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The current jurisdictional status of the Mediterranean Sea is remarkable. Nearly 50 per cent of the Mediterranean waters are high seas and therefore beyond the jurisdiction of coastal States. This situation means that there are no points in the Mediterranean Sea where the coasts of two States would be more than 400 nautical miles apart. Such a legal situation generally prevents coastal States from adopting and enforcing their laws on the Mediterranean high seas, in respect of many important fields such as the protection and preservation of the marine environment, as well as the conservation of marine living resources.

The jurisdictional landscape of the Adriatic Sea as a sub-sea and sub-region of the Mediterranean, is even more interesting. Croatia has proclaimed an Ecological and Fisheries Protection Zone, Slovenia has proclaimed a Zone of Ecological Protection, while Italy has adopted a framework law for the proclamation of its Zone of Ecological Protection without proclaiming its regime in the Adriatic. It is noteworthy that if all Mediterranean and Adriatic States would proclaim an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), there would not be a single stretch of high seas left in the entire Mediterranean Sea. Both the Adriatic and Mediterranean fall in the category of enclosed or semi-enclosed seas regulated by Part IX of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).

This book assesses the legal nature of Part IX of UNCLOS and discusses potential benefits of the extension of coastal State jurisdiction (proclamation of EEZs and/or similar sui generis zones), particularly in light of the recent calls towards an integrated and holistic approach to the management of different activities in the Mediterranean Sea. It examines the actual or potential extension of coastal State jurisdiction in the Adriatic Sea, against the background of similar extensions elsewhere in the Mediterranean and against the background of relevant EU policies. It additionally explores whether Part IX of UNCLOS imposes any duties of cooperation in relation to the extension of coastal State jurisdiction in enclosed or semi-enclosed seas, and puts forward practical suggestions as to how the issue of extension of coastal State jurisdiction could be approached in a way which would enhance States existing cooperation and improve the overall governance in the Mediterranean and Adriatic seas.

This book will be of interest to policymakers and academics and students of international law, and the law of the sea.

Under the United Nations Law of the Sea Convention, States have sovereign rights over the resources of their continental shelf out to 200 nautical miles from the coast. Where the physical shelf extends beyond 200 nautical miles, States may exercise rights over those resources to the outer limits of the continental shelf. More than 80 States may be entitled to claim sovereign rights over their continental shelf where it extends beyond 200 nautical miles from their coast, and the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf is currently examining many of these claims. This book examines the nature of the rights and obligations of coastal States in this area, with a particular focus on the options for regulating activities on the extended continental shelf. Because the extended continental shelf lies below the high seas, the area poses unique legal challenges for coastal States that are different from those faced in respect of the shelf within 200 nautical miles. In addition, the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea imposes some specific obligations that coastal States must comply with in respect of the extended continental shelf. The book discusses the development of the concept of the extended continental shelf. It explores a range of issues facing the coastal State in regulating matters such as environmental protection, fishing, bioprospecting, exploitation of non-living resources and marine scientific research on the extended continental shelf. The book proposes a framework for navigating the intersection between the high seas and the extended continental shelf and minimising the potential for conflict between flag and coastal States.
International law is much debated and discussed, but poorly understood. Does international law matter, or do states regularly violate it with impunity? If international law is of no importance, then why do states devote so much energy to negotiating treaties and providing legal defenses for their actions? In turn, if international law does matter, why does it reflect the interests of powerful states, why does it change so often, and why are violations of international law usually not punished? In this book, Jack Goldsmith and Eric Posner argue that international law matters but that it is less powerful and less significant than public officials, legal experts, and the media believe. International law, they contend, is simply a product of states pursuing their interests on the international stage. It does not pull states towards compliance contrary to their interests, and the possibilities for what it can achieve are limited. It follows that many global problems are simply unsolvable. The book has important implications for debates about the role of international law in the foreign policy of the United States and other nations. The authors see international law as an instrument for advancing national policy, but one that is precarious and delicate, constantly changing in unpredictable ways based on non-legal changes in international politics. They believe that efforts to replace international politics with international law rest on unjustified optimism about international law's past accomplishments and present capacities.
This first work in the new Oxford Monographs in International Law Series to be edited by Ian Brownlie, QC, FBA, is a study of juridical bays. In 1958, against a backdrop of increasing international tensions regarding rights to and control of waters enclosed by coastal indentations, the world community, in a historic compromise reached under United Nations auspices, adopted Article 7 of the Geneva Convention "On the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone". Recognizing the need to balance the self-protective interests of coastal states and the international interests of a harmonious world community, the signatories to Article 7 decided, in effect, that once the water enclosed within a coastal indentation met the requirements set out under Article 7, an irrebutable presumption had been raised that the claimant state owned these waters as a matter of right against all other states. Well-drafted and remarkably unambiguous, Article 7 should have resolved the issue of unreasonably expansive bay claims forever, but, in fact, it did not. Disputes continued to arise. In the twenty years since its adoption, despite continuing national and international disputes, Article 7 has not received the analysis necessary to help it become a more reliable basis for conflict resolution in cases involving complex coastal configurations. This study, the first major examination of Article 7, interprets both its text and context and more importantly, offers solutions to some of the problems that continue to make the question of coastal bay-type waters sources of national and international conflict.
Maritime security is of vital importance to Australia and New Zealand as both countries depend on maritime transport for their economic survival. Since the events of September 11th 2001, significant questions have been raised as to whether Australia and New Zealand are adequately prepared for the consequences of a major disruption to global shipping following a terrorist attack on a leading regional port such as Hong Kong or Singapore. Considerable efforts have also been undertaken to improve responses to an array of maritime security threats, such as transnational crime, environmental pollution, and piracy and armed robbery.

This volume identifies those issues that particularly affect Australia and New Zealand’s maritime security, evaluating the issues from legal and political perspectives, and proposes methods for improving maritime security in the two countries. While the focus is primarily on Australia and New Zealand, the scope extends to regional considerations, addressing matters related to Pacific Island states, Southeast Asia and the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic region. The book also addresses strategic partnerships examining the influence of the United States, and analyses issues within the broad framework of international law and politics.

Maritime Security: International Law and Policy Perspectives from Australia and New Zealand will be of great interest to scholars of international law, international relations and maritime affairs, maritime industry professionals, private and government lawyers, as well as diplomats, consuls and government officials.

In 1949 the International Court of Justice (ICJ) handed down its first judgment in the Corfu Channel Case. In diffusing an early Cold War dispute, the Court articulated a set of legal principles which continue to shape our appreciation of the international legal order. Many of the issues dealt with by the Court in 1949 remain central questions of international law, including due diligence, forcible intervention and self-help, maritime operations, navigation in international straits and the concept of elementary considerations of humanity. The Court’s decision has been cited on numerous occasions in subsequent international litigation. Indeed, the relevance of this judgment goes far beyond the subject matter dealt with by the Court in 1949, extending to pressing problems such as trans-boundary pollution, terrorism and piracy. In short, it was and remains a thoroughly modern decision — a landmark for international law; and one which today warrants reconsideration.

Taking a critical approach, this book examines the decision’s influence on international law generally and on some fields of international law like the law of the sea and the law of international responsibility specifically. The book collects the commentary of a distinguished set of international law scholars, including four well-known international judges. The contributors consider not only the history of the Corfu Channel Judgment and its contribution to the development of international law, but also its resonance in many contemporary issues in the field of international law.

This book will be of particular interest to academics and students of International Law, International Relations and Legal History

Africa has experienced a number of territorial disputes over land and maritime boundaries, due in part to its colonial and post-colonial history. This book explores the legal, political, and historical nature of disputes over territory in the African continent, and critiques the content and application of contemporary International law to the resolution of African territorial and border disputes.

Drawing on central concepts of public international law such as sovereignty and jurisdiction, and socio-political concepts such as colonialism, ethnicity, nationality and self-determination, this book interrogates the intimate connection that peoples and nations have to territory and the severe disputes these may lead to. Gbenga Oduntan identifies the major principles of law at play in relation to territorial, and boundary disputes, and argues that the predominant use of foreign based adjudicatory mechanisms in attempting to deal with African boundary disputes alienates those institutions and mechanisms from African people and can contribute to the recurrence of conflicts and disputes in and among African territories. He suggests that the understanding and application of multidisciplinary dispute resolution mechanisms and strategies can allow for a more holistic and effective treatment of boundary disputes.

As an in depth study into the legal, socio-political and anthropological mechanisms involved in the understanding of territorial boundaries, and a unique synthesis of an African jurisprudence of international boundaries law, this book will be of great use and interest to students, researchers, and practitioners in African and Public International Law, International Relations, and decision-makers in need of better understanding the settlement of disputes over territorial boundaries in both Africa and the wider world.

This book considers the extent to which States are held accountable for breaches of jus cogens norms under international law. The concept of State accountability is distinguished from the doctrine of State responsibility and refers to an ad hoc practice in international relations that seeks to ensure States do not escape with impunity when they violate norms that are considered fundamental to the interests of the international community as a whole.

State Accountability under International Law sets forth a definition of State accountability and establishes a threshold against which the existence, or not, of State accountability can be determined. Using a Foucauldian influenced interpretive methodology, this book adopts a novel construction of State accountability as having legal, political and even moral characteristics. It argues that the international community seeks to hold States accountable utilising a variety of traditional and non-traditional responses that cumulatively recognise that the institutions that comprise and legitimise the State were instrumental in the particular breach. Using case studies taken from State practice from throughout the twentieth century and covering a range of geographic contexts, the conclusion is that there is evidence that State accountability, as it is conceptualised here, is evolving into a legal principle.

The book draws together the many academic theories relating to accountability that have arisen in various areas of international law including environmental law, human rights and trade law before going on to examine an emerging practice of State accountability. A variety of ad hoc attempts and informal mechanisms are assessed against the threshold of State accountability established, with emphasis being given to practical examples ranging from the accountability of Germany and Japan after World War Two to the current attempts to seek accountability from Russia for former crimes of the USSR.

The UN Security Council is entrusted under the UN Charter with primary responsibility for the maintenance and restoration of the international peace; it is the only body with the power to authorise military intervention legally and impose international sanctions where it decides. However, its decision-making process has hitherto been obscure and allegations of political bias have been made against the Security Council in its responses to potential international threats. Despite the rule of law featuring on the Security Council’s agenda for over a decade and a UN General Assembly declaration in 2012 establishing that the rule of law should apply internally to the UN, the Security Council has yet to formulate or incorporate a rule of law framework that would govern its decision-making process.

This book explains the necessity of a rule of law framework for the Security Council before analysing existing literature and UN documents on the domestic and international rule of law in search of concepts suitable for transposition to the arena of the Security Council. It emerges with eight core components, which form a bespoke rule of law framework for the Security Council. Against this framework, the Security Council’s decision-making process since the end of the Cold War is meticulously evaluated, illustrating explicitly where and how the rule of law has been undermined or neglected in its behaviour. Ultimately, the book concludes that the Security Council and other bodies are unwilling or unable adequately to regulate the decision-making process against a suitable rule of law framework, and argues that there exists a need for the external regulation of Council practice and judicial review of its decisions.

This three-volume Manual on International Maritime Law presents a systematic analysis of the history and contemporary development of international maritime law by leading contributors from across the world. Prepared in cooperation with the International Maritime Law Institute, the International Maritime Organization's research and training institute, this a uniquely comprehensive study of this fundamental area of international law. Volume I: The Law of the Sea addresses the major issues which arise in the law of the sea. It provides a detailed understanding of the historical development of the law of the sea; the role of the International Maritime Organization; the law surrounding maritime zones; the legal regime of islands; the international sea-bed area; the legal regime governing marine scientific research; the rights and obligations of land-locked and geographically disadvantaged states; the legal regime of Arctic and Antarctic; and the settlements of disputes. This volume also considers the ways in which human rights and the law of the sea interact. The forthcoming Volume II will address shipping law; Volume III will provide analysis of marine environmental law and maritime security law. The full three-volume Manual will set out the entirety of international maritime law, re-stating and re-examining its fundamental principles, how it is enacted, and the issues that are shaping its future. It will be a superlative resource for those working with or studying this area of law.
This three-volume Manual on International Maritime Law presents a systematic analysis of the history and contemporary development of international maritime law by leading contributors from across the world. Prepared in cooperation with the International Maritime Law Institute, the International Maritime Organization's research and training institute, this a uniquely comprehensive study of this fundamental area of international law. Volume II: Shipping Law provides a detailed understanding of the historical development of shipping law looking at concepts, sources, and international organisations relating to shipping law; nationality, registration and ownership of ships; ship sale and shipping contracts; ship management and ship finance; arrest of ships; international trade and shipping documents; carriage of goods, passengers and their luggage by sea; maritime labour law; law of maritime safety; law of marine collisions; law of salvage; law of wrecks; law of general average; law of towage; law of harbours and pilotage; limitation of liability for maritime claims; and law of marine insurance. Volume II published in October 2014 addresses the major issues which arise in the law of the sea. The forthcoming Volume III will provide analysis of marine environmental law and maritime security law. The full three-volume Manual will set out the entirety of international maritime law, re-stating and re-examining its fundamental principles, how it is enacted, and the issues that are shaping its future. It will be a superlative resource for those working with or studying this area of law.
"One of the Most Valuable Contributions to the History of International Law Yet Made" J.P. Bullington, Yale Law Review This history is divided into three sections. The first, The Age of the Prince, gives the history of fundamental doctrines of international law regulating the intercourse between states on land and sea in peace and war. The second, The Age of the Judge, is chiefly devoted to commercial relations, the development of neutrality and maritime law. The third, The Age of the Concert, addresses the conference method of adjusting international problems, tracing its development and accomplishments from its introduction at the Congress of Vienna through the recently established League of Nations. Much useful information on the social and economic forces that shaped the development of international law is provided. Originally published in 1928, it addresses several issues introduced or modified during the First World War, such as aerial warfare, the right to search neutral shipping and the protection of minorities, and an early assessment of the League of Nations. Sir Geoffrey Butler [1887-1929] was a Fellow of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, a Member of Parliament for the University of Cambridge and an expert on the procedures of the League of Nations. His books include The Tory Tradition: Bolinbroke, Disrali, Salisbury (1914), A Handbook to the League of Nations (1919, final rev. ed. 1928) and Studies in Statecraft (1920). Simon Maccoby, one of Butler's former students, was a notable historian of English politics and society. A prolific scholar and editor, his most important study is the six-volume English Radicalism (1935-1961). The most striking feature of this work is the method of treatment--quite the most effective which has yet been employed in dealing with the subject. (...) The author rarely, ventures a conclusion or an opinion, but when he does it usually reveals a strong sense of reality, and a thorough knowledge of the meaning of history. The compactness of the work reveals the immense amount of labor which must have been expended in its preparation. (...) Based on a wide knowledge of history, filtered through an objective and realistic brain, this book must take its place as one of the most valuable contributions to the history of international law yet made. J.P. Bullington, Yale Law Review 38 (1828-1929) 843, 845
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