Similar
Fluid dynamics is an ancient science incredibly alive today. Modern technol ogy and new needs require a deeper knowledge of the behavior of real fluids, and new discoveries or steps forward pose, quite often, challenging and diffi cult new mathematical {::oblems. In this framework, a special role is played by incompressible nonviscous (sometimes called perfect) flows. This is a mathematical model consisting essentially of an evolution equation (the Euler equation) for the velocity field of fluids. Such an equation, which is nothing other than the Newton laws plus some additional structural hypo theses, was discovered by Euler in 1755, and although it is more than two centuries old, many fundamental questions concerning its solutions are still open. In particular, it is not known whether the solutions, for reasonably general initial conditions, develop singularities in a finite time, and very little is known about the long-term behavior of smooth solutions. These and other basic problems are still open, and this is one of the reasons why the mathe matical theory of perfect flows is far from being completed. Incompressible flows have been attached, by many distinguished mathe maticians, with a large variety of mathematical techniques so that, today, this field constitutes a very rich and stimulating part of applied mathematics.
This work aims to foster the interdisciplinary dialogue between mathematicians and socio-economic scientists. Interaction among scholars and practitioners traditionally coming from different research areas is necessary more than ever in order to better understand many real-world problems we face today. On the one hand, mathematicians need economists and social scientists to better address the methodologies they design in a more realistic way; on the other hand, economists and social scientists need to be aware of sound mathematical modelling tools in order to understand and, ultimately, solve the complex problems they encounter in their research. With this goal in mind, this work is designed to take into account a multidisciplinary approach that will encourage the transfer of knowledge, ideas, and methodology from one discipline to the other. In particular, the work has three main themes: Demystifying and unravelling complex systems; Introducing models of individual behaviours in the social and economic sciences; Modelling socio-economic sciences as complex living systems. Specific tools examined in the work include a recently developed modelling approach using stochastic game theory within the framework of statistical mechanics and progressing up to modeling Darwinian evolution. Special attention is also devoted to social network theory as a fundamental instrument for the understanding of socio-economic systems.
The Symposium, held in Torino (lSI, Villa Gualino) July 1-5, 1991 is the sixth of a series of IUTAM-Symposia on the application of stochastic analysis to continuum and discrete mechanics. The previous one, held in Innsbruck (1987), was mainly concentrated on qual itative and quantitative analysis of stochastic dynamical systems as well as on bifurcation and transition to chaos of deterministic systems. This Symposium concentrated on fundamental aspects (stochastic analysis and mathe matical methods), on specific applications in various branches of mechanics, engineering and applied sciences as well as on related fields as analysis of large systems, system identifica tion, earthquake prediction. Numerical methods suitable to provide quantitative results, say stochastic finite elements, approximation of probability distribution and direct integration of differential equations have also been the object of interesting presentations. Specific topics of the sessions have been: Engineering Applications, Equivalent Lineariza tion of Discrete Stochastic Systems, Fatigue and Life Estimation, Fluid Dynamics, Numerical Methods, Random Vibration, Reliability Analysis, Stochastic Differential Equations, System Identification, Stochastic Control. We are indebted to the IUTAM Bureau for having promoted and sponsored this Sympo sium and the Scientific Committee for having collaborated to the selection of participants and lecturers as well as to a prompt reviewing of the papers submitted for publication into these proceedings. A special thank is due to Frank Kozin: the organization of this meeting was for him ';ery important; he missed the meeting but his organizer ability was present.
This volume contains the text of four sets of lectures delivered at the third session of the Summer School organized by C.I.M.E. (Centro Internazionale Matematico Estivo). These texts are preceded by an introduction written by C. Cercignani and M. Pulvirenti which summarizes the present status in the area of Nonequilibrium Problems in Many-Particle Systems and tries to put the contents of the different sets of lectures in the right perspective, in order to orient the reader. The lectures deal with the global existence of weak solutions for kinetic models and related topics, the basic concepts of non-standard analysis and their application to gas kinetics, the kinetic equations for semiconductors and the entropy methods in the study of hydrodynamic limits. CONTENTS: C. Cercignani, M. Pulvirenti: Nonequilibrium Problems in Many-Particle Systems. An Introduction.- L. Arkeryd: Some Examples of NSA in Kinetic Theory.- P.L. Lions: Global Solutions of Kinetic Models and Related Problems.- P.A. Markowich: Kinetic Models for Semiconductors.- S.R.S. Varadhan: Entropy Methods in Hydrodynamic Scaling.
This book presents contributions on the following topics: discretization methods in the velocity and space, analysis of the conservation properties, asymptotic convergence to the continuous equation when the number of velocities tends to infinity, and application of discrete models. It consists of ten chapters. Each chapter is written by applied mathematicians who have been active in the field, and whose scientific contributions are well recognized by the scientific community.
This book is based on the idea that Boltzmann-like modelling methods can be developed to design, with special attention to applied sciences, kinetic-type models which are called generalized kinetic models. In particular, these models appear in evolution equations for the statistical distribution over the physical state of each individual of a large population. The evolution is determined both by interactions among individuals and by external actions.Considering that generalized kinetic models can play an important role in dealing with several interesting systems in applied sciences, the book provides a unified presentation of this topic with direct reference to modelling, mathematical statement of problems, qualitative and computational analysis, and applications. Models reported and proposed in the book refer to several fields of natural, applied and technological sciences. In particular, the following classes of models are discussed: population dynamics and socio-economic behaviours, models of aggregation and fragmentation phenomena, models of biology and immunology, traffic flow models, models of mixtures and particles undergoing classic and dissipative interactions.
Thesubjectofthisbookisthemodelingofcomplex systemsinthelife sciences constituted by a large number of interacting entities called active particles. Their physical state includes, in addition to geometrical and mechanical variables, a variable called the activity, which characterizes the speci?c living system to be modeled. Interactions among particles not only modify the microscopic state, but may generate proliferative and/or destructive phenomena. The aim of the book is to develop mathematical methods and tools, even a new mathematics, for the modeling of living systems. The background idea is that the modeling of living systems requires technically complex mathematical methods, which may be s- stantially di?erent from those used to deal with inert matter. The?rstpart ofthe bookdiscussesmethodological issues, namely the derivation of various general mathematical frameworks suitable to model particular systems of interest in the applied sciences. The second part presents the various models and applications. The mathematical approach used in the book is based on mathema- cal kinetic theoryfor active particles, whichleads tothederivation of evo- tion equations for a one-particle distribution function over the microscopic state. Two types of equations, to be regarded as a general mathematical framework for deriving the models, are derived corresponding to short and long range interactions.
The lecture courses of the CIME Summer School on Probabilistic Models for Nonlinear PDE's and their Numerical Applications (April 1995) had a three-fold emphasis: first, on the weak convergence of stochastic integrals; second, on the probabilistic interpretation and the particle approximation of equations coming from Physics (conservation laws, Boltzmann-like and Navier-Stokes equations); third, on the modelling of networks by interacting particle systems. This book, collecting the notes of these courses, will be useful to probabilists working on stochastic particle methods and on the approximation of SPDEs, in particular, to PhD students and young researchers.
Analysis of nonlinear models and problems is crucial in the application of mathematics to real-world problems. This book approaches this important topic by focusing on collocation methods for solving nonlinear evolution equations and applying them to a variety of mathematical problems. These include wave motion models, hydrodynamic models of vehicular traffic flow, convection-diffusion models, reaction-diffusion models, and population dynamics models. The book may be used as a textbook for graduate courses on collocation methods, nonlinear modeling, and nonlinear differential equations. Examples and exercises are included in every chapter.
Modeling and Applied Mathematics Modeling the behavior of real physical systems by suitable evolution equa tions is a relevant, maybe the fundamental, aspect of the interactions be tween mathematics and applied sciences. Modeling is, however, only the first step toward the mathematical description and simulation of systems belonging to real world. Indeed, once the evolution equation is proposed, one has to deal with mathematical problems and develop suitable simula tions to provide the description of the real system according to the model. Within this framework, one has an evolution equation and the re lated mathematical problems obtained by adding all necessary conditions for their solution. Then, a qualitative analysis should be developed: this means proof of existence of solutions and analysis of their qualitative be havior. Asymptotic analysis may include a detailed description of stability properties. Quantitative analysis, based upon the application ofsuitable methods and algorithms for the solution of problems, ends up with the simulation that is the representation of the dependent variable versus the independent one. The information obtained by the model has to be compared with those deriving from the experimental observation of the real system. This comparison may finally lead to the validation of the model followed by its application and, maybe, further generalization.
This collection of selected chapters offers a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art mathematical methods and tools for modeling and analyzing cancer phenomena. Topics covered include stochastic evolutionary models of cancer initiation and progression, tumor cords and their response to anticancer agents, and immune competition in tumor progression and prevention. The complexity of modeling living matter requires the development of new mathematical methods and ideas. This volume, written by first-rate researchers in the field of mathematical biology, is one of the first steps in that direction.
Mathematical Modeling and Immunology An enormous amount of human effort and economic resources has been directed in this century to the fight against cancer. The purpose, of course, has been to find strategies to overcome this hard, challenging and seemingly endless struggle. We can readily imagine that even greater efforts will be required in the next century. The hope is that ultimately humanity will be successful; success will have been achieved when it is possible to activate and control the immune system in its competition against neoplastic cells. Dealing with the above-mentioned problem requires the fullest pos sible cooperation among scientists working in different fields: biology, im munology, medicine, physics and, we believe, mathematics. Certainly, bi ologists and immunologists will make the greatest contribution to the re search. However, it is now increasingly recognized that mathematics and computer science may well able to make major contributions to such prob lems. We cannot expect mathematicians alone to solve fundamental prob lems in immunology and (in particular) cancer research, but valuable sup port, however modest, can be provided by mathematicians to the research aspirations of biologists and immunologists working in this field.
The idea for this book was conceived by the authors some time in 1988, and a first outline of the manuscript was drawn up during a summer school on mathematical physics held in Ravello in September 1988, where all three of us were present as lecturers or organizers. The project was in some sense inherited from our friend Marvin Shinbrot, who had planned a book about recent progress for the Boltzmann equation, but, due to his untimely death in 1987, never got to do it. When we drew up the first outline, we could not anticipate how long the actual writing would stretch out. Our ambitions were high: We wanted to cover the modern mathematical theory of the Boltzmann equation, with rigorous proofs, in a complete and readable volume. As the years progressed, we withdrew to some degree from this first ambition- there was just too much material, too scattered, sometimes incomplete, sometimes not rigor ous enough. However, in the writing process itself, the need for the book became ever more apparent. The last twenty years have seen an amazing number of significant results in the field, many of them published in incom plete form, sometimes in obscure places, and sometimes without technical details. We made it our objective to collect these results, classify them, and present them as best we could. The choice of topics remains, of course, subjective.