathematics students who want to understand how certain abstract concepts in mathematics are applied in a practical situation. The readers will not only acquire basic knowledge toward higher-level mathematics, but also imbibe mathematical skills necessary for contemporary studies of their own fields.