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This book presents recent theoretical and experimental results of localized optical modes and low-threshold lasing in spiral photonic media. Efficient applications of localized modes for low-threshold lasing at the frequencies of localized modes are a central topic of the book's new chapters. Attention is paid to the analytical approach to the problem. The book focuses on one of the most extensively studied media in this field, cholesteric liquid crystals. The chosen model, in the absence of dielectric interfaces, allows to remove the problem of polarization mixing at surfaces, layers and defect structures. It allows to reduce the corresponding equations to the equations for light of diffracting polarization only. The problem concentrates then on the edge and defect optical modes. The possibility to reduce the lasing threshold due to an anomalously strong absorption effect is presented theoretically for distributed feedback lasing. It is shown that a minimum of the threshold-pumping wave intensity can be reached for the pumping wave frequency coinciding with the localized mode frequency (what can be reached for a pumping wave propagating at a certain angle to the helical axes). Analytic expressions for transmission and reflection coefficients are presented.

In the present second edition, experimental observations of theoretically revealed phenomena in spiral photonic media are discussed. The main results obtained for spiral media are qualitatively valid for photonic crystals of any nature and therefore may be applied as a guide to investigations of other photonic crystals where the corresponding theory is more complicated and demands a numerical approach. It is demonstrated that many optical phenomena occurring at the frequencies of localized modes reveal unusual properties which can be used for efficient applications of the corresponding phenomena, efficient frequency conversion and low threshold lasing, e.g.

For the convenience of the reader, an introduction is given to conventional linear and nonlinear optics of structured periodic media. This book is valuable to researchers, postgraduate, and graduate students active in theoretical and experimental physics in the field of interaction of radiation with condensed matter.

This monograph provides an introductory discussion of evanescent waves and plasmons, describes their properties and uses, and shows how they are fundamental when operating with nanoscale optics. Far field optics is not suitable for the design, description, and operation of devices at this nanometre scale. Instead one must work with models based on near-field optics and surface evanescent waves. The new discipline of plasmonics has grown to encompass the generation and application of plasmons both as a travelling excitation in a nanostructure and as a stationary enhancement of the electrical field near metal nanosurfaces.

The book begins with a brief review of the basic concepts of electromagnetism, then introduces evanescent waves through reflection and refraction, and shows how they appear in diffraction problems, before discussing the role that they play in optical waveguides and sensors. The application of evanescent waves in super-resolution devices is briefly presented, before plasmons are introduced. The surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) are then treated, highlighting their potential applications also in ultra-compact circuitry. The book concludes with a discussion of the quantization of evanescent waves and quantum information processing.

The book is intended for students and researchers who wish to enter the field or to have some insight into the matter. It is not a textbook but simply an introduction to more complete and in-depth discussions. The field of plasmonics has exploded in the last ten years, and most of the material treated in this book is scattered in original or review papers. A short comprehensive treatment is missing; this book is intended to provide just that.

In this book, the author describes the development of the experimental diffraction setup and structural analysis of non-crystalline particles from material science and biology. Recent advances in X-ray free electron laser (XFEL)-coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiments allow for the structural analysis of non-crystalline particles to a resolution of 7 nm, and to a resolution of 20 nm for biological materials. Now XFEL-CXDI marks the dawn of a new era in structural analys of non-crystalline particles with dimensions larger than 100 nm, which was quite impossible in the 20th century.

To conduct CXDI experiments in both synchrotron and XFEL facilities, the author has developed apparatuses, named KOTOBUKI-1 and TAKASAGO-6 for cryogenic diffraction experiments on frozen-hydrated non-crystalline particles at around 66 K. At the synchrotron facility, cryogenic diffraction experiments dramatically reduce radiation damage of specimen particles and allow tomography CXDI experiments. In addition, in XFEL experiments, non-crystalline particles scattered on thin support membranes and flash-cooled can be used to efficiently increase the rate of XFEL pulses. The rate, which depends on the number density of scattered particles and the size of X-ray beams, is currently 20-90%, probably the world record in XFEL-CXDI experiments. The experiment setups and results are introduced in this book. The author has also developed software suitable for efficiently processing of diffraction patterns and retrieving electron density maps of specimen particles based on the diffraction theory used in CXDI.

This book gives a readable introduction to the important, rapidly developing, field of nanophotonics. It provides a quick understanding of the basic elements of the field, allowing students and newcomers to progress rapidly to the frontiers of their interests.
Topics include: The basic mathematical techniques needed for the study of the materials of nanophotonic technology; photonic crystals and their applications as laser resonators, waveguides, and circuits of waveguides; the application of photonic crystals technology in the design of optical diodes and transistors; the basic properties needed for the design and understanding of new types of engineered materials known as metamaterials; and a consideration of how and why these engineered materials have been formulated in the lab, as well as their applications as negative refractive index materials, as perfect lens, as cloaking devices, and their effects on Cherenkov and other types of radiation. Additionally, the book introduces the new field of plasmonics and reviews its important features. The role of plasmon-polaritons in the scattering and transmission of light by rough surfaces and the enhanced transmission of light by plasmon-polariton supporting surfaces is addressed. The important problems of subwavelength resolution are treated with discussions of applications in a number of scientific fields. The basic principles of near-field optical microscopy are presented with a number of important applications. The basics of atomic cavity physics, photonic entanglement and its relation to some of the basic properties of quantum computing, and the physics associated with the study of optical lattices are presented.
This book discusses the development of Fano-based techniques and reveals the characteristic properties of various wave processes by studying interference phenomena. It explains that the interaction of discrete (localized) states with a continuum of propagation modes leads to Fano interference effects in transmission, and explores novel coherent effects such as bound states in the continuum accompanied by collapse of Fano resonance.

Originating in atomic physics, Fano resonances have become one of the most appealing phenomena of wave scattering in optics, microwaves, and terahertz techniques. The generation of extremely strong and confined fields at a deep subwavelength scale, far beyond the diffraction limit, plays a central role in modern plasmonics, magnonics, and in photonic and metamaterial structures. Fano resonance effects take advantage of the coupling of these bound states with a continuum of radiative electromagnetic waves. With their unique physical properties and unusual combination of classical and quantum structures, Fano resonances have an application potential in a wide range of fields, from telecommunication to ultrasensitive biosensing, medical instrumentation and data storage. Including contributions by international experts and covering the essential aspects of Fano-resonance effects, including theory, modeling and design, proven and potential applications in practical devices, fabrication, characterization and measurement, this book enables readers to acquire the multifaceted understanding required for these multidisciplinary challenges.

This book provides a comprehensive overview of laser sources and their applications in various fields of science, industry, and technology. After an introduction to the basics of laser physics, different laser types and materials for lasers are summarized in the context of a historical survey, outlining the evolution of the laser over the past five decades. This includes, amongst other aspects, gas lasers, excimer lasers, the wide range of solid-state and semiconductor lasers, and femtosecond and other pulsed lasers where particular attention is paid to high-power sources. Subsequent chapters address related topics such as laser modulation and nonlinear frequency conversion. In closing, the enormous importance of the laser is demonstrated by highlighting its current applications in everyday life and its potential for future developments. Typical applications in advanced material processing, medicine and biophotonics as well as plasma and X-ray generation for nanoscale lithography are discussed.

The book provides broad and topical coverage of laser photonics and opto-electronics, focusing on significant findings and recent advances rather than in-depth theoretical studies. Thus, it is intended not only for university students and engineers, but also for scientists and professionals applying lasers in biomedicine, material processing and everyday consumer products. Further, it represents essential reading for engineers using or developing high-power lasers for scientific or industrial applications.

This book presents not only the simultaneous combination of optical methods based on holographic principles for marker-free imaging, real-time trapping, identification and tracking of micro objects, but also the application of substantial low coherent light sources and non-diffractive beams. It first provides an overview of digital holographic microscopy (DHM) and holographic optical tweezers as well as non-diffracting beam types for minimal-invasive, real-time and marker-free imaging as well as manipulation of micro and nano objects.

It then investigates the design concepts for the optical layout of holographic optical tweezers (HOTs) and their optimization using optical simulations and experimental methods. In a further part, the book characterizes the corresponding system modules that allow the addition of HOTs to commercial microscopes with regard to stability and diffraction efficiency. Further, based on experiments and microfluidic applications, it demonstrates the functionality of the combined setup, and discusses several types of non-diffracting beams and their application in optical manipulation. The book shows that holographic optical tweezers, including several non-diffracting beam types like Mathieu beams, combined parabolic and Airy beams, not only open up the possibility of generating efficient multiple dynamic traps for micro and nano particles with forces in the pico and nano newton range, but also the opportunity to exert optical torque with special beams like Bessel beams, which can facilitate the movement and rotation of particles by generating microfluidic flows. The last part discusses the potential use of a slightly modified DHM-HOT-system to explore the functionality of direct laser writing based on a two photon absorption process in a negative photoresist with a continuous wave laser

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