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When Ifirst read this manuscript, Iexclaimed to a colleague: "This is the most important and clinically relevant book on schizophrenia since Bleuler!" Time has not altered my initial enthusiastic evaluation. Drs. Strauss and Carpenter are among the most distinguished researchers in the field ofschizophrenia,butthey are also clinicians ofgreat experience, breadth, sensitivity, and flexibility. It is from this expertise, as well as theirwide familiarity with the world literature, thattheyhavebeenable to distill the essence of an exceedingly practical and comprehensive approach to the understanding, evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of schizophrenia. They begin by unequivocally stating the inadequacy and futility of approaching schizophrenia via a single model. Standingalone, neither a biomedical, a social, nor a psychological model can adequately account for the complexities of this illness with regard to etiology, phenomenol ogy, course, or optimum treatment. While the advent of psychophar macologicalinterventionhas made a profound impact on both individual treatment and the responsive support systems, and is an important aspect ofmosttreatmentplans, to view schizophrenia as a phenothiazine deficiency disease is not only bad science but bad therapeutics. Their conceptualization of an "interactive developmental systems model" provides a framework upon which to build a broad medical approach to schizophrenia. This model relates variables drawn from different systems, interactive with one another, and contributing to a pathogenetic process across time. Within this bio-social-psychological matrix, one can then organize information relative to vulnerability, the manifest illness per se, the course of the disorder, and the multiplicity of factors relative to treatment planning.
Electrodennal activity refers to electrical changes across the skin in areas of the body that are psychologically responsive. The eccrine sweat glands are the primary detenninant of electrodennal activity, and these are psychologically active especially on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet. As a matter of convenience, electrodennal activity is most often recorded from the palms. Over the years, the electrodennal response has been known as the psychogalvanic reflex, the galvanic skin response, the skin resistance response, the skin conductance response, and the skin potential response. The tenns psychogalvanic reflex and galvanic skin response have fallen into disuse among scientists, but are still to be found in psychology text books. of its early discovery, ease of measurement, and often easily observable Because response to experimental manipulations, the recording of electrodennal activity is one of the most frequently used methods in psychophysiology. Indeed, in the early years following the founding of the Society for Psychophysiological Research, electrodennal research so dominated the field that people worried that the society was simply an electrodennal society. Although other psychophysiological techniques have emerged as equally strong contributors to psychophysiology, electrodennal research continues to be important throughout the world. As a result of this massive research investment, there has been great progress in understanding electrodennal phenomena, as well as major advances in recording methods since the phenomenon was discovered.
This volume is the second in a series on depressive illness. The first volume, entitled Phenomenology of Depressive Illness, is de voted to a description of depressive illness from many vantage points including that of the patient as well as the psychiatrist. Epidemiological, nosological, and developmental aspects are included together with specific descriptions of major subtypes of depressive illness. It is only after an illness is fully described that an attempt should be made to generate models with ex planatory and predictive properties. This second volume is that next step. The major models of depressive illness are described. The limited progress that has been made in integrating these models is discussed, but with further knowledge, this will change. Each model has different advantages and may apply more directly to different subtypes of depressive illness. Such refinements also await the results of future studies. However, the heuristic and clinical usefulness of the models described is considerable and will inform the reader about the current state of knowledge regarding the etiology and pathogenesis of de pressive illness and directions of future research. J. John Mann, M.D. New York vii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This volume would not have been possible without the support of my wife and children who permitted me the time to work on it. Ms. Renee Azima-Heller assisted greatly in the organi zation of the material for the book. A career scientist award from the Irma T. HirschI Trust provided support for this work.
Recent advances in behavioral and biological treatments have raised the hopes and expectations of patients and clinicians alike in regard to obsessive-compulsive disorder-one of the most disabling, crippling, and resistant conditions in psy chiatry. In addition to their therapeutic efficacy, these new treatments have also opened new conceptual perspectives, thus complementing the traditional psychological theories of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Therefore, it is timely for these various conceptual frameworks and the treatment modalities they engender to be integrated and synthesized in the pres ent volume. To this end, eminent scholars in their respective areas were invited to contribute to this book, which we hope will symbolize and-in some measure-actualize the spirit of collaboration required if we are to fully comprehend the com plex nature of this disorder as well as to address existing ther apeutic challenges. In Chapter 1, Rachman sets the stage by providing an overview of the conceptual and therapeutic issues of obsessive-compulsive disorder. This is followed by an in depth review of the behavioral interventions from which Foa vii viii PREFACE and colleagues successfully distill the specific therapeutic processes of exposure and response prevention. In the third chapter, Sifneos deals with the psychodynamic factors under lying obsessive-compulsive phenomena and details his in novative technique of brief, anxiety-provoking psychotherapy aimed specifically at the obsessional state.
This work presents the adaptation of mentalization-based therapy for use in Eating Disorders (MBT-ED). The book starts with a presentation of the theoretical concept of mentalization and describes eating disorders from this perspective. This is followed by a discussion of the place of MBT-ED in eating disorders practice. MBT is first presented as the original model for borderline personality disorder, and then the model is further developed to address specific symptoms found in eating disorders, such as body image disturbance, restriction and purging. The original MBT model consists of outpatient treatment combined with individual and group psychotherapy, and psychoeducation in groups. The book then looks at supervision and training, and how an eating disorders team can develop a mentalizing focus. It goes on to describe the training required for practitioners to deliver individual and group MBT-ED and to supervise therapy. Lastly, it examines the implementation of the approach in different clinical settings, including inpatient services, and how management can be involved in negotiating barriers and taking advantage of enablers in the system.

The authors have conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial and qualitative research in MBT-ED and have extensive experience in providing and supervising this novel therapy. MBT-ED is one of the few therapies for eating disorders that links theory of mind, and attachment and psychodynamic therapies and as such will be of great theoretical interest to a wide variety of clinicians and researchers.

While most abnormal psychology texts seem to aim solely for breadth, the acclaimed Oxford Textbook of Psychopathology aims for depth, with a focus on adult disorders and special attention given to the personality disorders. Now in its third edition, it has established itself as an unparalleled guide for professionals and graduate students alike. Esteemed editors Paul H. Blaney, Robert F. Krueger, and the late Theodore Millon selected the most eminent researchers in abnormal psychology to cover all the major mental disorders, allowing them to discuss notable issues in the various pathologies which are their expertise. This third edition of the Oxford Textbook of Psychopathology is fully updated according to the DSM-5 and also reflects alternative, emerging perspectives in the field (e.g., the NIMH's Research Domain Criteria Initiative; RDoC). The Textbook exposes readers to exceptional scholarship, a history of psychopathology, the logic of the best approaches to current disorders, and an expert outlook on what researchers and mental health professionals will be facing in the years to come. With extensive coverage of personality disorders and issues related to classification and differential diagnosis, this volume will be exceptionally useful for all mental health workers, clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, and social workers, and as a textbook focused on understanding psychopathology in depth, as well as a valuable guide for graduate psychology students and psychiatric residents.
xii the evaluations, techniques, and outcome have helped to document the efficacy of their therapeutic modalities. In addition, many good books and articles have been published introducing new concepts, such as the importance of systematic case studies and personality styles by Horowitz, a variety of brief therapies by Budman, and an integrating model of time-limited psychotherapy by Strupp, to men tion only a few. The investigation of the efficacy of short-term anxiety-provoking psychotherapy (STAPP), which is the subject of this book, has con tinued during the last eight years, particularly in reference to pa tients with unresolved Oedipal conflicts. The chapter on outcome has therefore been expanded to include some of our findings. Cautious attempts have also been made to utilize focal and in novating techniques for the treatment of individuals with borderline as well as compulsive personalities. In this second edition an effort has been made to present the specific technical factors which seem to have a therapeutic effect, such as problem solving, self-understanding, and new learning, and which are utilized by the patients to solve new emotional conflicts long after the end of their treatment. Chapters on the treatment of elderly patients and the handling of individuals with physical symptomatology have been added; a history of the extensive treatment of a male patient has been pre sented to complement the discussion of the therapy of my female patient which appears in Appendix I.
Assessment is a topic that is central to psychology. In the case of clinical psychology, assessment of individual functioning is of keen interest to individuals involved in clinical practice as well as research. Understand ing the multiple domains of functioning, evaluating characteristics of individuals in relation to others (normative assessment) as well as in relation to themselves (ipsative assessment), and charting progress or change over time all require well-developed assessment tools and methods. In light of the importance of the topic, books, journals, and monographs continue to emerge in large numbers to present, address, and evaluate diverse measures. Keeping informed about measures, identifying the mea sures in use, and obtaining the necessary information for their interpreta tion make the task of Sisyphus look like a vacation. In this book, the editors provide information that eases the task remarkably. The overriding goal of this book is to provide concise, useful, and essential information about measures of adult functioning. To that end, this is a sourcebook, a format that is particularly noteworthy. The mea sures are presented and organized according to diagnostic categories, as derived from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). The categories are broad (e. g. , substance-related disorders, anx iety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia and related disorders) in recognition that those who develop measures and those who use them in clinical research or practice usually do not have narrowly defined diagnos tic entities in mind.
Psychiatry is an endlessly controversial endeavour, incorporating emotively-charged questions over the reality of mental illness, the medicalization of everyday life, and the role of nature versus nurture which cause constant discussion today, and on which almost everyone has an opinion. In this Very Short Introduction Tom Burns explores the nature of psychiatry, focusing on what it can and cannot do, and discussing why its history has been beset by dramatic shifts in emphasis and types of treatment. Considering the main disorders that have shaped its practice (such as schizophrenia and manic depression), he analyses how it differs from (and overlaps with) psychology and psychotherapy. Many of the controversies arise from its dual origin 200 years ago and the separate development of psychiatry with a more 'medical' approach in the asylums, rather than the psychological approach which birthed psychoanalysis and various forms of psychotherapy. Discussing philosophical issues of psychiatry's legitimacy, Burns explores the mistakes psychiatry has made and the blind alleys in its history, before looking forward to the likely changes in its practice with the coming of artificial intelligence and virtual reality. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
H. HAFNER Schizophrenia Research Unit, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany The present volume contains the lectures and invited discussions of the sympo sium on "Risk and protective factors in schizophrenia - towards a conceptual model of the disease process", which was held at the International Science Forum of the University of Heidelberg from October 25 to 27, 200l. They are supple mented by a "Summary and outlook", in which Peter Jones gives a brief overview of the results and perspectives featured in the presentations and discussions. The contributions and discussions reflect the open-minded and creative atmosphere at the meeting. The systematically structured program of the symposium continued the tradition of the Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia symposia, which were th started in 1986 on the occasion of the 600 anniversary of the University of Hei delberg and which are co-organized with Prof. Wagner Farid Gattaz/Sao Paulo. The aim of these symposia and their proceedings volumes [6,8-10] has been to reflect the state of the art in schizophrenia research at their time, and they have successfully done so. In contrast, the present symposium pursued a more lim ited objective and was of a different type. It brought together, around a large table at the International Science Forum in Heidelberg, 22 invited speakers and dis cussants and an equal number of young scientists working in the research fields in question, who were thus given an opportunity to listen and to participate.
The need for evidence-based practice in mental health services is becoming clearer by the day and, until recently, the trend of emphasizing services with supporting empirical evidence has been almost exclusively limited to a focus on treatment options. A Guide to Assessments That Work fills a void in the professional literature by addressing the critical role that assessment plays in providing evidence-based mental health services. To optimize its usefulness to readers, this volume addresses the assessment of the most commonly encountered disorders or conditions among children, adolescents, adults, older adults, and couples. Strategies and instruments for assessing mood disorders, anxiety disorders, couple distress and sexual problems, health-related problems, and many other conditions are also covered in depth. With a focus throughout on assessment instruments that are feasible, psychometrically sound, and useful for typical clinical requirements, a rating system has been designed to provide evaluations of a measure's norms, reliability, validity, and clinical utility. Standardized tables summarize this information in each chapter, providing essential information on the most scientifically sound tools available for a range of assessment needs. Using the tools provided in A Guide to Assessments That Work, readers can at a glance determine the possible suitability and value of each instrument for their own clinical purposes. This much needed resource equips readers with the knowledge necessary for conducting the best evidence-based mental health assessments currently possible.
Adult neuropsychiatry is now a well-established field with numerous reputable references. Practitioners who work with children routinely note how references and practitioners knowledgeable in the equivalent work in the pediatric world are rare. Child psychiatrists and neurologists frequently work with individuals struggling with these conditions and would strongly benefit from such a reference that incorporates medical work-up, psychopharmacological recommendations, family/support recommendations and theoretical pathophysiology. Pediatricians and developmental pediatricians often treat children with behavioral and neuropsychiatric sequelae, but are not well-trained in the neuropsychiatric management of these cases. Neuropsychologists and educational psychologists working with children and adults with pediatric-onset conditions will also find the text helpful to contextualize their cases, better-understand the medical evaluation and management and perhaps adjust recommendations that would supplement their own testing methods. Finally, sub-specialists in adult neurology, psychiatry and neuropsychiatry often find themselves working with these children by default as there are few pediatric subspecialists who are available to accept them into practice. When facing complex neuropsychiatric illness in children, many clinicians are stymied because they may have “never seen a case like that”.

This text fills the wide gap that currently exists and helps move this field forward. The approach utilized in adult neuropsychiatry that is both clear and accessible does not yet have an equivalent in the pediatric realm, but there is tremendous interest in its development. Children and adolescents with neuropsychiatric conditions are very common and they and their caregivers often struggle to find professionals well educated in this field. Ultimately, a wide range of clinicians will find this text to be a very helpful resource for diagnosis and management in the spectrum of pediatric neuropsychiatric conditions. The case-based approach is also unique with respect to neuropsychiatric approaches, and the clear cut, reader-friendly approach of such a format would likely be well-received among physicians looking for a resource on this issue.

Psychiatric clinicians should use rating scales and questionnaires often, for they not only facilitate targeted diagnoses and treatment; they also facilitate links to empirical literature and systematize the entire process of management. Clinically oriented and highly practical, the Handbook of Clinical Rating Scales and Assessment in Psychiatry and Mental Health is an ideal tool for the busy psychiatrist, clinical psychologist, family physician, or social worker. In this ground-breaking text, leading researchers provide reviews of the most commonly used outcome and screening measures for the major psychiatric diagnoses and treatment scenarios. The full range of psychiatric disorders are covered in brief but thorough chapters, each of which provides a concise review of measurement issues related to the relevant condition, along with recommendations on which dimensions to measure – and when. The Handbook also includes ready-to-photocopy versions of the most popular, valid, and reliable scales and checklists, along with scoring keys and links to websites containing on-line versions. Moreover, the Handbook describes well known, structured, diagnostic interviews and the specialized training requirements for each. It also includes details of popular psychological tests (such as neuropsychological, personality, and projective tests), along with practical guidelines on when to request psychological testing, how to discuss the case with the assessment consultant and how to integrate information from the final testing report into treatment.

Focused and immensely useful, the Handbook of Clinical Rating Scales and Assessment in Psychiatry and Mental Health is an invaluable resource for all clinicians who care for patients with psychiatric disorders.

This book is the culmination of a research program conducted in Colombia during the past several years. The fundamental aim of the program was to develop neuropsychological tests for Spanish speakers, especially elderly individuals and those with limited edu cational attainment. The lack of norms for these populations repre sents a significant practical problem not only in developing countries but also in more developed countries. For example, norms are usually obtained with middle-class Anglo-Saxon English-speaking popula tions, often university students, and such norms do not usually include individuals older than 65 years. Furthermore, very few neuro psychological tests have been developed for Spanish speakers; fre quently, tests are translated into Spanish (often poor translations at that), but the norms used are still those obtained from English speaking populations. This volume summarizes the normative results of this research program. We anticipate that these tests and norms will be particularly useful in the neuropsychological evaluation of Spanish speakers, especially those with limited educational attainment, and the elderly. The United States represents the fifth largest Spanish-speaking coun try in the world (after Mexico, Spain, Argentina, and Colombia), with over 20 million speakers. It is anticipated that by the year 2025 there will be as many Hispanics in the United States as members of all other ethnic minority groups combined. Further, about 10% of the U. S. population are considered functionally illiterate, with Hispanics rep resenting an unusually large segment.
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