Today, most of the sediments of the Tandilia basin are found in South Africa due to the breakup of the continents, which began in the Jurassic. This partly accounts for the difficulty in interpreting the geology of Tandilia. Apart from its extreme age and almost complete lack of fossil remains, for a long time the tectonics that affected the whole area presented a real challenge, as horst and graben structures added to the difficulty of geological correlations. Despite being 700 Ma old, most of the physical-chemical properties of the sediments have remained unchanged. The Microbially Induced Sedimentary Structures (MISS) found in the tidal and peritidal deposits also hold untouched information on the mystery of the beginning of life on earth.
The fact that the Buenos Aires province is the country’s first non-metallic productive center together with the high quality of its clay deposits, its easy access from main routes and proximity to large consumer centers have made these materials highly important in the province’s construction industry.
The Late Paleozoic rare-element pegmatites of the HPPP, Oberpfalz-SE, Germany, rank among the largest concentrations in Europe. The biggest pegmatite of this mining district totals 4.4 million tons of ore (Hagendorf-South). The mining history of the HPPP is restricted to the 20th century, when local entrepreneurs started mining operations in search of ceramic raw materials, feldspar and quartz. Today the “Silbergrube Aplite” is still worked for feldspar. The traditional mining of pegmatitic and aplitic rocks in Central Europe, such as the Bohemian Massif, which is shared by Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland and Austria, has been focused on these industrial minerals. In addition to these major commodities, lithium was mined for a period of time. But even today many of these pegmatites of calc-alkaline affiliation have not lost their appeal to mineralogists and mineral enthusiasts for their wealth of minerals that contain P, Nb, Ta, Li, Be, B, U, Th, Sc, Ti and Sn. The most favorable crustal section to bring about pegmatitic rocks of this type, encompassing pegmatoids, metapegmatites, reactivated pseudopegmatites and pegmatites sensu stricto is the ensialic orogen,exemplified by the Variscan (Hercynian) Orogen, which geodynamically connects the Paleozoic pegmatite provinces in North America and Europe. The geological history of the HPPP, however, goes much further than the Carboniferous-Permian magmatic activity, when the last structural disturbances of the Variscan orogeny affected the NE-Bavarian Basement between 450 and 330 Ma. During this time mafic magmatic rocks together with calcareous and arenaceous sediments were converted into paragneisses, calcsilicate rocks, and amphibolites. It is the period of time when tectonic shortening led to over thrusting and when the emplacement of nappes and the architectural elements of the ensialic orogen began taking shape. During the Late Permian, the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic, the HPPP did not lie idle in geological terms; hypogene and supergene alteration continued and found its most recent expression in alluvial-fluvial “nigrine” placer deposits, which resulted from the unroofing of the pegmatites and aplites in the HPPP and can be used even outside HPPP as an ore guide to pegmatites.
In this book, an attempt has been made to draw together the various principles and practices within paleomagnetism in a consistent and up-to-date manner. It includes many practical examples that illustrate various applications of paleomagnetism. A companion software package implements the theory explained in the text.
Audience: This volume is aimed at professional Earth Scientists using paleomagnetic data for their research. It is also suitable for use as a text book for students in courses with a paleomagnetic content. In addition, this volume will be of value to other professionals with an interest in the analysis of vector and tensor data in general.
This book focuses on the use of high-resolution geophysical techniques, field observations and modeling to investigate the morphodynamics of estuaries on both glaciated and non-glaciated coasts and on different time scales. Papers in this book offer a new approach to nearshore and estuary studies, with an emphasis on multidisciplinary techniques and data integration. Results of these studies have important implications for estuary resource management and shoreline stability. This book will be of interest to sedimentologists, coastal and Quaternary geologists, environmental scientists, and coastal managers.
This book documents how researchers from different geo-scientific disciplines have jointly analysed the structural, thermal, and sedimentary evolution as well as fluid dynamics of a complex sedimentary basin system which has experienced a variety of activation and reactivation impulses as well as intense salt tectonics. In this book we have summarized our geological, geophysical and geochemical understanding of some of the most important processes affecting sedimentary basins in general and our view on the evolution of one of the largest, best explored and most complex continental sedimentary basins on Earth: The Central European Basin System.