This book presents recent theoretical and experimental results of localized optical modes and low-threshold lasing in spiral photonic media. Efficient applications of localized modes for low-threshold lasing at the frequencies of localized modes are a central topic of the book's new chapters. Attention is paid to the analytical approach to the problem. The book focuses on one of the most extensively studied media in this field, cholesteric liquid crystals. The chosen model, in the absence of dielectric interfaces, allows to remove the problem of polarization mixing at surfaces, layers and defect structures. It allows to reduce the corresponding equations to the equations for light of diffracting polarization only. The problem concentrates then on the edge and defect optical modes. The possibility to reduce the lasing threshold due to an anomalously strong absorption effect is presented theoretically for distributed feedback lasing. It is shown that a minimum of the threshold-pumping wave intensity can be reached for the pumping wave frequency coinciding with the localized mode frequency (what can be reached for a pumping wave propagating at a certain angle to the helical axes). Analytic expressions for transmission and reflection coefficients are presented.
In the present second edition, experimental observations of theoretically revealed phenomena in spiral photonic media are discussed. The main results obtained for spiral media are qualitatively valid for photonic crystals of any nature and therefore may be applied as a guide to investigations of other photonic crystals where the corresponding theory is more complicated and demands a numerical approach. It is demonstrated that many optical phenomena occurring at the frequencies of localized modes reveal unusual properties which can be used for efficient applications of the corresponding phenomena, efficient frequency conversion and low threshold lasing, e.g.
For the convenience of the reader, an introduction is given to conventional linear and nonlinear optics of structured periodic media. This book is valuable to researchers, postgraduate, and graduate students active in theoretical and experimental physics in the field of interaction of radiation with condensed matter.
The book begins with a brief review of the basic concepts of electromagnetism, then introduces evanescent waves through reflection and refraction, and shows how they appear in diffraction problems, before discussing the role that they play in optical waveguides and sensors. The application of evanescent waves in super-resolution devices is briefly presented, before plasmons are introduced. The surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are then treated, highlighting their potential applications also in ultra-compact circuitry. The book concludes with a discussion of the quantization of evanescent waves and quantum information processing.
The book is intended for students and researchers who wish to enter the field or to have some insight into the matter. It is not a textbook but simply an introduction to more complete and in-depth discussions. The field of plasmonics has exploded in the last ten years, and most of the material treated in this book is scattered in original or review papers. A short comprehensive treatment is missing; this book is intended to provide just that.
To conduct CXDI experiments in both synchrotron and XFEL facilities, the author has developed apparatuses, named KOTOBUKI-1 and TAKASAGO-6 for cryogenic diffraction experiments on frozen-hydrated non-crystalline particles at around 66 K. At the synchrotron facility, cryogenic diffraction experiments dramatically reduce radiation damage of specimen particles and allow tomography CXDI experiments. In addition, in XFEL experiments, non-crystalline particles scattered on thin support membranes and flash-cooled can be used to efficiently increase the rate of XFEL pulses. The rate, which depends on the number density of scattered particles and the size of X-ray beams, is currently 20-90%, probably the world record in XFEL-CXDI experiments. The experiment setups and results are introduced in this book. The author has also developed software suitable for efficiently processing of diffraction patterns and retrieving electron density maps of specimen particles based on the diffraction theory used in CXDI.
This book explains the experimental setups for optical spectral analysis of semiconductors and describes the experimental methods and the basic quantum mechanical principles underlying the fast-developing nanotechnology for semiconductors. Further, it uses numerous case studies with detailed theoretical discussions and calculations to demonstrate the data analysis. Covering structures ranging from bulk to the nanoscale, it examines applications in the semiconductor industry and biomedicine. Starting from the most basic physics of geometric optics, wave optics, quantum mechanics, solid-state physics, it provides a self-contained resource on the subject for university undergraduates. The book can be further used as a toolbox for researching and developing semiconductor nanotechnology based on spectroscopy.
Originating in atomic physics, Fano resonances have become one of the most appealing phenomena of wave scattering in optics, microwaves, and terahertz techniques. The generation of extremely strong and confined fields at a deep subwavelength scale, far beyond the diffraction limit, plays a central role in modern plasmonics, magnonics, and in photonic and metamaterial structures. Fano resonance effects take advantage of the coupling of these bound states with a continuum of radiative electromagnetic waves. With their unique physical properties and unusual combination of classical and quantum structures, Fano resonances have an application potential in a wide range of fields, from telecommunication to ultrasensitive biosensing, medical instrumentation and data storage. Including contributions by international experts and covering the essential aspects of Fano-resonance effects, including theory, modeling and design, proven and potential applications in practical devices, fabrication, characterization and measurement, this book enables readers to acquire the multifaceted understanding required for these multidisciplinary challenges.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of laser sources and their applications in various fields of science, industry, and technology. After an introduction to the basics of laser physics, different laser types and materials for lasers are summarized in the context of a historical survey, outlining the evolution of the laser over the past five decades. This includes, amongst other aspects, gas lasers, excimer lasers, the wide range of solid-state and semiconductor lasers, and femtosecond and other pulsed lasers where particular attention is paid to high-power sources. Subsequent chapters address related topics such as laser modulation and nonlinear frequency conversion. In closing, the enormous importance of the laser is demonstrated by highlighting its current applications in everyday life and its potential for future developments. Typical applications in advanced material processing, medicine and biophotonics as well as plasma and X-ray generation for nanoscale lithography are discussed.
The book provides broad and topical coverage of laser photonics and opto-electronics, focusing on significant findings and recent advances rather than in-depth theoretical studies. Thus, it is intended not only for university students and engineers, but also for scientists and professionals applying lasers in biomedicine, material processing and everyday consumer products. Further, it represents essential reading for engineers using or developing high-power lasers for scientific or industrial applications.
It then investigates the design concepts for the optical layout of holographic optical tweezers (HOTs) and their optimization using optical simulations and experimental methods. In a further part, the book characterizes the corresponding system modules that allow the addition of HOTs to commercial microscopes with regard to stability and diffraction efficiency. Further, based on experiments and microfluidic applications, it demonstrates the functionality of the combined setup, and discusses several types of non-diffracting beams and their application in optical manipulation. The book shows that holographic optical tweezers, including several non-diffracting beam types like Mathieu beams, combined parabolic and Airy beams, not only open up the possibility of generating efficient multiple dynamic traps for micro and nano particles with forces in the pico and nano newton range, but also the opportunity to exert optical torque with special beams like Bessel beams, which can facilitate the movement and rotation of particles by generating microfluidic flows. The last part discusses the potential use of a slightly modified DHM-HOT-system to explore the functionality of direct laser writing based on a two photon absorption process in a negative photoresist with a continuous wave laser