More related to nervous system disease

Rosenberg’s Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurologic and Psychiatric Disease, Fifth Edition provides a comprehensive introduction and reference to the foundations and key practical aspects relevant to the majority of neurologic and psychiatric disease. A favorite of over three generations of students, clinicians and scholars, this new edition retains and expands the informative, concise and critical tone of the first edition. This is an essential reference for general medical practitioners, neurologists, psychiatrists, geneticists, and related professionals, and for the neuroscience and neurology research community. The content covers all aspects essential to the practice of neurogenetics to inform clinical diagnosis, treatment and genetic counseling. Every chapter has been thoroughly revised or newly commissioned to reflect the latest scientific and medical advances by an international team of leading scientists and clinicians. The contents have been expanded to include disorders for which a genetic basis has been recently identified, together with abundant original illustrations that convey and clarify the key points of the text in an attractive, didactic format.

Previous editions have established this book as the leading tutorial reference on neurogenetics. Researchers will find great value in the coverage of genomics, animal models and diagnostic methods along with a better understanding of the clinical implications. Clinicians will rely on the coverage of the basic science of neurogenetics and the methods for evaluating patients with biochemical abnormalities or gene mutations, including links to genetic testing for specific diseases.

Comprehensive coverage of the neurogenetic foundation of neurological and psychiatric diseaseDetailed introduction to both clinical and basic research implications of molecular and genetic understanding of the brainDetailed coverage of genomics, animal models and diagnostic methods with new coverage of evaluating patients with biochemical abnormalities or gene mutations
The field of neurology is being transformed, from a therapeutically nihilistic discipline with few effective treatments, to a therapeutic specialty which offers new, effective treatments for disorders of the brain and spinal cord. This remarkable transformation has bridged neuroscience, molecular medicine, and clinical investigation, and represents a major triumph for biomedical research. This book, which contains chapters by more than 29 internationally recognized authorities who have made major contributions to neurotherapeutics, tells the stories of how new treatments for disabling disorders of the nervous system, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and migraine, were developed, and explores evolving themes and technologies that offer hope for even more effective treatments and ultimately cures for currently untreatable disorders of the brain and spinal cord.

The first part of this book reviews the development of new therapies in neurology, from their inception in terms of basic science to their introduction into the clinical world. It also explores evolving themes and new technologies. This book will be of interest to everyone – clinicians and basic scientists alike – interested in diseases of the brain and spinal cord, and in the quest for new treatments for these disorders.

* Presents the evolution of the field of neurology into a therapeutic discipline
* Discusses lessons learned from past successes and applications to ongoing work
* Explores the future of this field
It can be reasonably anticipated that, over the next generations, the proportion of elderly people will remarkably increase and, with this, the number ofpersons suffering from acute (e.g. cerebral ischemia) or chronic neurodegenerative disorders. To date, approved drugs only alleviate the symptoms ofthese diseases (for instance, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer disease and L-dopa and dopamine-agonists in Parkinson disease), while none seems to stop the progression of the degenerative processes underlying them. The development of effective preventive or protective therapies has been impeded by the limitations of our knowledge of the causes and the mechanisms by which neurons die in neurodegenerative disorders. Evidence accumulated in the past 20 years indicated that the major excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate may play a role as neurotoxin in several conditions. In particular, the glutamatergic system dysfunction seems to be an early event working as a common pathway in the pathogenesis ofa large number ofacute and chronic neurological disorders, in strict conjunction with other important mechanisms, such as oxidative stress and energetic failure, and probably triggered by different mechanisms in various diseases. In consideration of that, drug discovery efforts over the last decade have been focused on the search for drugs that either reduce glutamate synaptic levels or block its postsynaptic effects. Despite numerous reviews on basic mechanisms and clinical aspects ofthe excitotoxic phenomenon, so far no comprehensive book has covered the topic in all its complexity, starting from basic pharmacological mechanisms, to .animal models of diseases and finally to clinical pathogenic and therapeutic implications.
Neurobiology of Brain Disorders is the first book directed primarily at basic scientists to offer a comprehensive overview of neurological and neuropsychiatric disease. This book links basic, translational, and clinical research, covering the genetic, developmental, molecular, and cellular mechanisms underlying all major categories of brain disorders. It offers students, postdoctoral fellows, and researchers in the diverse fields of neuroscience, neurobiology, neurology, and psychiatry the tools they need to obtain a basic background in the major neurological and psychiatric diseases, and to discern connections between basic research and these relevant clinical conditions.

This book addresses developmental, autoimmune, central, and peripheral neurodegeneration; infectious diseases; and diseases of higher function. The final chapters deal with broader issues, including some of the ethical concerns raised by neuroscience and a discussion of health disparities. Included in each chapter is coverage of the clinical condition, diagnosis, treatment, underlying mechanisms, relevant basic and translational research, and key unanswered questions. Written and edited by a diverse team of international experts, Neurobiology of Brain Disorders is essential reading for anyone wishing to explore the basic science underlying neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases.

Links basic, translational, and clinical research on disorders of the nervous system, creating a format for study that will accelerate disease prevention and treatmentCovers a vast array of neurological disorders, including ADHD, Down syndrome, autism, muscular dystrophy, diabetes, TBI, Parkinson, Huntington, Alzheimer, OCD, PTSD, schizophrenia, depression, and painIllustrated in full colorEach chapter provides in-text summary points, special feature boxes, and research questionsProvides an up-to-date synthesis of primary source material
Objective Biometric Methods for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Nervous System Disorders provides a new and unifying methodological framework, introducing new objective biometrics to characterize patterns of sensory motor control underlying symptoms. Its goal is to radically transform the ways in which disorders of the nervous system are currently diagnosed, tracked, researched and treated. This book introduces new ways to bring the laboratory to the clinical setting, to schools and to settings of occupational and physical therapy. Ready-to-use, graphic user interfaces are introduced to provide outcome measures from wearable sensors that automatically assess in near real time the effectiveness of interventions. Lastly, examples of how the new framework has been effectively utilized in the context of clinical trials are provided. Provides methods and their implementation using real data and simple computer programs that students and researchers from less technically trained fields can useDescribes the motivation for methods according to the problem domain in light of existing methods for each chapter, along with their lack of neuroscientific foundation and invalid statistical assumptionsAccompanied by a companion website which contains Appendices with MATLAB codes and data samples to generate the graphics displayed in all chapter figuresFeatures videos illustrating the experimental set up for scenarios and methods described in each chapterIncludes step-by-step explanations of paradigms in each clinical or typical sample population to enable reproducibility of the study across different clinical phenotypes and levels of expertise in sports, the performing arts, or mere individual academic predispositions/preferences
Conn’s Translational Neuroscience provides a comprehensive overview reflecting the depth and breadth of the field of translational neuroscience, with input from a distinguished panel of basic and clinical investigators. Progress has continued in understanding the brain at the molecular, anatomic, and physiological levels in the years following the 'Decade of the Brain,' with the results providing insight into the underlying basis of many neurological disease processes.

This book alternates scientific and clinical chapters that explain the basic science underlying neurological processes and then relates that science to the understanding of neurological disorders and their treatment. Chapters cover disorders of the spinal cord, neuronal migration, the autonomic nervous system, the limbic system, ocular motility, and the basal ganglia, as well as demyelinating disorders, stroke, dementia and abnormalities of cognition, congenital chromosomal and genetic abnormalities, Parkinson's disease, nerve trauma, peripheral neuropathy, aphasias, sleep disorders, and myasthenia gravis.

In addition to concise summaries of the most recent biochemical, physiological, anatomical, and behavioral advances, the chapters summarize current findings on neuronal gene expression and protein synthesis at the molecular level. Authoritative and comprehensive, Conn’s Translational Neuroscience provides a fully up-to-date and readily accessible guide to brain functions at the cellular and molecular level, as well as a clear demonstration of their emerging diagnostic and therapeutic importance.

Provides a fully up-to-date and readily accessible guide to brain functions at the cellular and molecular level, while also clearly demonstrating their emerging diagnostic and therapeutic importanceFeatures contributions from leading global basic and clinical investigators in the fieldProvides a great resource for researchers and practitioners interested in the basic science underlying neurological processesRelates and translates the current science to the understanding of neurological disorders and their treatment
The study of the brain continues to expand at a rapid pace providing fascinating insights into the basic mechanisms underlying nervous system illnesses. New tools, ranging from genome sequencing to non-invasive imaging, and research fueled by public and private investment in biomedical research has been transformative in our understanding of nervous system diseases and has led to an explosion of published primary research articles.

Diseases of the Nervous System summarizes the current state of basic and clinical knowledge for the most common neurological and neuropsychiatric conditions. In a systematic progression, each chapter covers either a single disease or a group of related disorders ranging from static insults to primary and secondary progressive neurodegenerative diseases, neurodevelopmental illnesses, illnesses resulting from nervous system infection and neuropsychiatric conditions. Chapters follow a common format and are stand-alone units, each covering disease history, clinical presentation, disease mechanisms and treatment protocols. Dr. Sontheimer also includes two chapters which discuss common concepts shared among the disorders and how new findings are being translated from the bench to the bedside. In a final chapter, he explains the most commonly used neuroscience jargon. The chapters address controversial issues in current day neuroscience research including translational research, drug discovery, ethical issues, and the promises of personalized medicine.

This book provides an introduction for course adoption and an introductory tutorial for students, scholars, researchers and medical professionals interested in learning the state of the art concerning our understanding and treatment of diseases of the nervous system.

2016 PROSE Award winner of the Best Textbook Award in Biological & Life SciencesProvides a focused tutorial introduction to the core diseases of the nervous systemIncludes comprehensive introductions to Stroke, Epilepsy, Alzheimer’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease, Huntington’s Disease, ALS, Head and Spinal Cord Trauma, Multiple Sclerosis, Brain Tumors, Depression, Schizophrenia and many other diseases of the nervous systemCovers more than 40 diseases from the foundational science to the best treatment protocolsIncludes discussions of translational research, drug discovery, personalized medicine, ethics, and neuroscience
Brain Mapping: The Disorders is the first comprehensive text to describe the uses of the latest brain mapping technologies in the evaluation of patients with neurological, neurosurgical and psychiatric disorders. With contributions from the leading figures in the field, this heavily illustrated text is organized by disorders of brain systems, with specific examples of how one should use current neuroimaging techniques to evaluate patients with specific cerebral disorders. Comprehensive in scope, the text discusses patient evaluations using the wide range of modern magnetic resonance imaging techniques, positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, optical intrinsic signal imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography, and transcranial magnetic stimulation. The third in this brain mapping series, Brain Mapping: The Disorders, is the ultimate text for anyone interested in the use of brain mapping techniques to study patients with disorders of the central nervous system.Provides a comprehensive, in-depth view of the current brain mapping techniques as they are used in the evaluation of patients with cerebral disordersHeavily illustrated to provide actual examples of the use of the specific techniquesIncludes contributions from the leaders in the field ensure authoritative and up-to-date materialCompletes the trilogy of three brain mapping texts dealing, respectively, with the methods, the applications of these methods in the normal brain and in patients with neurological, neurosurgical, and psychiatric disorders
Phytochemicals Signal Transduction and Neurological Disorders Phytochemicals are heterogeneous group of bioactive compounds produced by plants, which are extensively researched by scientists for their health-promoting potentials in human diseases. Unlike vitamins and minerals, phytochemicals are not required for sustaining cell viability, but they play an important role in protecting tissues and cells from the harmful effects of oxidative stress and inflammation. Examples of phytochemicals include catechins, resveratrol, ginkgo biloba, curcumin, and sulfur compounds found in garlic. Although, the precise molecular mechanisms associated with beneficial effects of phytochemicals still remain the subject of intense investigations, but it is becoming increasingly evident that phytochemicals mediate their effects by counteracting, reducing, and repairing the damage caused by oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. In addition, phytochemicals also stimulate the synthesis of adaptive enzymes and proteins through the stimulation of a transcription factor called Nrf2 and induction of phase II detoxifying enzymes. Consumption of phytochemicals induces neurohormetic response that results in the expression of adaptive stress-resistance genes that are responsible for encoding antioxidant enzymes, protein chaperones, and neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Based on the stimulation of signal transduction network and adaptive stress-resistance genes, it is proposed that the use of phytochemicals from childhood to old age along with regular exercise is an important strategy for maintaining normal aging and delaying onset of age-related neurological disorders (stroke, Alzheimer disease, and Parkinson disease). Phytochemicals Signal Transduction and Neurological Disorders presents readers with cutting edge and comprehensive information not only on bioavailability, and mechanism of action of phytochemicals in the brain, but also provides the molecular mechanism associated with beneficial effects of phytochemicals in neurotraumatic (stroke, spinal cord trauma, and traumatic brain injury) and neurodegenerative (Alzheimers disease, Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) diseases.
Some well-known age-related neurological diseases include Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, deafness, and blindness. Even more common are the problems of aging which are not due to disease but to more subtle impairments in neurobiological systems, including impairments in vision, memory loss, muscle weakening, and loss of reproductive functions, changes in body weight, and sleeplessness. As the average age of our society increases, diseases of aging continue to become more common, and conditions associated with aging need more attention by doctors and researchers. In 1991, patients over the age of 65 saw their doctors an average of eight times per year. Research funding is provided by the Neuroscience and Neuropsychology of Aging (NNA) Program, which is run by the National Institute on Aging. This book offers a comprehensive overview of all topics related to functional impairments which are related to the aging brain and nervous system. It is organized according to four general functions: movement, senses, memory, and neuroendocrine regulation. Written by the leading researchers in the field, this comprehensive work addresses both impairments associated with diseases and not associated with diseases, making it easier to understand the mechanisms involved. Functional Neurobiology of Aging is an important reference for professionals and students involved in aging research, as well as physicians who need to recognize and understand age-related impairments.Organized by function, making it easy to find and understand the materialAddresses impairments both associated with diseases and not associated with diseasesWritten by leading researchers in the fieldMost comprehensive source of information on the neurobiology of aging
Thermoregulation, Part I: From Basic Neuroscience to Clinical Neurology, Volume 154, not only reviews how body temperature regulation changes in neurological diseases, but also how this aspect affects the course and outcomes of each disease. Other sections of the volume review three therapeutic approaches that are aimed at manipulating body temperature, including induced hypothermia, induced hyperthermia and antipyretic therapy. The book is comprised of nine sections across two volumes, five dealing with the basic aspects of body temperature regulation and four dealing with the clinical aspects. Basic sections cover the Thermoregulation system, Thermoreceptors, Thermoeffectors, Neural pathways, and Thermoregulation as a homeostatic function.

In addition, the book covers the physiology and neuroanatomy of the thermoregulation system and provides descriptions of how the regulation of body temperature intervenes with other physiological functions (such as sleep, osmoregulation, and immunity), stress, exercise and aging. Basic sections serve as an introduction to the four clinical sections: Body Temperature, Clinical Significance, Abnormal Body Temperature, Thermoregulation in Neurological Disease and Therapeutic Interventions.

Presents a clear, logical pathway from the fundamental physiology of thermoregulation, through neurobiology, to clinical applications and diseaseEnables researchers and clinicians to better understand the value of temperature measurement in disease and the use of temperature as a therapy Integrates content from a broad field of research, including topics on the molecular physiology of temperature receptors, to the management of accidental hypothermia
Trace Amines and Neurological Disorders: Potential Mechanisms and Risk Factors explores trace amines which, under normal conditions, are present in the mammalian brain and peripheral nervous tissues at very low (nanomolar) concentrations. However, in a diverse array of human pathologies ranging from substance abuse, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, eating disorders, schizophrenia, and other neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases, the levels of trace amines are unusually high with an imbalance in their functions. Furthermore, the rapid turnover of trace amines is evidenced by their dramatic increases following treatment with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI) or deletion of the MAO genes. This suggests that the concentration of trace amines may be considerably higher at neuronal synapses than predicted by steady-state measures, implicating some pathophysiological role. Therefore, understanding molecular mechanisms and developing selective agonists and antagonists for trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) has become a good approach for treating these diseases. Although the effects of trace amines at low physiological concentrations in mammalian species have been difficult to demonstrate, they may serve to maintain the neuronal activity of other monoamine neurotransmitters by possessing postsynaptic modulatory effects, particularly dopamine and serotonin, within defined physiological limits. Such an effect of trace amines makes them ideal candidates for the development of novel therapeutics for a wide range of human disorders. This book presents up-to-date, cutting-edge, and comprehensive information on the link between trace amines and neurological disorders. Focuses on recent findings on trace amines, providing insights into the functional significance, molecular mechanisms, and biological relevance of TAARS in neurological disordersEdited work with chapters authored by leaders in the field from around the globe, the broadest, most expert coverage availableProvides cutting-edge research on trace amines-mediated signaling in vertebrate model systems
The evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a clinical tool, be it a diagnostic technique, a preventive methodology, or a therapeutic intervention, is an im portant responsibility of physicians. The history of medicine is characterized by the authoritarianisms of teachers and of organizations giving way to the clinical experience of physicians; authoritarian dictum was replaced by case report and then by case series. As physicians learned to substitute the analysis of data for the inconsistencies of dictums and anecdotes, the problems of the case series as an investigative tool became more evident: patient selection criteria, measurements of outcome, significance of results, and extrapolation of conclusions to the community of patients. In response to these issues, the methodology of the controlled clinical trial has evolved and with it the instru ments of study design and of biostatistics as aids to study design and data analysis. The medical - surgical armamentarium has evolved from being dependent solely upon the observations and conclusions of a skilled clinician to being constructed upon the systematic collection and evaluation of data by a team of skilled clinicians and their statistical colleagues: this is the controlled clinical trial. During the past two decades, the evaluation of clinical approaches to pre vention and therapy has become particularly important to clinicians concerned with nervous system dysfunction. There has been and continues to be an explosion of information from the basic neurosciences and from the applica tion of biotechnology to the nervous system.
Neuro-Otology: a volume in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, provides a comprehensive translational reference on the disorders of the peripheral and central vestibular system. The volume is aimed at serving clinical neurologists who wish to know the most current established information related to dizziness and disequilibrium from a clinical, yet scholarly, perspective.

This handbook sets the new standard for comprehensive multi-authored textbooks in the field of neuro-otology. The volume is divided into three sections, including basic aspects, diagnostic and therapeutic management, and neuro-otologic disorders. Internationally acclaimed chapter authors represent a broad spectrum of areas of expertise, chosen for their ability to write clearly and concisely with an eye toward a clinical audience.

The Basic Aspects section is brief and covers the material in sufficient depth necessary for understanding later translational and clinical material. The Diagnostic and Therapeutic Management section covers all of the essential topics in the evaluation and treatment of patients with dizziness and disequilibrium. The section on Neuro-otologic Disorders is the largest portion of the volume and addresses every major diagnostic category in the field.

Synthesizes widely dispersed information on the anatomy and physiology of neuro-otologic conditions into one comprehensive resourceFeatures input from renowned international authors in basic science, otology, and neurosciencePresents the latest assessment of the techniques needed to diagnose and treat patients with dizziness, vertigo, and imbalanceProvides the reader with an updated, in-depth review of the clinically relevant science and the clinical approach to those disorders of the peripheral and central vestibular system
Glial Physiology and Pathophysiology provides a comprehensive, advanced text on the biology and pathology of glial cells.

Coverae includes:
the morphology and interrelationships between glial cells and neurones in different parts of the nervous systems the cellular physiology of the different kinds of glial cells the mechanisms of intra- and inter-cellular signalling in glial networks the mechanisms of glial-neuronal communications the role of glial cells in synaptic plasticity, neuronal survival and development of nervous system the cellular and molecular mechanisms of metabolic neuronal-glial interactions the role of glia in nervous system pathology, including pathology of glial cells and associated diseases - for example, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's, Alexander disease and Parkinson's Neuroglia oversee the birth and development of neurones, the establishment of interneuronal connections (the 'connectome'), the maintenance and removal of these inter-neuronal connections, writing of the nervous system components, adult neurogenesis, the energetics of nervous tissue, metabolism of neurotransmitters, regulation of ion composition of the interstitial space and many, many more homeostatic functions. This book primes the reader towards the notion that nervous tissue is not divided into more important and less important cells. The nervous tissue functions because of the coherent and concerted action of many different cell types, each contributing to an ultimate output. This reaches its zenith in humans, with the creation of thoughts, underlying acquisition of knowledge, its analysis and synthesis, and contemplating the Universe and our place in it.
An up-to-date and fully referenced text on the most numerous cells in the human brain Detailed coverage of the morphology and interrelationships between glial cells and neurones in different parts of the nervous system Describes the role og glial cells in neuropathology Focus boxes highlight key points and summarise important facts Companion website with downloadable figures and slides
Consciousness is one of the most significant scientific problems today. Renewed interest in the nature of consciousness - a phenomenon long considered not to be scientifically explorable, as well as increasingly widespread availability of multimodal functional brain imaging techniques (EEG, ERP, MEG, fMRI and PET), now offer the possibility of detailed, integrated exploration of the neural, behavioral, and computational correlates of consciousness. The present volume aims to confront the latest theoretical insights in the scientific study of human consciousness with the most recent behavioral, neuroimaging, electrophysiological, pharmacological and neuropathological data on brain function in altered states of consciousness such as: brain death, coma, vegetative state, minimally conscious state, locked-in syndrome, dementia, epilepsy, schizophrenia, hysteria, general anesthesia, sleep, hypnosis, and hallucinations. The interest of this is threefold. First, patients with altered states of consciousness continue to represent a major clinical problem in terms of clinical assessment of consciousness and daily management. Second, the exploration of brain function in altered states of consciousness represents a unique lesional approach to the scientific study of consciousness and adds to the worldwide effort to identify the "neural correlate of consciousness". Third, new scientific insights in this field have major ethical and social implications regarding our care for these patients.
In the rapidly-evolving landscape of neurosciences, it is no easy task to select a limited array of topics to present in a text such as this. The current volume takes as its purpose to provide a representative survey of the current science of brain repair for those seeking to establish a foundation in the field or to replenish a prior knowledge base that may have lapsed in its currency. It also hopes to offer insights into what remains elusive to our collective investigations, defining the “frontiers” of brain repair for those that are currently immersed in the exciting intersection of biological advances and neuroscientific discoveries.

In Chapter 1 the fundamentals of imaging transplanted cells is discussed with emphasis on animal models as well as the horizon for clinical trials. Then, detailed methods on the culture of neural stem cells is reviewed as a foundation for approaching therapeutic goals. Chapter 3 presents the broad scope of animal models that serve as the foundation for developmental and pre-clinical investigation, with mention of recent genetically engineered mouse models that represent the best models for studying disease development and treatment. Chapter 4 provides background on the delivery techniques to animals and patients that are available, providing vital information on the subtleties of technique necessary for optimal cellular grafting. Chapters 5 and 6 discuss new and evolving information on the origins of brain tumors and the indelible role of stromal and microenvironmental influences on oncogenesis and tumor progression. Subsequently, the utility of neural stem cells as cellular vehicles to deliver chemotherapeutics to broad neuropathology is reviewed. In Chapter 8 the scope of treating brain tumors is expanded beyond stem cells, to present the best biological interventions to improve upon current treatment options for brain malignancy. The last two chapters present a comprehensive review on stem cell and gene therapy options for treating cerebrovascular and neurovascular pathology.

In amassing this collection, my intention has been to provide the reader with a broad introduction into molecular imaging, stem cell biology, cell therapy, animal models, central nervous system malignancies, stroke, and neurodegeneration. My hope is that Frontiers of Brain Repair will be the intellectual soil from which a deeply rooted and well-nourished vintage of neuroscience will arise.

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