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Somewhere between 1910 and 1970, architecture changed. Now that modern architecture has become familiar (sometimes celebrated, sometimes vilified), it's hard to imagine how novel it once seemed. Expensive buildings were transformed from ornamental fancies which referred to the classical and medieval pasts into strikingly plain reflections of novel materials, functions, and technologies. Modern architecture promised the transformation of cities from overcrowded conurbations characterised by packed slums and dirty industries to spacious realms of generous housing and clean mechanised production set in parkland. At certain times and in certain cultures, it stood for the liberation of the future from the past. This Very Short Introduction explores the technical innovations that opened-up the cultural and intellectual opportunities for modern architecture to happen. Adam Sharr shows how the invention of steel and reinforced concrete radically altered possibilities for shaping buildings, transforming what architects were able to imagine, as did new systems for air conditioning and lighting. While architects weren't responsible for these innovations, they were among the first to appreciate how they could make the world look and feel different, in connection with imagery from other spheres like modern art and industrial design. Focusing on a selection of modern buildings that also symbolize bigger cultural ideas, Sharr discusses what modern architecture was like, why it was like that, and how it was imagined. Considering the work of some of the historians and critics who helped to shape modern architecture, he demonstrates how the field owes as much to its storytellers as to its buildings. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
This is the second part of a major theoretical work by Patrik Schumacher, which outlines how the discipline of architecture should be understood as its own distinct system of communication. Autopoeisis comes from the Greek and means literally self-production; it was first adopted in biology in the 1970s to describe the essential characteristics of life as a circular self-organizing system and has since been transposed into a theory of social systems. This new approach offers architecture an arsenal of general comparative concepts. It allows architecture to be understood as a distinct discipline, which can be analyzed in elaborate detail while at the same time offering insightful comparisons with other subject areas, such as art, science and political discourse. On the basis of such comparisons the book insists on the necessity of disciplinary autonomy and argues for a sharp demarcation of design from both art and engineering. Schumacher accordingly argues controversially that design as a discipline has its own sui generis intelligence – with its own internal logic, reach and limitations.

Whereas the first volume provides the theoretical groundwork for Schumacher’s ideas – focusing on architecture as an autopoeitic system, with its own theory, history, medium and its unique societal function – the second volume addresses the specific, contemporary challenges and tasks that architecture faces. It formulates these tasks, looking specifically at how architecture is seeking to organize and articulate the complexity of post-fordist network society. The volume explicitly addresses how current architecture can upgrade its design methodology in the face of an increasingly demanding task environment, characterized by both complexity and novelty. Architecture’s specific role within contemporary society is explained and its relationship to politics is clarified. Finally, the new, global style of Parametricism is introduced and theoretically grounded.

How architecture can move beyond the contemporary enthusiasms for the technically sustainable and the formally dazzling to enhance our human values and capacities.

Architecture remains in crisis, its social relevance lost between the two poles of formal innovation and technical sustainability. In Attunement, Alberto Pérez-Gómez calls for an architecture that can enhance our human values and capacities, an architecture that is connected—attuned—to its location and its inhabitants. Architecture, Pérez-Gómez explains, operates as a communicative setting for societies; its beauty and its meaning lie in its connection to human health and self-understanding.

Our physical places are of utmost importance for our well-being. Drawing on recent work in embodied cognition, Pérez-Gómez argues that the environment, including the built environment, matters not only as a material ecology but because it is nothing less than a constituent part of our consciousness. To be fully self-aware, we need an external environment replete with meanings and emotions.

Pérez-Gómez views architecture through the lens of mood and atmosphere, linking these ideas to the key German concept of Stimmung—attunement—and its roots in Pythagorean harmony and Vitruvian temperance or proportion. He considers the primacy of place over space; the linguistic aspect of architecture—the voices of architecture and the voice of the architect; architecture as a multisensory (not pictorial) experience, with Piranesi, Ledoux, and Hejduk as examples of metaphorical modeling; and how Stimmung might be put to work today to realize the contemporary possibilities of attunement.

The town hall or city hall as a place of local governance is historically related to the founding of cities in medieval Europe. As the space of representative civic authority it aimed to set the terms of public space and engagement with the citizenry. In subsequent centuries, as the idea and built form travelled beyond Europe to become an established institution across the globe, the parameters of civic representation changed and the town hall was forced to negotiate new notions of urbanism and public space.

City Halls and Civic Materialism: Towards a Global History of Urban Public Space utilizes the town hall in its global historical incarnations as bases to probe these changing ideas of urban public space. The essays in this volume provide an analysis of the architecture, iconography, and spatial relations that constitute the town hall to explore its historical ability to accommodate the "public" in different political and social contexts, in Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa and the Americas, as the relation between citizens and civic authority had to be revisited with the universal franchise, under fascism, after the devastation of the world wars, decolonization, and most recently, with the neo-liberal restructuring of cities.

As a global phenomenon, the town hall challenges the idea that nationalism, imperialism, democracy, the idea of citizenship – concepts that frame the relation between the individual and the body politic -- travel the globe in modular forms, or in predictable trajectories from the West to East, North to South. Collectively the essays argue that if the town hall has historically been connected with the articulation of bourgeois civil society, then the town hall as a global spatial type -- architectural space, urban monument, and space of governance -- holds a mirror to the promise and limits of civil society.

A vision of architecture that transcends concerns of form and function and finds the connections between the architect's wish to design a beautiful world and architecture's imperative to provide a better place for society.

The forced polarity between form and function in considerations of architecture—opposing art to social interests, ethics to poetic expression—obscures the deep connections between ethical and poetical values in architectural tradition. Architecture has been, and must continue to be, writes Alberto Pérez-Gómez, built upon love. Modernity has rightly rejected past architectural excesses, but, Pérez-Gómez argues, the materialistic and technological alternatives it proposes do not answer satisfactorily the complex desire that defines humanity. True architecture is concerned with far more than fashionable form, affordable homes, and sustainable development; it responds to a desire for an eloquent place to dwell—one that lovingly provides a sense of order resonant with our dreams. In Built upon Love Pérez-Gómez uncovers the relationship between love and architecture in order to find the points of contact between poetics and ethics—between the architect's wish to design a beautiful world and architecture's imperative to provide a better place for society.

Eros, as first imagined by the early lyric poets of classical Greece, is the invisible force at the root of our capacity to create and comprehend the poetic image. Pérez-Gómez examines the nature of architectural form in the light of eros, seduction, and the tradition of the poetic image in Western architecture. He charts the ethical dimension of architecture, tracing the connections between philia—the love of friends that entails mutual responsibility among equals—and architectural program. He explores the position of architecture at the limits of language and discusses the analogical language of philia in modernist architectural theory. Finally, he uncovers connections between ethics and poetics, describing a contemporary practice of architecture under the sign of love, incorporating both eros and philia.

The Funambulist Pamphlets is a series of small books archiving articles
published on The Funambulist, collected according to specific themes.
These volumes propose a different articulation of texts than the usual
chronological one. The first twelve volumes are respectively dedicated
to Spinoza, Foucault, Deleuze, Legal Theory, Occupy Wall Street,
Palestine, Cruel Designs, Arakawa + Madeline Gins, Science Fiction,
Literature, Cinema, and Weaponized Architecture. As new articles are
published on The Funambulist, more volumes will be published to continue
the series. See all published pamphlets HERE.

The Funambulist
Pamphlets is published as part of the Documents Initiative imprint of
the Center for Transformative Media, Parsons The New School for Design, a
transdisciplinary media research initiative bridging design and the
social sciences, and dedicated to the exploration of the transformative
potential of emerging technologies upon the foundational practices of
everyday life across a range of settings.

Our species has made a
declaration. Let us call this the Reversible Destiny Declaration. We
will not just take it anymore. We will no longer throw ourselves into
the mortality waste-baskets. Shall we put it in the following gentle but
firm way? Oh yes we shall! Enough is enough. We have decided not to
die. And how do we go about doing this? Through architectural
procedures, made explicitly to help us reconfigure ourselves. If you do
not yet know what an architectural procedure is, you will know soon.
Start with this declaration, and never back away from it: we have
decided not to die. ~Madeline Gins

Volume 8 is dedicated to The
Reversible Destiny Foundation created by Arakawa and Madeline Gins. The
Foundation is much more than an architectural practice. It articulates
art, philosophy, poetry, architecture and, to some extent, science in a
dialogue that benefits each of these disciplines and ultimately serves
one of the most radical ideas that apply to architecture: the action of
non-dying. Guest authors include Shingo Tsuji, Stanley Shostak, Russell
Hughes, and Jean-François Lyotard.

Introduction: Towards an Architecture of Joy - Architectures of Joy: A
Spinozist Reading of Parent/Virilio and Arakawa/Gins's Architecture -
Applied Spinozism: Architectures of the Sky vs. Architectures of the
Earth - Architecture of the Conatus: "Tentative Constructing Towards a
Holding in Place" - Architectures of Joy: A Conversation Between Two
Puzzle Creatures [Part A] - Architectures of Joy: A Conversation Between
Two Puzzle Creatures [Part B] - Domesticity in the Reversible Destiny's
Architectural Terrains - Reversible Destiny Loft in Action: A Tentative
Report from a Resident by Shingo Tsuji - A Subversive Approach to the
Ideal Normalized Body - The Counter-Biopolitical Bioscleave Experiment
Imagined by Stanley Shostak - Funambulist Paper #35 / DIY Biopolitics:
The Deregulated Self by Russell Hughes - Letter from Jean-François
Lyotard to Arakawa and Madeline Gins - Architectures for Non-Dying
Creatures: The Artistic-Philosophical-Poetic-Architectural Work of
Arakawa and Gins - "All Men Are Sisters": A Joy Named Madeline Gins
This book is the outcome of one of the Forum Series on Architectural Education, organized by the Architectural Education Association of Turkey (MIMED) on the theme of “Flexibility in Architecture.” At Forum IV, the architectural education platform was cross-examined, new ideas and experiences were shared, and the potentials of “regeneration” were discovered. The notion of flexibility in architectural education is the subject of fresh and vital debate which is based on whether it is achieved by the inner dynamics of architecture, or the external dynamics. However, this debate seems null and void since the dynamics of both sides seem to necessitate flexibility in architectural education at almost the same level. Hence the attitude that the prerequisite for creating flexibility according to the inner dynamics of architecture depends on the protection of architectural education from the coercive effects of external dynamics is no longer a relevant issue. Furthermore, architectural education as a role model in such a debate becomes more important, not only in a monotyping global context, but also in the local social context as well. Herein lies a fundamental dichotomy arising from the fact that because of globalization curricula may face the risk of becoming uniform. Any effort to overcome this dichotomy in such a debate seems vital. Then, the question arises whether such a dichotomy, which turns architectural education from an autonomous discipline into a quasi-autonomous one, transforms architectural education into a rather political issue. If the autonomous nature of architectural education resists globalization, the question of the manner in which this resistance occurs and what impact it will have on architectural education seems of the utmost importance.

The volume begins with a preface by Gulsun Saglamer, President of MIMED. Contributors include Juhani Pallasmaa, Kim Dovey, Kojin Karatani, Herman Neuckermans, Conall Ó Catháin, Mark Olweny, Ugur Tanyeli, Ferhan Yurekli, Gulsun Saglamer, Fatma Erkok, Rengin Unver, Cigdem Polatoglu, S. Mujdem Vural, Iris Aravot, Acalya Allmer, Sigrun Prahl, Aslihan Senel, Sevgi Turkkan, Burcin Kurtuncu, Sait Ali Koknar, Ozlem Berber, Funda Uz Sonmez, Akin Sevinc, Danelle Briscoe, Kurt Gouwy, Aydan Balamir, Mine Ozkar, Basak Ucar, Semra Arslan Selcuk, Arzu Gonenc Sorguc, Sema Alacam, Esra Gurbuz, Urs Hirschberg, and Ahu Sokmenoglu.

Architecture and Fire develops a conceptual reassessment of architectural conservation through the study of the intimate relationship between architecture and fire. Stamatis Zografos expands on the general agreement among many theorists that the primitive hut was erected around fire – locating fire as the first memory of architecture, at the very beginning of architectural evolution.

Following the introduction, Zografos analyses the archive and the renewed interest in the study of archives through the psychoanalysis of Jacques Derrida. He moves on to explore the ambivalent nature of fire, employing the conflicting philosophies of Gaston Bachelard and Henri Bergson to do so, before discussing architectural conservation and the relationship between listed buildings, the function of archives, and the preservation of memories from the past. The following chapter investigates how architecture evolves by absorbing and accommodating fire, while the penultimate chapter examines the critical moment of architectural evolution: the destruction of buildings by fire, with a focus on the tragic disaster at London’s Grenfell Tower in 2017. Zografos concludes with thoughts on Freud’s drive theory. He argues the practice of architectural conservation is an expression of the life drive and a simultaneous repression of the death drive, which suggests controlled destruction should be an integral part of the conservation agenda.

Architecture and Fire is founded in new interdisciplinary research navigating across the boundaries of architecture, conservation, archival theory, classical mythology, evolutionary theory, thermodynamics, philosophy and psychoanalysis. It will be of interest to readers working in and around these disciplines.

Phenomenologies of the City: Studies in the History and Philosophy of Architecture brings architecture and urbanism into dialogue with phenomenology. Phenomenology has informed debate about the city from social sciences to cultural studies. Within architecture, however, phenomenological inquiry has been neglecting the question of the city. Addressing this lacuna, this book suggests that the city presents not only the richest, but also the politically most urgent horizon of reference for philosophical reflection on the cultural and ethical dimensions of architecture. The contributors to this volume are architects and scholars of urbanism. Some have backgrounds in literature, history, religious studies, and art history. The book features 16 chapters by younger scholars as well as established thinkers including Peter Carl, David Leatherbarrow, Alberto Pérez-Gomez, Wendy Pullan and Dalibor Vesely. Rather than developing a single theoretical statement, the book addresses architecture’s relationship with the city in a wide range of historical and contemporary contexts. The chapters trace hidden genealogies, and explore the ruptures as much as the persistence of recurrent cultural motifs. Together, these interconnected phenomenologies of the city raise simple but fundamental questions: What is the city for, how is it ordered, and how can it be understood? The book does not advocate a return to a naive sense of ’unity’ or ’order’. Rather, it investigates how architecture can generate meaning and forge as well as contest social and cultural representations.
This book marks a turning point in architectural theory by using philosophy to examine the field anew.Breaking from the traditional dualism within architecture - which presents the body as subject and space as object - it examines how such rigid boundaries can be softened. Zuzana Kovar thus engages with complementary and complex ideas from architecture, philosophy, feminist theory and other subjects, demonstrating how both bodies and bodily functions relate deeply to architecture. Extending philosopher Julia Kristeva's notion of abjection - the confrontation of one's own corporeality as something is excreted - Kovar finds parallels in the concept of the 'scaffold.' Much like living bodies and their products can impact on the buildings that house them - old skin cells create dust, menstrual blood stains, our breath heats and cools surfaces - scaffolding is similarly ephemeral and yet not entirely separable from the architecture it supports.
Kovar shifts the conversation about abjection towards a more nuanced idea of architecture - where living organisms, building matter, space, decay and waste are all considered as part of a continual process - drawing on the key informing works of thinkers like Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari to do this. Including a number of experimental projects conducted in the spaces inhabited by the author herself to illuminate the theory at its core, the book forms a distinguished and pioneering study designed for practitioners and scholars of architecture, philosophy and visual culture alike.
Literary texts and buildings have always represented space, narrated cultural and political values, and functioned as sites of personal and collective identity. In the twentieth century, new forms of narrative have represented cultural modernity, political idealism and architectural innovation. Writing the Modern City explores the diverse and fascinating relationships between literature, architecture and modernity and considers how they have shaped the world today.

This collection of thirteen original essays examines the ways in which literature and architecture have shaped a range of recognisably ‘modern’ identities. It focuses on the cultural connections between prose narratives – the novel, short stories, autobiography, crime and science fiction – and a range of urban environments, from the city apartment and river to the colonial house and the utopian city. It explores how the themes of memory, nation and identity have been represented in both literary and architectural works in the aftermath of early twentieth-century conflict; how the cultural movements of modernism and postmodernism have affected notions of canonicity and genre in the creation of books and buildings; and how and why literary and architectural narratives are influenced by each other’s formal properties and styles.

The book breaks new ground in its exclusive focus on modern narrative and urban space. The essays examine texts and spaces that have both unsettled traditional definitions of literature and architecture and reflected and shaped modern identities: sexual, domestic, professional and national. It is essential reading for students and researchers of literature, cultural studies, cultural geography, art history and architectural history.

A major proposal for a minor architecture, and for the making of spaces out of the already built.

Architecture can no longer limit itself to the art of making buildings; it must also invent the politics of taking them apart. This is Jill Stoner's premise for a minor architecture. Her architect's eye tracks differently from most, drawn not to the lauded and iconic but to what she calls “the landscape of our constructed mistakes”—metropolitan hinterlands rife with failed and foreclosed developments, undersubscribed office parks, chain hotels, and abandoned malls. These graveyards of capital, Stoner asserts, may be stripped of their excess and become sites of strategic spatial operations. But first we must dissect and dismantle prevalent architectural mythologies that brought them into being—western obsessions with interiority, with the autonomy of the building-object, with the architect's mantle of celebrity, and with the idea of nature as that which is “other” than the built metropolis. These four myths form the warp of the book.

Drawing on the literary theory of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, Stoner suggests that minor architectures, like minor literatures, emerge from the bottoms of power structures and within the language of those structures. Yet they too are the result of powerful and instrumental forces. Provoked by collective desires, directed by the instability of time, and celebrating contingency, minor architectures may be mobilized within buildings that are oversaturated, underutilized, or perceived as obsolete.

Stoner's provocative challenge to current discourse veers away from design, through a diverse landscape of cultural theory, contemporary fiction, and environmental ethics. Hers is an optimistic and inclusive approach to a more politicized practice of architecture.

Human Aspects of Urban Form: Towards a Man-Environment Approach to Urban Form and Design examines the way people perceive the city, the effects of urban forms on people, and the role of images. By adopting a man-environment approach, this book seeks to understand the importance of cities for human behavior or satisfaction. This text also considers the way given urban configurations fit people's psychological, cultural, and social needs.
This book consists of six chapters and begins with an introduction to many of the concepts related to human dimensions of urban form and design. Urban design is discussed as the organization of space, time, meaning, and communication. The chapters that follow focus on the nature of the environment, cultural differences, role of values, and the concept of environmental perception as it is being used, along with the concept of image and schema. The three meanings of ""perception"" are then analyzed: the notion of environmental quality and preference as a variable concept and its constituent parts; various aspects of environmental cognition and its relation to design; and perception proper and its various aspects. Discussion then shifts to social, cultural, and ethological concepts that clarify the nature of urban space organization. This book concludes with a chapter stressing the need for people to get involved in the environment, the relationship of activity and form, and notion of open-ended design.
This reference material will be of interest to students and practitioners of urban design and planning.
The Funambulist Pamphlets is a series of small books archiving articles published on The Funambulist, collected according to specific themes. These volumes propose a different articulation of texts than the usual chronological one. The twelve first volumes are respectively dedicated to Spinoza, Foucault, Deleuze, Legal Theory, Occupy Wall Street, Palestine, Cruel Designs, Arakawa + Madeline Gins, Science Fiction, Literature, Cinema, and Weaponized Architecture. As new articles are published on The Funambulist, more volumes will be published to continue the series.The Funambulist Pamphlets is published as part of the Documents Initiative imprint of the Center for Transformative Media, Parsons The New School for Design, a transdisciplinary media research initiative bridging design and the social sciences, and dedicated to the exploration of the transformative potential of emerging technologies upon the foundational practices of everyday life across a range of settings.Volume 04_Legal Theory compiles blog posts by Lopold Lambert (and guest posts by Costas Douzinas and Recetas Urbanas) on: Architecture and the Law: An Epistolary Exchange With Dr. Lucy Finchett-Maddock -- Remus Has to Die -- Trapped in the Border's Thickness -- Absurdity and Greatness of the Law: The Siege of the Ecuadorian Embassy in London -- The Space Beyond the Walls: Defensive "A-legal" Sanctuaries -- The Reasons for Disobeying a Law -- Political Geography of the Gaza Strip: A Territory of Experiments for the State of Israel -- Palestine: What Does the International Legislation Say? -- In Praise of the Essence of the American Second Amendment: The Importance of Self-Contradiction in a System -- Power, Violence, Law by Costas Douzinas -- Fortress London: Missiles on Your Roof -- Short Digression About the Future of Drones (After Seeing One at JFK) -- Quadrillage: Urban Plague Quarantine & Retro-Medieval Boston -- Historical Map of Quarantine -- Collision, Sexuality and Resistance -- The Spatial Issues at Stake in Occupy Wall Street: Considering the Privately Owned Public Spaces -- Strategies for Subversive Urban Occupation by Recetas Urbanas -- Is Housing a Human Right? Considering the "Take Back the Land" Manifesto -- Center for Urban Pedagogy
Rapid urbanization represents major threats and challenges to personal and public health. The World Health Organisation identifies the ‘urban health threat’ as three-fold: infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases; and violence and injury from, amongst other things, road traffic. Within this tripartite structure of health issues in the built environment, there are multiple individual issues affecting both the developed and the developing worlds and the global north and south.

Reflecting on a broad set of interrelated concerns about health and the design of the places we inhabit, this book seeks to better understand the interconnectedness and potential solutions to the problems associated with health and the built environment. Divided into three key themes: home, city, and society, each section presents a number of research chapters that explore global processes, transformative praxis and emergent trends in architecture, urban design and healthy city research. Drawing together practicing architects, academics, scholars, public health professional and activists from around the world to provide perspectives on design for health, this book includes emerging research on: healthy homes, walkable cities, design for ageing, dementia and the built environment, health equality and urban poverty, community health services, neighbourhood support and wellbeing, urban sanitation and communicable disease, the role of transport infrastructures and government policy, and the cost implications of ‘unhealthy’ cities etc. To that end, this book examines alternative and radical ways of practicing architecture and the re-imagining of the profession of architecture through a lens of human health.

Architecture is increasingly understood to be a sensual, spatial experience, which means that the experience of buildings and spatial constellations is also a perception of atmospheres that are rated as positive or negative. Architects, planners, investors, and politicians must produce effects such as these according to intersubjective and communicable criteria, and not intuitively or randomly.
Architectural Atmospheres addresses the growing awareness of the atmospheric dimension of architecture and provides a current, programmatic discussion of this topic. What possibilities does this approach open to architecture, what value does this knowledge have? Three essays and a conversation lead a cross-discipline discussion on the impact of architecture, and contribute to the debate first initiated by Peter Zumthor. The texts are accompanied bythirty-five color images that capture architectural moods in a variety of ways.

Gernot Böhme is Professor Emeritus of Philosophy at Darmstadt Technical University and Director of the Institute for Practical Philosophy, e.V., Ipph, in Darmstadt, Germany.

Christian Borch is Professor of Political Sociology at the Department of Management, Politics, and Philosophy, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.

Olafur Eliasson is a Danish-Icelandic artist. Eliasson incessantly explores our modes of perceiving. His work spans photography, installation, sculpture, and film.

Juhani Pallasmaa is one of Finland's most distinguished architects and architectural thinkers.
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