Life is the most extraordinary phenomenon in the known universe; but how did it come to be? Even in an age of cloning and artificial biology, the remarkable truth remains: nobody has ever made anything living entirely out of dead material. Life remains the only way to make life. Are we still missing a vital ingredient in its creation?
Using first-hand experience at the cutting edge of science, Jim Al-Khalili and Johnjoe Macfadden reveal that missing ingredient to be quantum mechanics. Drawing on recent ground-breaking experiments around the world, each chapter in Life on the Edge illustrates one of life's puzzles: How do migrating birds know where to go? How do we really smell the scent of a rose? How do our genes copy themselves with such precision? Life on the Edge accessibly reveals how quantum mechanics can answer these probing questions of the universe.
Guiding the reader through the rapidly unfolding discoveries of the last few years, Al-Khalili and McFadden describe the explosive new field of quantum biology and its potentially revolutionary applications, while offering insights into the biggest puzzle of all: what is life? As they brilliantly demonstrate in these groundbreaking pages, life exists on the quantum edge.
– Winner, Stephen Hawking Medal for Science Communication
Wall Street Journal
From one of the most influential scientists of our time, a dazzling exploration of the hidden laws that govern the life cycle of everything from plants and animals to the cities we live in.
Visionary physicist Geoffrey West is a pioneer in the field of complexity science, the science of emergent systems and networks. The term “complexity” can be misleading, however, because what makes West’s discoveries so beautiful is that he has found an underlying simplicity that unites the seemingly complex and diverse phenomena of living systems, including our bodies, our cities and our businesses.
Fascinated by aging and mortality, West applied the rigor of a physicist to the biological question of why we live as long as we do and no longer. The result was astonishing, and changed science: West found that despite the riotous diversity in mammals, they are all, to a large degree, scaled versions of each other. If you know the size of a mammal, you can use scaling laws to learn everything from how much food it eats per day, what its heart-rate is, how long it will take to mature, its lifespan, and so on. Furthermore, the efficiency of the mammal’s circulatory systems scales up precisely based on weight: if you compare a mouse, a human and an elephant on a logarithmic graph, you find with every doubling of average weight, a species gets 25% more efficient—and lives 25% longer. Fundamentally, he has proven, the issue has to do with the fractal geometry of the networks that supply energy and remove waste from the organism’s body.
West’s work has been game-changing for biologists, but then he made the even bolder move of exploring his work’s applicability. Cities, too, are constellations of networks and laws of scalability relate with eerie precision to them. Recently, West has applied his revolutionary work to the business world. This investigation has led to powerful insights into why some companies thrive while others fail. The implications of these discoveries are far-reaching, and are just beginning to be explored. Scale is a thrilling scientific adventure story about the elemental natural laws that bind us together in simple but profound ways. Through the brilliant mind of Geoffrey West, we can envision how cities, companies and biological life alike are dancing to the same simple, powerful tune.
This new edition discusses biological systems that can be analyzed quantitatively, and how advances in the life sciences have been aided by the knowledge of physical or engineering analysis techniques. The volume is organized into 18 chapters encompassing thermodynamics, electricity, optics, sound, solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, and atomic and nuclear physics. Each chapter provides a brief review of the background physics before focusing on the applications of physics to biology and medicine. Topics range from the role of diffusion in the functioning of cells to the effect of surface tension on the growth of plants in soil and the conduction of impulses along the nervous system. Each section contains problems that explore and expand some of the concepts. The text includes many figures, examples and illustrative problems and appendices which provide convenient access to the most important concepts of mechanics, electricity, and optics in the body.
Physics in Biology and Medicine will be a valuable resource for students and professors of physics, biology, and medicine, as well as for applied health workers.Provides practical techniques for applying knowledge of physics to the study of living systemsPresents material in a straight forward manner requiring very little background in physics or biologyIncludes many figures, examples and illustrative problems and appendices which provide convenient access to the most important concepts of mechanics, electricity, and optics in the body
An Introduction to Systems Biology: Design Principles of Biological Circuits builds a solid foundation for the intuitive understanding of general principles. It encourages the reader to ask why a system is designed in a particular way and then proceeds to answer with simplified models.
One of the most diverse of modern scientific disciplines, biophysics applies methods and technologies from physics to the study of biological systems and phenomena, from the human nervous system to soil erosion to global warming. What are the best options for satisfying the world's growing energy demands? How can we feed the world's growing population? How can we contain, or reverse, global warming? How can we vouchsafe a plentiful supply of potable water for future generations? These are among the critical questions to which biophysicists work to provide answers.Biophysics courses are increasingly taken by students of biology, physics, chemistry, biochemistry, physiology, statistics, bioengineering, neuroscience, computer science, pharmacology, agriculture,and many more Provides a friendly, unintimidating overview of the material covered in a typical college-level biophysics course A one-stop reference, course supplement and exam preparation tool for university students currently enrolled in an introductory biophysics courses An indispensable resource for those studying the natural sciences, biological sciences, and physics, as well as math, statistics,computer science, pharmacology and many other disciplines The current job market for people well versed in biophysics is very strong, and biophysics is currently listed as one of the fast-growing occupations in the North America
This book thus covers the spectrum ranging from fundamental interactions between light, cells, vascular tissue, and cell labeling particles, to strategies and opportunities for preclinical and clinical research. General topics include light scattering by cells, fast video microscopy, polarization, laser-scanning, fluorescence, Raman, multi-photon, photothermal, and photoacoustic methods for cellular diagnostics and monitoring of disease treatment in living organisms. Also presented are discussions of advanced methods and techniques of classical flow cytometry.
The sixth edition of this established text takes readers through the general background of the subject, the technical principles underlying the control of radiation hazards, radiation detection and measurement, and the biological effects of radiation. These principles are followed by a consideration of radiation protection issues in the nuclear industry, the non-nuclear sector, and the medical field. Further specialised topics include risk assessment, waste management and decommissioning, radiological incidents and emergencies, relevant legislation, and organizational issues.
Supplemented by clear diagrams and photographs, summary sections, and revision questions, the book is suitable for the beginner as well as the more advanced radiation practitioner. It remains an ideal primer for those working in the nuclear industry, nuclear medicine technicians, radiographers and medical physics technicians, health and safety executives and occupational health professionals. It is also an invaluable companion for anyone training or undertaking a course in radiation protection.
Each chapter of the book investigates a facet of the physical world, including the drag on small projectiles; the importance of diffusion and convection; the size-dependence of acceleration; the storage, conduction, and dissipation of heat; the relationship among pressure, flow, and choice in biological pumps; and how elongate structures tune their relative twistiness and bendiness. Vogel considers design-determining factors all too commonly ignored, and builds a bridge between the world described by physics books and the reality experienced by all creatures. Glimpses of Creatures in Their Physical Worlds contains a wealth of accessible information related to functional biology, and requires little more than a basic background in secondary-school science and mathematics.
Drawing examples from creatures of land, air, and water, the book demonstrates the many uses of biological diversity and how physical forces impact biological organisms.
Adaptive Radiation Therapy describes technological and methodological advances in the field of ART, as well as initial clinical experiences using ART for selected anatomic sites. Divided into three sections (radiobiological basis, current technologies, and clinical applications), the book covers:
Morphological and biological biomarkers for patient-specific planning Design and optimization of treatment plans Delivery of IMRT and IGRT intervention methodologies of ART Management of intrafraction variations, particularly with respiratory motion Quality assurance needed to ensure the safe delivery of ART ART applications in several common cancer types / anatomic sites
The technology and methodology for ART have advanced significantly in the last few years and accumulated clinical data have demonstrated the need for ART in clinical settings, assisted by the wide application of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). This book shows the real potential for supplying every patient with individualized radiation therapy that is maximally accurate and precise.
Students in the physical and life sciences, and in engineering, need to know about the physics and biology of light. Recently, it has become increasingly clear that an understanding of the quantum nature of light is essential, both for the latest imaging technologies and to advance our knowledge of fundamental life processes, such as photosynthesis and human vision. From Photon to Neuron provides undergraduates with an accessible introduction to the physics of light and offers a unified view of a broad range of optical and biological phenomena. Along the way, this richly illustrated textbook builds the necessary background in neuroscience, photochemistry, and other disciplines, with applications to optogenetics, superresolution microscopy, the single-photon response of individual photoreceptor cells, and more.
With its integrated approach, From Photon to Neuron can be used as the basis for interdisciplinary courses in physics, biophysics, sensory neuroscience, biophotonics, bioengineering, or nanotechnology. The goal is always for students to gain the fluency needed to derive every result for themselves, so the book includes a wealth of exercises, including many that guide students to create computer-based solutions. Supplementary online materials include real experimental data to use with the exercises.Assumes familiarity with first-year undergraduate physics and the corresponding math Overlaps the goals of the MCAT, which now includes data-based and statistical reasoning Advanced chapters and sections also make the book suitable for graduate courses An Instructor's Guide and illustration package is available to professors
As biology increasingly depends on data, algorithms, and models, it has become necessary to use a computing language, such as the user-friendly MATLAB, to focus more on building and analyzing models as opposed to configuring tedious calculations. Explorations of Mathematical Models in Biology with MATLAB provides an introduction to model creation using MATLAB, followed by the translation, analysis, interpretation, and observation of the models.
With an integrated and interdisciplinary approach that embeds mathematical modeling into biological applications, the book illustrates numerous applications of mathematical techniques within biology, ecology, and environmental sciences. Featuring a quantitative, computational, and mathematical approach, the book includes:Examples of real-world applications, such as population dynamics, genetics, drug administration, interacting species, and the spread of contagious diseases, to showcase the relevancy and wide applicability of abstract mathematical techniques Discussion of various mathematical concepts, such as Markov chains, matrix algebra, eigenvalues, eigenvectors, first-order linear difference equations, and nonlinear first-order difference equations Coverage of difference equations to model a wide range of real-life discrete time situations in diverse areas as well as discussions on matrices to model linear problems Solutions to selected exercises and additional MATLAB codes
Explorations of Mathematical Models in Biology with MATLAB is an ideal textbook for upper-undergraduate courses in mathematical models in biology, theoretical ecology, bioeconomics, forensic science, applied mathematics, and environmental science. The book is also an excellent reference for biologists, ecologists, mathematicians, biomathematicians, and environmental and resource economists.
In Cannabinoids, Vincenzo Di Marzo has assembled contributions from international experts to provide the definitive guide to what continues to be a rapidly developing research field. After an introductory historical chapter, the book continues by looking at the biochemical, genetic and molecular elements of cannabinoids, followed by chapters covering their role in health and disease. The final chapter outlines the need for a new nomenclature to reflect the complex and multi-disciplinary nature of this area.
Tomosynthesis produces quasi-three-dimensional images that can significantly enhance the visualization of important diagnostic features. This book highlights the flexibility of tomosynthesis systems for new clinical applications, and provides a detailed discussion of the tomosynthesis acquisition process and the impact of physical factors. It explores such topics as acquisition parameters, system components, modeling, image reconstruction algorithms, and system evaluation.Provides in-depth coverage of system design considerations, as well as image reconstruction strategies Describes the current state of clinical applications of tomosynthesis, including imaging of the breast and chest, as well as its use in radiotherapy Illustrates the merits of tomosynthesis imaging and its potential clinical applications in imaging of the breast and chest, as well as for radiation therapy
Divided into five sections, this text delves into the history and development of tomosynthesis. It introduces tomosynthesis imaging, discusses imaging system design considerations, and reviews image reconstruction algorithms that have been developed for tomosynthesis. It also describes system evaluation methodologies, emphasizes current clinical applications, and examines the future direction for tomosynthesis.
Written by one of the original MARSSIM authors, Decommissioning Health Physics: A Handbook for MARSSIM Users, Second Edition is the only book to incorporate all of the requisite technical aspects of planning and executing radiological surveys in support of decommissioning. Extensively revised and updated, it covers survey instrumentation, detection sensitivity, statistics, dose modeling, survey procedures, and release criteria.
New to the Second Edition
Chapter on hot spot assessment that recognizes appropriate dosimetric significance of hot spots when designing surveys and includes a new approach for establishing hot spot limits Chapter on the clearance or release of materials, highlighting aspects of the MARSAME manual Revised chapter on characterization survey design to reflect guidance in ANSI N13.59 on the value of data quality objectives (DQOs) Updated regulations and guidance documents throughout Updated survey instrumentation used to support decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) surveys, including expanded coverage of in situ gamma spectrometers Revised statistics chapter that includes an introduction to Bayesian statistics and additional double sampling and ranked set sampling statistical approaches More case studies and examples throughout
Implement the Surveys Effectively and Avoid Common Pitfalls
With more than 20 years of experience as a practitioner in the decommissioning survey field, author Eric W. Abelquist prepares you for the technical challenges associated with planning and executing MARSSIM surveys. He discusses the application of statistics for survey design and data reduction and addresses the selection of survey instrumentation and detection sensitivity. He presents final status survey procedures and covers pathway modeling to translate release criteria to measurable quantities. He also offers solutions for navigating the complexity inherent in designing and implementing MARSSIM and MARSAME surveys. Detailed derivations, thorough discussions of technical bases, and real-world examples and case studies illustrate effective strategies for demonstrating to regulators and stakeholders that contaminated sites can be released for other beneficial uses.
Now revised and in its second edition, Introduction to Sports Biomechanics is full of visual aids to support the text. Every chapter contains cross references to key terms and definitions from that chapter, learning objectives and summaries, study tasks to confirm and extend your understanding, and suggestions to further your reading.
Clearly structured and with many student friendly features, the text covers:movement patterns – exploring the essence and purpose of movement analysis qualitative analysis of sports movements movement patterns and the geometry of motion quantitative measurement and analysis of movement force and torques – causes of movement the human body and the anatomy of movement.
This edition is supported by a website containing animation and video clips, and offers sample data tables for comparison and analysis and multiple choice questions to confirm your understanding of the material in each chapter. Introduction to Sports Biomechanics is a must have for students of sport and exercise, human movement sciences, ergonomics, biomechanics, and sports performance and coaching.
Visit the companion website at: www.routledge.com/textbooks/9780415339940.
With an accessible writing style, the book unifies statistical, dynamic, and thermodynamic descriptions of molecular behavior using probability ideas as a common basis. Numerous examples illustrate how the twin perspectives of dynamics and equilibrium deepen our understanding of essential ideas such as entropy, free energy, and the meaning of rate constants. The author builds on the general principles with specific discussions of water, binding phenomena, and protein conformational changes/folding. The same probabilistic framework used in the introductory chapters is also applied to non-equilibrium phenomena and to computations in later chapters. The book emphasizes basic concepts rather than cataloguing a broad range of phenomena.
Focuses on what students need to know now
Students build a foundational understanding by initially focusing on probability theory, low-dimensional models, and the simplest molecular systems. The basics are then directly developed for biophysical phenomena, such as water behavior, protein binding, and conformational changes. The book’s accessible development of equilibrium and dynamical statistical physics makes this a valuable text for students with limited physics and chemistry backgrounds.
These techniques, however, require careful planning, specialized equipment, and well-trained staff. This volume provides a cutting-edge look at the biological and technical underpinnings of SRS and SBRT techniques. It includes a history of the development of SRS and SBRT; clinical applications of the techniques; dedicated devices for delivering precisely shaped, high doses of radiation; use of in-room imaging for treatment planning and treatment guidance; immobilization techniques for accurate targeting; and future developments that will continue to evolve and refine existing techniques.
A valuable introduction to those just learning about these specialized techniques, and an ideal reference for those who are already implementing them, this book covers a wide variety of topics, with clear discussions of each aspect of the technology employed.
Tutorials in Radiotherapy Physics: Advanced Topics with Problems and Solutions covers selected advanced topics that are not thoroughly discussed in any of the standard medical physics texts. The book brings together material from a large variety of sources, avoiding the need for you to search through and digest the vast research literature. The topics are mathematically developed from first principles using consistent notation.
Clear Derivations and In-Depth Explanations
The book offers insight into the physics of electron acceleration in linear accelerators and presents an introduction to the study of proton therapy. It then describes the predominant method of clinical photon dose computation: convolution and superposition dose calculation algorithms. It also discusses the Boltzmann transport equation, a potentially fast and accurate method of dose calculation that is an alternative to the Monte Carlo method. This discussion considers Fermi–Eyges theory, which is widely used for electron dose calculations. The book concludes with a step-by-step mathematical development of tumor control and normal tissue complication probability models. Each chapter includes problems with solutions given in the back of the book.
Prepares You to Explore Cutting-Edge Research
This guide provides you with the foundation to read review articles on the topics. It can be used for self-study, in graduate medical physics and physics residency programs, or in vendor training for linacs and treatment planning systems.
Starting with a brief definition and history of weightlessness, the authors then address in detail each problem as well as the countermeasures aimed at alleviating them. In some cases, alternative hypotheses regarding what can and should be attempted are also presented. As plans for long-term missions to the Moon and Mars develop, it will be essential to find countermeasures to weightlessness that are effective for missions that could span years.
The book begins with a chapter on natural history for those scientists, wild-life experts, alligator farmers, zoo keepers etc., whose primary interest is in the nature and habits of the intact alligator. This is followed by separate chapters that deal with metabolic rate, anaerobic glycolysis, digestion-growth-protein synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, respiration and acid-base balance, and kidney function.
Authored by experts with both science and medical backgrounds.More "In the Clinic" and "At the Molecular Level" boxes help readers better understand and apply what they’ve learned.
New coverageincludes expanded discussions of gut and lung microbiota,; the limbic system; the hypthalamus and control of food intake; cardiac and vascular function curves during exercise; new aspects of lipid absorption; GI and metabolic consequences of bariatric surgery, the role of innate lymphoid cells in defense of the respiratory system, molecular mechanisms in normal and pathological muscle contraction; arterial pulse changes with age and the ankle-brachial index; regulation of the blood-brain barrier and cerebral blood flow; the regulation of phosphate; and thyroid hormone mechanism of action.
Each chapter begins with an all-new bulleted list of questionsand ends with key concepts covered in that chapter.
The selection first offers information on some species and age differences in amino acid requirements and the methods of measuring the nutritive value of protein hydrolysates and amino acid mixtures. Discussions focus on assay methods based on protein regeneration; specificity of amino acid requirements; amino acid requirements for nitrogen equilibrium in the adult; and composition of tissue proteins and amino acid requirements for growth. The text then examines the laboratory evaluation of amino acid mixtures and protein hydrolysates and dietary proteins and synthesis of tissue proteins. Topics include role of dietary proteins in the hypertrophy of gonads, effect of dietary proteins on repletion of liver proteins, and effect of dietary proteins on the synthesis of plasma proteins. The publication examines the protein and amino acid requirements of man, including qualitative amino acid requirements of various species, growth and protein and amino acid needs, and metabolic interactions of essential and nonessential amino acids.
The selection is a dependable reference for researchers interested in the determination of the protein and amino acid requirements of mammals, including man.
After providing a brief introduction, the book describes the models for AT service delivery, the design tools and principles of universal design, and various technology-transfer mechanisms, models, and principles. The text then explains the process for creating assistive device standards, followed by a review of seating biomechanics and soft tissue biomechanics. Subsequent chapters examine design and service delivery principles of wheelchairs and scooters, functional electrical stimulation and its applications, wheelchair-accessible transportation legislation, and the applications of robotics in medical rehabilitation. The book proceeds to discuss prosthetic and orthotic design and usage, visual and hearing impairment, Web-related AT, and augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) technology. It concludes with an introduction to adaptive sports and recreation.
Incorporating the critical aspects of RE and AT, An Introduction to Rehabilitation Engineering focuses on the principles, modeling, standards, devices, and technologies of RE and AT. It presents a concise yet complete overview of RE to provide a solid foundation in the subject as well as to stimulate further study.
Based on a popular course given by the author at McGill University,the bookplaces the traditional tenets of radiation biology in the context of contemporary cell and molecular biology. Using terms that non-experts in molecular biology can understand, it clarifies the underlying mechanisms of radiation effects on molecular interactions including signal transduction pathways, modes of cell killing, and non-targeted effects. The author subsequently associates key principles and advances with potential applications, including the use of ionizing radiation as a cytotoxic and cytostatic agent, and radiosensitization by targeting molecular intermediates or signaling molecules involved in radiation-induced processes.
Raising the standard for radiation biology texts that are currently available, Biomolecular Action of Ionizing Radiation is an outstanding resource for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in medical physics, radiation oncology, radiation biology, and those who have an interest in the radiation sciences and in cancer treatment.
* Chapter on the study of bioenergetics of mitochondria in the intact cell
* Appendix listing protein structure resources
* Additional colour plates of protein structures
* Many newly drawn illustrations
Most extensive compilation of values of physical properties of tissue**Presents data for thermal, optical, ultrasonic, mechanical, x-ray, electrical, and magnetic resonance properties**Comprehensive bibliography
Takes a Clear and Systematic Engineering Approach to Systems Biology
Focusing on genetic regulatory networks, Engineering Genetic Circuits presents the modeling, analysis, and design methods for systems biology. It discusses how to examine experimental data to learn about mathematical models, develop efficient abstraction and simulation methods to analyze these models, and use analytical methods to guide the design of new circuits.
After reviewing the basic molecular biology and biochemistry principles needed to understand genetic circuits, the book describes modern experimental techniques and methods for discovering genetic circuit models from the data generated by experiments. The next four chapters present state-of-the-art methods for analyzing these genetic circuit models. The final chapter explores how researchers are beginning to use analytical methods to design synthetic genetic circuits.
This text clearly shows how the success of systems biology depends on collaborations between engineers and biologists. From biomolecular observations to mathematical models to circuit design, it provides essential information on genetic circuits and engineering techniques that can be used to study biological systems.