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This book presents narratives, perspectives and policies on the Arctic and brings to fore the strategies of five Asian countries - China, India, Japan, Republic of Korea and Singapore who were granted the status of Permanent Observers in the Arctic Council in 2013. The book also captures Arctic countries’ reactions to Asian approaches, and their expectations from these countries.

The melting of the polar sea-ice induced by climate change has placed the Arctic region in the forefront of global scientific, economic, strategic and academic interest. The discourse involves a number of issues such as claims of the littoral countries to the continental shelves of the region, the management and exploitation of its living and non-living resources, the rights and interests of indigenous communities, and the prospects of new ice-free shipping routes. The contemporary discourse also suggests that the Arctic region presents challenges and offers opportunities for the international community.

These issues have given rise to new geopolitical, geoeconomic, and geostrategic dynamics amongst the Arctic littorals, and led to the growing interest of non-Arctic states in the affairs of the Arctic. It is evident that the Asian countries have a variety of interests in the Arctic, and the grant of Permanent Observer status to these countries is an acknowledgement of their capabilities. These countries are keen to explore opportunities in the Arctic, and have begun to formulate appropriate long-term national strategies. The preliminary approach of the Asian Observer countries has rightly been to graduate from ‘involvement’ to ‘engagement’ in the Arctic, which seems to have generated significant interest amongst analysts. This book helps to understand the approaches of various Arctic and non-Arctic stakeholders, in light of the evolving dynamics in the region.

This book explores economic concepts related to disaster losses, describes mechanisms that determine the economic consequences of a disaster, and reviews methodologies for making decisions regarding risk management and adaptation. The author addresses the need for better understanding of the consequences of disasters and reviews and analyzes three scientific debates on linkage between disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change. The first involves the existence and magnitude of long-term economic impact of natural disasters on development. The second is the disagreement over whether any development is the proper solution to high vulnerability to disaster risk. The third debate involves the difficulty of drawing connections between natural disasters and climate change and the challenge in managing them through an integrated strategy. The introduction describes economic views of disaster, including direct and indirect costs, output and welfare losses, and use of econometric tools to measure losses. The next section defines disaster risk, delineates between “good” and “bad” risk-taking, and discusses a pathway to balanced growth. A section entitled “Trends in Hazards and the Role of Climate Change” sets scenarios for climate change analysis, discusses statistical and physical models for downscaling global climate scenarios to extreme event scenarios, and considers how to consider extremes of hot and cold, storms, wind, drought and flood. Another section analyzes case studies on hurricanes and the US coastline; sea-level rises and storm surge in Copenhagen; and heavy precipitation in Mumbai. A section on Methodologies for disaster risk management includes a study on cost-benefit analysis of coastal protections in New Orleans, and one on early-warning systems in developing countries. The next section outlines decision-making in disaster risk management, including robust decision-making, No-regret and No-risk strategies; and strategies that reduce time horizons for decision-making. Among the conclusions is the assertion that risk management policies must recognize the benefits of risk-taking and avoid suppressing it entirely. The main message is that a combination of disaster-risk-reduction, resilience-building and adaptation policies can yield large potential gains and synergies.
This book explores the environmental competitiveness of 133 countries around the world, presenting an index evaluation system to facilitate a comparative analysis of environmental competitiveness on a global scale. This is a new way to measure competitiveness in the light of the contradiction between world economic development and environmental protection. Global environmental competitiveness covers five aspects: the ecological environment, resources environment, environmental management, environmental impacts and environmental coordination. The authors use longitudinal study and horizontal analysis, combining qualitative and quantitative analysis methods so as to conduct an in-depth study of theoretical, empirical and methodological issues of global environmental competitiveness.

The work is presented here in three main parts beginning with the theory, technical road-map and analytical approach used. The second part reports on the countries as evaluation objects, analyzing the development status of global environmental competitiveness as a whole and revealing the strengths and weaknesses of each country’s environmental competitiveness. Basic paths and strategies to enhance the competitiveness level are presented. In the third part the reader will discover a sub-report and evaluation of the environmental competitiveness for 133 countries around the world, revealing the characteristics and relative differences of countries representing different levels of development, in order to provide an important decision-making reference to those considering environmental economic policies, especially those considering accelerating a green economic transformation and enhancing environmental competitiveness.

This book will appeal to scholars and professionals with an interest in environmental issues and environmental competitiveness at a global level, as well as those with an interest in each of the 133 countries analyzed in this text, including environmental policy makers in those countries.

The international framework for a climate change agreement is up for review as the initial Kyoto period to 2012 comes to an end. Though there has been much enthusiasm from political and environmental groups, the underlying economics and politics remain highly controversial. This book takes a cool headed look at the critical roadblocks to agreement, examining the economics of climate change, the incentives of the main players (the US, EU, China) and examines the policies governments can put in place to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and ultimately shift our economies onto a low-carbon path. The volume brings together leading climate change policy experts to set out the economic analysis and the nature of the negotiations at Copenhagen and beyond. In addition to reviewing the main issues discussed above, a number of the articles question the basis of much of the climate change consensus, and debate the Stern Report's main findings. The book is in four parts. Following an overview of the main issues, the first part is a reassessment of the economics of climate change. This is fundamental to the rest of the volume, and it contains new material which goes well beyond what might be called the new conventional wisdom. The second part looks at the geography of the costs and benefits of climate change - the very different perspectives of Africa, China, the US and Europe. These chapters provide a building block to considering the prospects for a new global agreement - the very different interests that will have to be reconciled at Copenhagen and beyond. The third part looks at policy instruments at the global level (whereas much of the literature to date is nationally and regionally based). Trading and R&D feature in the chapters, but so too do more radical unilateral options, including geo-engineering. Part four turns to the institutional architecture - drawing on evidence from previous attempts in other areas, as well as proposals for new bodies.
This book contains a selection of papers that have been prepared for the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on the Economics of Atmospheric Pollution, that took place in Wageningen, The Netherlands, November 1994, hosted by Wageningen Agricultural University and sponsored by NATO Scientific and Environmental Affairs Division. Participants from the USA and a large number of countries in Western, Central and Eastern Europe have participated to discuss the economic aspects of transboundary air pollution and climate change. A number of selected papers have been reviewed and revised on the basis of the comments provided. The editors kindly acknowledge the support of Prof. Charles Kolstad, University of California, Santa Barbara, and Prof. Stef Proost, Center for Economic Studies, Catholic University Leuven, for reviewing several chapters of the book. Also the assistance of several anonymous reviewers is kindly acknowledged. We hope that the book will contribute to a better understanding of the most relevant issues in the area of international policymaking on transboundary pollution and climate change, and that it contributes to further economic analysis in this interesting research area. The topic of transboundary pollution related to climate change, acidification and tropospheric ozone will in the coming decades continue to be relevant for all countries in the world. Ekko van Ierland Kazimierz Gorka WageningeniCracow, June 1996 CONTENTS 1 On tbe Economics of Atmospberic Pollution Ekko van IerJand Wageningen Agricultural University, The Netherlands.
International climate change policy can be broadly divided into two periods: A first period, where a broad consensus was reached to tackle the risk of global warming in a coordinated global effort, and a second period, where this consensus was finally framed into a concrete policy. The first period started at the "Earth Summit" of Rio de Janeiro in 1992, where the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was opened for signature. The UNFCCC was subsequently signed and ratified by 174 countries, making it one of the most accepted international rd treaties ever. The second period was initiated at the 3 Conference of the Parties (COP3) to the UNFCCC in Kyoto in 1997, which produced the Kyoto Protocol (KP). Till now, eighty-four countries have signed the Kyoto Protocol, but only twelve ratified it. A major reason for this slow ratification is that most operational details of the Kyoto Protocol were not decided in Kyoto but deferred to following conferences. This deferral of the details, while probably appropriate to initially reach an agreement, is a major stepping stone for a speedy ratification of the protocol. National policy makers and their constituencies, who would ultimately bear the cost of Kyoto, are generally not prepared to ratify a treaty that could mean anything, from an unsustainable strict regime of international control of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to an "L-regime" ofloopholes, or from a pure market-based international carbon trading to a regime of huge international carbon tax funds.
An urgent case for climate change action that forcefully sets out, in economic, ethical, and political terms, the dangers of delay and the benefits of action.

The risks of climate change are potentially immense. The benefits of taking action are also clear: we can see that economic development, reduced emissions, and creative adaptation go hand in hand. A committed and strong low-carbon transition could trigger a new wave of economic and technological transformation and investment, a new era of global and sustainable prosperity. Why, then, are we waiting? In this book, Nicholas Stern explains why, notwithstanding the great attractions of a new path, it has been so difficult to tackle climate change effectively. He makes a compelling case for climate action now and sets out the forms that action should take.

Stern argues that the risks and costs of climate change are worse than estimated in the landmark Stern Review in 2006—and far worse than implied by standard economic models. He reminds us that we have a choice. We can rely on past technologies, methods, and institutions—or we can embrace change, innovation, and international collaboration. The first might bring us some short-term growth but would lead eventually to chaos, conflict, and destruction. The second could bring about better lives for all and growth that is sustainable over the long term, and help win the battle against worldwide poverty. The science warns of the dangers of neglect; the economics and technology show what we can do and the great benefits that will follow; an examination of the ethics points strongly to a moral imperative for action. Why are we waiting?

Climate change is one of the major global environmental problems, one that has the potential to confront us with great costs during the decades to come. Climate change is caused by emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO). As z deforestation leads to CO emissions and growing forests sequester CO, forestry z z projects provide us with options to mitigate CO effects. This study analyses the z contribution Jorestry projects can make within the context of climate change. The contribution of forestry projects is here discussed on two levels. On a first level, the COz effect of individual projects is analysed. On a second level, the study asks whether the analysis of forestry projects can contribute to questions on climate change which have been discussed in the economic literature during the past two decades. While most studies on forestry projects focus on particular details, predominantly on technical issues, this study takes a rather broad perspective, drawing together different relevant aspects: the stability of international agreements is discussed, costs and benefIts of reducing GHG emissions in industrial countries are reviewed, the underlying causes of deforestation are analysed and insights from resource economics are taken into consideration. Such a wide perspectiveallows the identifIcation, discussion and appreciation of problems and opportunities associated with forestry projects in the context of climate change which are otherwise not recognised.
This book demonstrates the challenges and opportunities of climate change actions in developing countries and primarily focuses on case studies in Indonesia, the world’s fourth most populous country. The most important feature of the book is its examination of multiple facets of climate change issues in Indonesia, which allows readers to understand the complexity of climate change in developing countries: the synergies and trade-offs between different climate change actions as well as between climate and development priorities. Another unique feature is that it was jointly written by Indonesian and international authors, as well as by academics and development practitioners. This book addresses questions concerning mitigation measures in major sectors with original analyses of aspects including energy subsidies, sectoral energy efficiencies in manufacturing sectors, forest concessions, energy-saving labeling schemes, policy mixes for the urban transportation sector, and the introduction of waste-to-energy technologies.
The book provides first-hand knowledge and data on energy and the institutional realities in Indonesia, which are not widely and readily available to an international audience. It offers a valuable reference guide for professionals working for governments and NGOs and donor agencies in the fields of climate change and development in developing countries. This work is also a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students of economics and environmental and development studies, in particular those who are interested in the synergies and conflicts between climate change and development.
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