Political and Military Sociology continues a mission of publishing cutting-edge research on some of the most important issues in civil-military relations. In this inaugural volume of the new annual publication, Won-Taek Kang tackles the issue of nostalgia for Park Chung Hee in South Korea, and analyzes why many South Koreans today appear to miss the deceased dictator. Ryan Kelty, Todd Woodruff, and David R. Segal focus on the role identity of U.S. combat soldiers as they balance competing demands made by the military profession, on the one hand, and soldersâ family and personal relations, on the other. D. Michael Lindsay considers the impact that social contact has on military and civilian participants in the elite White House Fellowship program, and analyzes how social contact affects the confidence in the U.S. military that civilian fellows later show. Analyzing letters to the editor of a local newspaper, Chris M. Messer and Thomas E. Shriver consider how community activists attempt to frame the issue of environmental degradation in the context of a local dispute over the storage of radioactive waste. David Pion-Berlin, Antonio Uges, Jr., and Diego Esparza analyze the recent emergence of websites run by Latin American militaries, and consider why these militaries choose to advertise their activities on the Internet. Political and Military Sociology also includes reviews of important new books in civil-military relations, political science, and military sociology. Included here are discussions of books about U.S. war crimes in Vietnam, civil-military relations in contemporary China, the structural transformation of the U.S. Army, Japanese security policy, American treatment of POWs, the Bonus March, and the GI Bill. The series will be of broad interest to scholars of civil-military relations, political science, and political sociology. It will continue the tradition of peer review that has guaranteed it a place of importance among research publications in this area.
Nuclear technology has been an organizing premise of the international system since 1945. Eight countries have officially acknowledged the possession of nuclear weapons. Many countries have harnessed the atom for electricity generation and other civilian uses. Roughly 440 commercial nuclear reactors operate in thirty countries providing 14 percent of the worldâs electricity. Volatile oil prices and concerns about climate change have led newly emerging economies in Asia to express keen interest in using nuclear energy to meet growing energy demands. Since the basic technological apparatus for both civilian and military nuclear programs is the same, there are concerns about the potential spread of dual-use technology. The future stability of the international order depends on the responsible management of their nuclear assets by nuclear powers. The relationship between civilian authorities and the military takes on special significance in states with nuclear weapons or near-weapon capability. The constitutional balance of powers, the delegation of authority during wartime and peace, influences from public opinion and bureaucratic structures on the formulation of doctrine, crisis management, and communications with the international media and the general public are influenced by civil-military relations and organizational culture. This volume will be of broad interest to scholars of civil-military relations, political science, and political sociology.
Several contributions in this volume focus on the modern Middle East, with other articles examining justifications for war, the return of war veterans, white nationalists, and the activities of the Moral Majority. Maria Markantonatou addresses the blurring of distinctions between civilians and combatants. Udi Lebel investigates how the IDF is being changed by the increasing number of religious-Zionists recruited. Orlee Hauser argues that the experiences of women in the IDF vary depending on their positions and assignments. Bruce McDonald compares the performance of the Feder-Ram and augmented Solow models in accounting for economic growth in Iran. Neema Noori examines the interrelationship of war, the state, and mobilization in Iran. Molly Clever examines the justifications for war employed by both state and non-state actors. Christina Knopf uses relational dialectics to examine US veteran transitions. David Bugg and Dianne Dentice analyze attitudes and perceptions of white nationalists. Finally, Aaron Davis considers the rise of the Illinois state chapter of the Moral Majority in the 1980s. This volume in the Political and Military Sociology series also includes reviews of important new books in civil-military relations, political science, and military sociology.
Political and Military Sociology, Volume 41 explores the social elements and impact of national defense. The origin of government is a response to a societyâs common interest in security and defense. In recent years, security and defense issues, and government responses, have become increasingly prominent in societies around the world. Despite intermittent pushes for privatization, however, security and defense have remained core functions of government. In this volume Bruce D. McDonald III investigates the historiography of the defense-growth relationship. Lachezar G. Anguelov and Robert J. Eger III consider the social impact with a case study of the Republic of Serbia. Maximiliano Mendieta and Bruce D. McDonald III consider the social spillovers of the sector that arise after the completion of a soldierâs service. Paul Kellogg considers why some countries have fared well when others have been slow to rebound. Hamid E. Ali studies pork barrel spending in the United States. Susan Sample, Brandon Valeriano, and Choong-Nam Kang broaden the understanding of the defense sector to include its output. Hamid E. Ali and Ubah A. Adan conclude the volume with a study on conflict and infant and child mortality rates. Traditionally, national defense is viewed solely in military terms. As part of their national security objectives, many defense sectors have undertaken a variety of social programs. While the existence of social programs is known, what remains uncertain is how they spill over from the sector to society at-large and what is the impact of that spillover.
This volume of Political and Military Sociology focuses on the perceptions and identities of those serving in the military, using survey or interview data to explore those perceptions. A range of military forces are examined, including those of the United States, Israel, Norway, and Denmark. The first article, using survey data from Denmark, compares the views of Danish soldiers to civilians. The second article looks at the effects of military education upon the attitudes and values of soldiers. The third article explores Israeli soldiersâ attitudes regarding formal military education. The fourth article addresses the impact of Norwegian soldiersâ self-identity on military performance. In a different vein, the survey results of the fifth article show that support for soldiers on active duty in Iraq and Afghanistan does not necessarily translate into support for veterans. Military lawyers in the Israel Defense Forces are the subject of the sixth article. This volume concludes with an article that argues that military service should be offered as a legal policy alternative to incarceration.
This volume encompasses a wide range of empirical research on a variety of topics that are related by their focus on the importance of attitudes, culture, and perceptions. The significance of public attitudes, the impact of cultural norms, and the perceptions of military officers and civilians are all analyzed in the seven articles in this latest edition of Political and Military Sociology. The first essay asserts that military memoirs should be taken seriously as objects of scholarly analysis. Using the Minorities at Risk Dataset, the second article examines the effects of globalization on ethnic conflict in 106 countries from 1985 to 2002. The next focuses on Canadian attitudes toward military expenditures following the September 11th terrorist attacks. The fourth examines the attitudes of Texans toward recent US wars, the draft, and military service generally. The fifth essay explores the role of the media in promoting democracy and democratic attitudes in southern Africa. Using survey data, the following article addresses the extent to which higher education promotes more tolerant attitudes among Israeli Jews toward Israeli Arabs. The volume concludes with a study of US warrant officers that shows how the rank has evolved over time.