Under section 57004 of the California Health and Safety Code, the scientific basis of the proposed waste classification system is subject to external scientific peer review by the National Academy of Sciences, the University of California, or other similar institution of higher learning or group of scientists. This report addresses that regulatory requirement.
A fascinating Jazz Age tale of chemistry and detection, poison and murder, The Poisoner's Handbook is a page-turning account of a forgotten era. In early twentieth-century New York, poisons offered an easy path to the perfect crime. Science had no place in the Tammany Hall-controlled coroner's office, and corruption ran rampant. However, with the appointment of chief medical examiner Charles Norris in 1918, the poison game changed forever. Together with toxicologist Alexander Gettler, the duo set the justice system on fire with their trailblazing scientific detective work, triumphing over seemingly unbeatable odds to become the pioneers of forensic chemistry and the gatekeepers of justice.
In 2014, PBS's AMERICAN EXPERIENCE released a film based on The Poisoner's Handbook.
The volume addreses key issues:
Quality and reliability in DNA typing, including the introduction of new technologies, problems of standardization, and approaches to certification.
DNA typing in the courtroom, including issues of population genetics, levels of understanding among judges and juries, and admissibility.
Societal issues, such as privacy of DNA data, storage of samples and data, and the rights of defendants to quality testing technology.
Combining this original volume with the new update--The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence--provides the complete, up-to-date picture of this highly important and visible topic.
This volume offers important guidance to anyone working with this emerging law enforcement tool: policymakers, specialists in criminal law, forensic scientists, geneticists, researchers, faculty, and students.
154 full-color flashcards teach you to recognize and treat drug overdoses and poisoningsThe most fun, engaging, and effective way to learn clinical toxicology Each card takes an illustrated approach to a particular syndrome or toxin reminding you of all you have to know On the back of each card, succinct text describes the typical presentation, signs and symptoms, mechanisms of action, treatment, and clinical pearls. Covers all major drug overdoses and poisons A great way to study on the go, quiz yourself, or brush up just before an exam
Today, 20 years after the worst nuclear power plant accident in history, intrepid journalist Mary Mycio dons dosimeter and camouflage protective gear to explore the world's most infamous radioactive wilderness. As she tours the Zone to report on the disaster's long-term effects on its human, faunal, and floral inhabitants, she meets pockets of defiant local residents who have remained behind to survive and make a life in the Zone. And she is shocked to discover that the area surrounding Chernobyl has become Europe's largest wildlife sanctuary, a flourishing - at times unearthly - wilderness teeming with large animals and a variety of birds, many of them members of rare and endangered species. Like the forests, fields, and swamps of their unexpectedly inviting habitat, both the people and the animals are all radioactive. Cesium-137 is packed in their muscles and strontium-90 in their bones. But quite astonishingly, they are also thriving.
If fears of the Apocalypse and a lifeless, barren radioactive future have been constant companions of the nuclear age, Chernobyl now shows us a different view of the future. A vivid blend of reportage, popular science, and illuminating encounters that explode the myths of Chernobyl with facts that are at once beautiful and horrible, Wormwood Forest brings a remarkable land - and its people and animals - to life to tell a unique story of science, surprise and suspense.
From cyanide to strychnine, from Botox to ricin and Sarin gas—have you ever wondered about their sources? Where do they come from? How do you detect something that can kill you in a matter of seconds? Macinnis methodically analyzes the science of these killing agents and their uses in medicine, cosmetics, war, and terrorism. With wit and precision, he weighs these questions and many more: Was Lincoln’s volatility caused by mercury poisoning? Was Jack the Ripper an arsenic eater? Can wallpaper kill? For anyone who has ever wondered and been afraid to ask, here is a rich miscellany for your secret questions about toxins.
The supply of Mo-99 in the U.S. is likely to be unreliable until newer production sources come online. The reliability of the current supply system is an important medical isotope concern; this book concludes that achieving a cost difference of less than 10 percent in facilities that will need to convert from HEU- to LEU-based Mo-99 production is much less important than is reliability of supply.
Improving the Regulation and Management of Low-Activity Radioactive Wastes asserts that LAW should be regulated and managed according to the degree of risk they pose for treatment, storage, and disposal. Current regulations are based primarily on the type of industry that produced the waste--the waste's origin--rather than its risk. In this report, a risk-informed approach for regulating and managing all types of LAW in the United States is proposed. Implemented in a gradual or stepwise fashion, this approach combines scientific risk assessment with public values and perceptions. It focuses on the hazardous properties of the waste in question and how they compare with other waste materials. The approach is based on established principles for risk-informed decision making, current risk-informed initiatives by waste regulators in the United States and abroad, solutions available under current regulatory authorities, and remedies through new legislation when necessary.
Of value to both medical professionals and the general public, this handbook describes each plant in words and color photos, then identifies the plant's toxins, mechanism of injury, incidence, signs and symptoms, and traditional and modern uses. The authors offer first aid recommendations and discuss advanced medical treatment based on the latest published literature.
Health-care workers, naturalists, hikers, parents, and child-care providers will find Poisonous Plants of Paradise a highly useful and informative reference.
The task given to NRC's subcommittee on methyl bromide states the following: The subcommittee will perform an independent scientific review of the California Environmental Protection Agency's risk assessment document on methyl bromide. The subcommittee will (1) determine whether all relevant data were considered, (2) determine the appropriateness of the critical studies, (3) consider the mode of action of methyl bromide and its implications in risk assessment, and (4) determine the appropriateness of the exposure assessment and mathematical models used. The subcommittee will also identify data gaps and make recommendations for further research relevant to setting exposure limits for methyl bromide.
This report evaluates the toxicological and exposure data on methyl bromide that characterize risks at current exposure levels for field workers and nearby residents. The remainder of this report contains the subcommittee's analysis of DPR's risk characterization for methyl bromide. In Chapter 2, the critical toxicological studies and endpoints identified in the DPR document are evaluated. Chapter 3 summarizes DPR's exposure assessment, and the data quality and modeling techniques employed in its assessment are critiqued. Chapter 4 provides a review of DPR's risk assessment, including the adequacy of the toxicological database DPR used for hazard identification, an analysis of the margin-of-exposure data, and appropriateness of uncertainty factors used by DPR. Chapter 5 contains the subcommittee's conclusions about DPR's risk characterization, highlights data gaps, and makes recommendations for future research.
—From the Foreword, Donald H. Pfister, Harvard University and Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, Massachusetts
The CRC World Dictionary of Medicinal and Poisonous Plants: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology provides the starting point for better access to data on plants used around the world in medicine, food, and cultural practices. The material found in the five volumes has been painstakingly gathered from papers of general interest, reports and records, taxonomic revisions, field studies, herbaria and herbarium collections, notes, monographs, pamphlets, botanical literature, and literature tout court. It includes sources available at various natural history libraries, floras and standard flora works, local floras and local histories, nomenclatural histories, and the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
Much more than a dictionary, the book provides the names of thousands of genera and species of economically important plants, concise summaries of plant properties, and appropriate observations about medicinal uses. Drawing from a tremendous range of primary and secondary sources, it is an indispensable time-saving guide for all those involved with botany, herbal medicine, pharmacognosy, toxicology, medicinal and natural product chemistry, and agriculture.
To better understand the movement and tracking of chemical manufacturing equipment of dual-use concern, the Project on Advanced Systems and Concepts for Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction at the Naval Postgraduate School contracted with the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology of the National Research Council to hold a workshop on the global movement and tracking of chemical manufacturing equipment. The workshop, held in May 2014, looked at key concerns regarding the availability and movement of equipment for chemical manufacturing, particularly used and decommissioned equipment that is of potential dual-use concern. The workshop examined today's industrial, security, and political contexts in which these materials are being produced, regulated, and transferred. The workshop also facilitated discussions about current practices, including consideration of their congruence with current technologies and security threats in the global chemical industrial system. The Global Movement and Tracking of Chemical Manufacturing Equipment summarizes the presentations and discussion of the event.
Hair Analysis in Clinical and Forensic Toxicologyis an essential reference for toxicologists working with, and researching, hair analysis. The text presents a review of the most up-to-date analytical methods in toxicological hair analysis, along with state-of-the-art developments in the areas of hair physiology, sampling, and pre-treatments, as well as discussions of fundamental issues, applications, and results interpretation.
Topics addressed include the diagnosis of chronic excessive alcohol drinking by means of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), the early detection of new psychoactive substances, including designer drugs, the development of novel approaches to screening tests based on mass spectrometry, and the detection of prenatal exposure to psychoactive substances from the analysis of newborn hair.Unites an international team of leading experts to provide an update on the cutting-edge advances in the toxicological analysis of hairDemonstrates toxicological techniques relating to a variety of scenarios and exposure typesIdeal resource for the further study of the psychoactive substances, drug-facilitated crimes, ecotoxicology, analytical toxicology, occupational toxicology, toxicity testing, and forensic toxicologyIncludes detailed instructions for the collection, preparation, and handling of hair, and how to best interpret results
A few years ago, journalism professor McKay Jenkins went in for a routine medical exam. What doctors found was not routine at all: a tumor, the size of a navel orange, was lurking in his abdomen. When Jenkins returned to the hospital to have the tumor removed, he was visited by a couple of researchers with clipboards. They had some questions for him. Odd questions. How much exposure had he had to toxic chemicals and other contaminants? Asbestos dust? Vinyl chlorine? Pesticides? A million questions, all about seemingly obscure chemicals. Jenkins, an exercise nut and an enviro-conscious, organic-garden kind of guy, suddenly realized he’d spent his life marinating in toxic stuff, from his wall-to-wall carpeting, to his dryer sheets, to his drinking water. And from the moment he left the hospital, he resolved to discover the truth about chemicals and the “healthy” levels of exposure we encounter each day as Americans.
Jenkins spent the next two years digging, exploring five frontiers of toxic exposure—the body, the home, the drinking water, the lawn, and the local box store—and asking how we allowed ourselves to get to this point. He soon learned that the giants of the chemical industry operate virtually unchecked, and a parent has almost no way of finding out what the toy her child is putting in his or her mouth is made of. Most important, though, Jenkins wanted to know what we can do to turn things around. Though toxins may be present in products we all use every day—from ant spray, perfume, and grass seed to shower curtains and, yes, baby shampoo—there are ways to lessen our exposure. ContamiNation is an eye-opening report from the front lines of consumer advocacy.
The workshop explored the state of the art in SNA and its applications in the identification, construction, and strengthening of networks within U.S. communities. Workshop participants discussed current work in SNA focused on characterizing networks; the theories, principles and research applicable to the design or strengthening of networks; the gaps in knowledge that prevent the application of SNA to the construction of networks; and research areas that could fill those gaps. Elements of a research agenda to support the design, development, and implementation of social networks for the specific purpose of strengthening community resilience against natural and human-made disasters were discussed.
Individual articles are preceded by a topical outline and discuss the origin, prevalence, mechanisms of toxicity and damaging effects of each hazardous material.
Comprehensive coverage of individual toxic elements, including
Coverage of hazardous material groups, such as
More general articles, such as
Evaluation and testing of carcinogens
Transport of pollutants
To make this groundbreaking volume, Dr. James Lyons-Weiler combed through the past fifty years of published research on autism, exploring subjects such as genetic variation, mechanisms of neurotoxicity of metals and pesticides, and the central and combined roles of each in causing autism.
Lyons-Weiler provides a major overview of all aspects of the condition of autism, reviews changes in diagnoses and treatments, and explains how genetic information can be used to tailor effective treatments, and sometimes reversals, of the symptoms. He also presents practical forward-looking suggestions on how to design future studies to facilitate the discovery of biomarkers for autism risk and how to classify the full range of autism spectrum disorders.
Autism is considered one of the most mystifying conditions of our day, and alarmed scientists, doctors, politicians, and parents are desperately trying to understand why the condition is escalating. According to the CDC, rates in the United States have risen from an estimated one in two thousand children in 1980, to one in sixty-eight in 2012, and a new National Health Interview Survey shows a rate of one in forty-five. By the time you read this book, that number may have changed yet again.
While most autism researchers focus on either environmental or genetic causes of autism, Lyons-Weiler’s opus demonstrates that to fully understand the condition and to finally put its rate on the decrease, it is essential to pay attention to the science showing how the two classes of factors interact.
The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals provides a framework for the judgments required in the management of animal facilities. This updated and expanded resource of proven value will be important to scientists and researchers, veterinarians, animal care personnel, facilities managers, institutional administrators, policy makers involved in research issues, and animal welfare advocates.
It looks at the history of these crimes over the years, and includes an in-depth discussion of the drugs and drug classes in use today. It describes the effects of these drugs on the victims, the process for reporting these crimes, details on the type of person who uses drugs to sexually assault an individual, and obstacles to investigating the suspect. The authors show the proper techniques in collecting and analyzing evidence; ways to overcome some of the unique difficulties encountered in these types of investigations; and how to work with other professionals to prosecute these cases successfully. The concluding appendixes are valuable samples of the necessary forms needed to complete these investigations.
This book is ideal for anyone involved in investigating these crimes, including forensic scientists, law enforcement officers, lawyers, toxicologists, and medical professionals.* Ideal for everyone involved in the investigation of these crimes, including forensic scientists, police officers, lawyers, toxicologists and medical professionals
With chronic disorders among American children reaching epidemic levels, hundreds of thousands of parents are desperately seeking solutions to their children’s declining health, often with little medical guidance from the experts. What’s Making Our Children Sick? convincingly explains how agrochemical industrial production and genetic modification of foods is a culprit in this epidemic. Is it the only culprit? No. Most chronic health disorders have multiple causes and require careful disentanglement and complex treatments. But what if toxicants in our foods are a major culprit, one that, if corrected, could lead to tangible results and increased health? Using patient accounts of their clinical experiences and new medical insights about pathogenesis of chronic pediatric disorders—taking us into gut dysfunction and the microbiome, as well as the politics of food science—this book connects the dots to explain our kids’ ailing health.
What’s Making Our Children Sick? explores the frightening links between our efforts to create higher-yield, cost-efficient foods and an explosion of childhood morbidity, but it also offers hope and a path to effecting change. The predicament we now face is simple. Agroindustrial “innovation” in a previous era hoped to prevent the ecosystem disaster of DDT predicted in Rachel Carson’s seminal book in 1962, Silent Spring. However, this industrial agriculture movement has created a worse disaster: a toxic environment and, consequently, a toxic food supply. Pesticide use is at an all-time high, despite the fact that biotechnologies aimed to reduce the need for them in the first place. Today these chemicals find their way into our livestock and food crop industries and ultimately onto our plates. Many of these pesticides are the modern day equivalent of DDT. However, scant research exists on the chemical soup of poisons that our children consume on a daily basis. As our food supply environment reels under the pressures of industrialization via agrochemicals, our kids have become the walking evidence of this failed experiment. What’s Making Our Children Sick? exposes our current predicament and offers insight on the medical responses that are available, both to heal our kids and to reverse the compromised health of our food supply.
Chelation Therapy in the Treatment of Metal Intoxicationpresents a practical guide to the use of chelation therapy, from its basic chemistry, to available chelating antidotes, and the application of chelating agents. Several metals have long been known to be toxic to humans, and continue to pose great difficulty to treat. These challenges pose particular problems in industrial settings, with lead smelting known to be associated with hemopoietic alterations and paralyses, and the inhalation of mercury vapor in mercury mining being extremely detrimental to the central nervous system.
Clinical experience has demonstrated that acute and chronic human intoxications with a range of metals can be treated efficiently by administration of chelating agents. Chelation Therapy in the Treatment of Metal Intoxication describes the chemical and biological principles of chelation in the treatment of these toxic metal compounds, including new chelators such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and D,L-2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS).Presents all the current findings on the potential for chelation as a therapy for metal intoxicationPresents practical guidelines for selecting the most appropriate chelating agentIncludes coverage on radionuclide exposure and metal storage diseasesDescribes the chemical and biological principles of chelation in the treatment of toxic metal compounds
Enhancing the Value and Sustainability of Field Stations and Marine Laboratories in the 21st Century summarizes field stations' value to science, education, and outreach and evaluates their contributions to research, innovation, and education. This report suggests strategies to meet future research, education, outreach, infrastructure, funding, and logistical needs of field stations. Today's technologies - such as streaming data, remote sensing, robot-driven monitoring, automated DNA sequencing, and nanoparticle environmental sensors - provide means for field stations to retain their special connection to nature and still interact with the rest of the world in ways that can fuel breakthroughs in the environmental, physical, natural, and social sciences. The intellectual and natural capital of today's field stations present a solid platform, but many need enhancements of infrastructure and dynamic leadership if they are to meet the challenges of the complex problems facing the world. This report focuses on the capability of field stations to address societal needs today and in the future.
In this gripping exploration, Nancy Langston shows how these chemicals have penetrated into every aspect of our bodies and ecosystems, yet the U.S. government has largely failed to regulate them and has skillfully manipulated scientific uncertainty to delay regulation. Personally affected by endocrine disruptors, Langston argues that the FDA needs to institute proper regulation of these commonly produced synthetic chemicals.
The Committee on Hydrologic Science was established by the National Research Council in 1999 to identify priorities for hydrologic science that will ensure its vitality as a scientific discipline in service of societal needs. This charge will be performed principally through a series of studies that provide scientific advice on the hydrologic aspects of national program and U.S. hydrologic contributions to international programs.
This first report contains a preliminary assessment of the hydrologic science content of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). Because this is a short and focused report, little effort is spent to reaffirm the established and successful elements of the USGCRP. In fact, the Committee generally endorses the findings of the National Research Council (NRC) report Global Environmental Change: Research Pathways for the Next Decade (NRC, 1998a; the so-called Pathways report) in this respect. Instead the attention here is directed toward the most critical missing hydrologic science elements in the FY2000 USGCRP. This brings the focus to the terrestrial component of the water cycle. The integrative nature of terrestrial hydrology could significantly strengthen the USGCRP.
Himalayan Glaciers: Climate Change, Water Resources, and Water Security makes recommendations and sets guidelines for the future of climate change and water security in the Himalayan Region. This report emphasizes that social changes, such as changing patterns of water use and water management decisions, are likely to have at least as much of an impact on water demand as environmental factors do on water supply. Water scarcity will likely affect the rural and urban poor most severely, as these groups have the least capacity to move to new locations as needed. It is predicted that the region will become increasingly urbanized as cities expand to absorb migrants in search of economic opportunities. As living standards and populations rise, water use will likely increase-for example, as more people have diets rich in meat, more water will be needed for agricultural use. The effects of future climate change could further exacerbate water stress.
Himalayan Glaciers: Climate Change, Water Resources, and Water Security explains that changes in the availability of water resources could play an increasing role in political tensions, especially if existing water management institutions do not better account for the social, economic, and ecological complexities of the region. To effectively respond to the effects of climate change, water management systems will need to take into account the social, economic, and ecological complexities of the region. This means it will be important to expand research and monitoring programs to gather more detailed, consistent, and accurate data on demographics, water supply, demand, and scarcity.
Manage any challenge in ocular toxicologywith extensive coverage of principles of therapy; ocular drug delivery; methods to evaluate drug-induced visual side effects; and the role of electrophysiology and psychophysics.
Benefit from the masterful guidance and global perspectiveof world authorities in the field who provide need-to-know information on all aspects of ocular toxicology—all in one concise reference.
Confer with the WHO classification systemto determine whether a particular side effect is certain, probable, or likely to occur.
Zero in on the key information you need to knowwith highly templated, concise chapters. Apply the latest knowledge and treatments for newly recognized Adverse Drug Reactions (ADR). Identify which ADR’s are clinically relevant and what to do about them.
Experience clinical scenarioswith vivid clarity through a wealth of new and updated clinical photographs that provide unmatched, visual diagnostic guidance.
Recognize and avoid drug-induced ocular side effectswith data from the National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side-Effects (Casey Eye Institute, Portland, OR) and the World Health Organization (Uppsala, Sweden).
Stay up to date and provide state-of-the-art carewith the latest information on approved medications.
Understanding Earth's Deep Past provides an assessment of both the demonstrated and underdeveloped potential of the deep-time geologic record to inform us about the dynamics of the global climate system. The report describes past climate changes, and discusses potential impacts of high levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases on regional climates, water resources, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and the cycling of life-sustaining elements. While revealing gaps in scientific knowledge of past climate states, the report highlights a range of high priority research issues with potential for major advances in the scientific understanding of climate processes. This proposed integrated, deep-time climate research program would study how climate responded over Earth's different climate states, examine how climate responds to increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, and clarify the processes that lead to anomalously warm polar and tropical regions and the impact on marine and terrestrial life.
In addition to outlining a research agenda, Understanding Earth's Deep Past proposes an implementation strategy that will be an invaluable resource to decision-makers in the field, as well as the research community, advocacy organizations, government agencies, and college professors and students.
The book explains the organization of clinical laboratories and includes sections on accreditation, quality control, method validation, and other critical topics. It provides an overview of the U.S. legal system, describes the process of writing a toxicology report, and offers techniques for deposition and courtroom testimony.
Covering a broad range of topics, the book offers detailed analysis of situations ranging from the rare and unusual to those that toxicologists most often confront, including:
Determining serum/blood ethanol levels Ethylene glycol poisoning Plant and animal toxins Alcohol intoxication and breathalyzer tests Synergistic effects of alcohol and drugs Prescription drug overdose Toxic torts Workers’ compensation issues
Written in an accessible and well-organized style, this volume is an essential guide for forensic toxicologists at all levels who need to understand how to best present the science of toxicology in the forensic arena.
Environmental Risk Assessment: A Toxicological Approachexamines various aspects of problem formulation, exposure, toxicity, and risk characterization that apply to both human health and ecological risk assessment. The book is aimed at the next generation of risk assessors and students who need to know more about developing, conducting, and interpreting risk assessments. It delivers a comprehensive view of the field, complete with sufficient background to enable readers to probe for themselves the science underlying the key issues in environmental risk. Written in an engaging and lively style by a highly experienced risk assessment practitioner, the text:
Introduces the science of risk assessment—past, present, and future
Covers problem formation and the development of exposure factors
Explains how human epidemiology and animal testing data are used to determine toxicity criteria
Provides environmental sampling data for conducting practice risk assessments
Examines the use of in vitro and ‘omics methods for toxicity testing
Describes the political and social aspects of science-based decisions in the twenty-first century
Includes fully worked examples, case studies, discussion questions, and links to legislative hearings
Readers of this volume will not only learn how to execute site-specific human health and ecological risk assessments but also gain a greater understanding of how science is used in deciding environmental regulations.
The charge to the committee was to determine the state of knowledge regarding ground-based weather surveillance radar technology and identify the most promising approaches for the design of the replacement for the present Doppler Weather Radar. This report presents a first look at potential approaches for future upgrades to or replacements of the current weather radar system. The need, and schedule, for replacing the current system has not been established, but the committee used the briefings and deliberations to assess how the current system satisfies the current and emerging needs of the operational and research communities and identified potential system upgrades for providing improved weather forecasts and warnings. The time scale for any total replacement of the system (20- to 30-year time horizon) precluded detailed investigation of the designs and cost structures associated with any new weather radar system. The committee instead noted technologies that could provide improvements over the capabilities of the evolving NEXRAD system and recommends more detailed investigation and evaluation of several of these technologies. In the course of its deliberations, the committee developed a sense that the processes by which the eventual replacement radar system is developed and deployed could be as significant as the specific technologies adopted. Consequently, some of the committee's recommendations deal with such procedural issues.
Presenting the general principles of toxicology, this authoritative reference enhances the understanding of foodborne intoxications, infections, and diseases linked to foods. This in-depth study establishes a solid background in the principles and prevention of foodborne disease and the regulation of food safety.
Assessment of the Performance of Engineered Waste Containment Barriers assesses the performance of waste containment barriers to date. Existing data suggest that waste containment systems with liners and covers, when constructed and maintained in accordance with current regulations, are performing well thus far. However, they have not been in existence long enough to assess long-term (postclosure) performance, which may extend for hundreds of years. The book makes recommendations on how to improve future assessments and increase confidence in predictions of barrier system performance which will be of interest to policy makers, environmental interest groups, industrial waste producers, and industrial waste management industry.
The reader will find an extensive amount of theoretical and practical information in the pharmacology; ADME and toxicology chapters which will help scientists and managers when deciding which species to use in basic research; drug discovery and pharmacology; and toxicology studies of chemicals, biotechnology products and devices. The book discusses regulatory uses of minipigs in the evaluation of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and other classes of xenobiotics. It describes features of normal health, normal laboratory values, and common diseases. It also carefully elucidates ethical and legal considerations in their supply, housing, and transport. The result is an all-inclusive and up to date manual about the experimental uses of the minipig that describes ‘How to’ and ‘Why’ and ’What to expect in the normal’, combining enthusiasm and experience with critical assessment of its values and potential problems.
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The book examines developments in both fields, compares and contrasts their current state of the art, and identifies where one field can learn from the other. Each chapter provides an essential overview of the state of the art in both human and ecotoxicological mixture risk assessment, focusing on the work published in the last fifteen years. The coverage progresses from exposure to risk assessment, at each step identifying the special complications typically raised by mixtures. Based on in-depth discussions among specialists representing different disciplines and approaches, the chapters each address:
Exposure — how to quantify the amounts of chemicals that may enter the living organism Kinetics, dynamics, and metabolism — how the chemicals enter an organism, travel within the organism, how they are metabolized and reach the target site, and explain development of toxicity with time Toxicity — what are the chemicals’ detrimental effects on the organism Test design and complex mixture characterization — how chemicals interact, how to measure effects of mixtures, and how to identify responsible chemicals Risk assessment — how to assess for risks in humans and the environment
An unusual combination of different points of view on exposure to and risk assessment of chemical mixtures, this book summarizes current knowledge on combined effects of toxicant mixtures, information that is generally only available in a very fragmented form as individual journal papers. It identifies possible crosslinks and includes recommendations for mutual developments that can improve the state of knowledge on mixture toxicity and ultimately lead to better and more integrated risk assessment.
Due to its widespread use, jet fuel is thought to be the largest toxicant exposure risk for U.S. Armed Services personnel. Taking a proactive approach to the potential dangers of repeated human exposure to hydrocarbon fuels, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) sponsored a number of research projects during the last 20 years investigating health effects resulting from specific exposure to JP-8 (Jet Propellant-8).
Jet Fuel Toxicology summarizes the newest and most important results of these extensive research programs carried out by hydrocarbon fuel research groups throughout the U.S. Each book chapter highlights one specific research area from the many topical areas comprising jet fuel toxicology. After examining the contents and general action of JP-8, the book looks at how the fuel affects various body functions highlighted by:
Effects on daily inhalation on the respiratory system Acute and long-term neurotoxicological and neurobehavioral effects Both local and systemic toxicity following exposure through the skin Immunotoxicity from pulmonary and dermal exposures Genetic damage, as evidenced in studies of the blood and bone marrow of mice
In all, the book considers 13 major toxicology areas of study, the results of which will enable all of the hydrocarbon industry to make fuel choices that more carefully consider possible human health risks.
Perhaps even more importantly, the book profoundly demonstrates how unfortunate lessons from the following major chemical exposure scenarios of the past must not be lost in the ongoing protection of both military personnel and civilians:
Agent Orange exposures during the Vietnam War Multiple chemical/stressor exposures, including multiple fuels and solvents, during the Persian Gulf Wars Chemical exposures, including Jet-A fuel, during the 9/11 World Trade Center Disaster Hydrocarbon/oil dispersing compound exposures during the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Crisis of 2010
For example, based on data contained in this book, the Air Force now removes female personnel from any exposure to jet fuel during their pregnancies and has reduced permissible exposure levels to jet fuel for all military and associated civilian staff. Ultimately, this book can serve as a template for managing future toxicological issues for both international armed forces and those corporations willing to learn from these important lessons.
Improved climate records for specific regions will be required before it is possible to evaluate how critical resources for hominins, especially water and vegetation, would have been distributed on the landscape during key intervals of hominin history. Existing records contain substantial temporal gaps. The book's initiatives are presented in two major research themes: first, determining the impacts of climate change and climate variability on human evolution and dispersal; and second, integrating climate modeling, environmental records, and biotic responses.
Understanding Climate's Change on Human Evolution suggests a new scientific program for international climate and human evolution studies that involve an exploration initiative to locate new fossil sites and to broaden the geographic and temporal sampling of the fossil and archeological record; a comprehensive and integrative scientific drilling program in lakes, lake bed outcrops, and ocean basins surrounding the regions where hominins evolved and a major investment in climate modeling experiments for key time intervals and regions that are critical to understanding human evolution.
Being overweight is not just the result of too many cheeseburgers or not enough exercise. According to leading-edge science, a new group of silent saboteurs in our daily lives is contributing greatly to our obesity epidemic: obesogens. These weight-inducing offenders, most of which are chemicals, disrupt our hormonal systems, altering how we create and store fat, and changing how we respond to dietary choices and caloric intake. Because they are largely unregulated, obesogens lurk all around us-in food, furniture, plastic products such as water bottles and food storage containers, and other surprising exposure points. Even worse: research has shown that the effects of some obesogens can be passed on to future generations by irreversibly interfering with the expression of our genes. The good news is we can protect ourselves by becoming more informed consumers.
In THE OBESOGEN EFFECT, Dr. Bruce Blumberg explains how obesogens work, where they are found, and how we can minimize their effects. Dr. Blumberg offers a highly practical three-step solution for reducing exposures. He explains why one size does not fit all in a weight loss program, what harmful additives are in our household goods, and how we should shop for obesogen-free items we use every day-from vegetables and meats to canned soup as well as household cleaners, air fresheners, and personal care products. THE OBESOGEN EFFECT is an urgent call to action to protect your body, clean up your life, and set a straight course for better health.
Oceanography and Mine Warfare examines the following issues: (1) how environmental data are used in current mine warfare doctrine, (2) current procedures for in situ collection of data, (3) the present capabilities of the Navy's oceanographic community to provide supporting information for mine warfare operations, and (4) the ability of oceanographic research and technology developments to enhance current mine warfare capabilities. This report primarily concentrates on the importance of oceanographic data for mine countermeasures.