Movies & TV
My movies & TV
Buy gift card
My Play activity
Arts & entertainment
Biographies & memoirs
Books in Spanish
Business & investing
Computers & technology
Cooking, food & wine
Fiction & literature
Health, mind & body
Home & garden
Mystery & thrillers
Parenting & families
Politics & current events
Religion & spirituality
Science & math
Science fiction & fantasy
Arts & entertainment
Biographies & memoirs
Business & investing
Fiction & literature
Health, mind & body
Mystery & thrillers
Religion & spirituality
Science & technology
Science fiction & fantasy
Crime & mystery
Ages 5 & Under
Action & adventure
Animals & nature
History & biographies
Science fiction & fantasy
More related to mineralogy
Mineral Deposits within the European Community
Results of selected projects on Exploration R & D, one of the major research areas implemented by the Commission of European Communities in Brussels on the subject of mineral raw materials, are presented on an international basis. All aspects of the geology and geochemistry of ore deposits and their host rocks are covered. Main headings are according to commodity, i.e. tungsten, chromite, and base metals, rather than by scientific criteria. The scope and subject matter varies from the metallogenic province to the individual deposit. The question of possible application to exploration methodology is explored in several papers. Particularly structural and geochemical techniques are discussed.
Rutley’s Elements of Mineralogy: Edition 27
Rutley's elements of mineralogy has been around for a long time, certainly throughout my own lifetime; and if my great grandfather had read geology, it would have been prescribed reading for him too! It has been rewritten and revised frequently since fir~t conceived by Frank Rutley in the late 19th century. Major revisions occurred in 1902, and then in 1914, when H. H. Read first took over the authorship, and thereafter in 1936 and in 1965 when the last major changes occurred. It was with some trepidation that I agreed to attempt this revision. I had been asked to do it by Janet Watson in 1979, but various commitments delayed my start on it until 1984. This 27th edition encompasses a number of changes. Chapters 1-5 have the same headings as before, but considerable changes have been made in all of them, particularly 1, 3, 4 and 5. Comments sought prior to the revision revealed considerable disagreement about the role of blowpipe analyses in the book. I have only once had blowpipe analyses demon strated to me, and have never used them; but there is no doubt that they are employed in many countries, and many of the tests (flame colour, bead, etc. ) are still useful as rapid indicators of which element is present in a mineral. I have therefore kept blowpipe analysis information in Rutley, but have relegated it to an appendix.
Salt Deposits Their Origin and Composition
The Jade Kingdom
Gemstones and Their Origins
Each gem deposit-whether of primary origin in the parent rocks; or secondary as alluvial placers in valley floors, river gravels, or the sand of oceanic shelves presents an eloquent chronicle of the Earth's life story. It reveals to the expert the prodigious processes which formed the present crust of our planet, of which this volume discloses a small but exciting detail. The materials of the Earth's crust are the rocks. In this book, the author expounds on how they were formed, why they altered, why they became the cradles of precious gemstones, how they are categorized, and how they are now exploited by man. What initiates the growth of gemstones? How do they crystallize? Why do gemstones of the same species, originating from different sources, vary? What causes the occurrence of varieties? Why do diamonds, unlike other precious stones, occur not near the Earth's surface in its crust, but deep down beneath it in the upper mantle? These are only a few of the entrancing subjects discussed in this enlightening volume. The reader learns that the Earth is surprisingly alive and altering constantly-sometimes through slow and equable changes and at times by violent and tremendous cataclysms, events from which gemstones issue.
Crystal Chemical Classification of Minerals
A. S. Povarennykh
Ore Genesis: The State of the Art
Laterite: Genesis, Location, Use
Benjamin S. Persons
In comparison with engineering, geology is a relatively new domain of know ledge. Man has been building almost from the moment he came down out of the trees or emerged from the caves. All of his structures were founded in or upon rock or soil. Before the end of what we call ancient history, he had learned a great deal about materials, mechanics, and structures. This empirical information had become an organized field of practical knowledge by the time of Leonardo da Vinci. Although both foundations and ma terials of construction were largely earthy, codified knowledge of neither one nor the other existed at that time. During the last two centuries, geology has emerged and has recently begun to take on a more quantitative aspect. A generation ago, it joined hands with civil engineering to create soil mechanics. Engineers began to apply the science of geology to foundations and materials with astoundingly successful results, and geologists began to acquire an understanding of engineering methods, applying what they could to their problems. Geologi cal engineering was born of this union. People of an older time employed stone and brick in construction, although cut brick and sawed stone were used more sparingly because of a scarcity in both suitable raw materials and techniques. They were used in Cambodia, for example. A material able to meet requirements was found nearby, known as itica culla. In India it was called vettu culla, but F. A.
Introduction to Clay Minerals: Chemistry, origins, uses and environmental significance
Introduction to Clay Minerals is designed to give a detailed, concise and clear introduction to clay mineralogy. Using the information presented here, one should be able to understand clays and their mineralogy, their uses and importance in modern life.
Syngenesis and Epigenesis in the Formation of Mineral Deposits: A Volume in Honour of Professor G. Christian Amstutz on the Occasion of His 60th Birthday with Special Reference to One of His Main Scientific Interests
The papers in this volume are dedicated to Professor Dr. Dr. h.c. G. Christian Amstutz by his colleagues, friends, and students on the occasion of his 60th anniversary. The authors of this book - the theme was restricted to syngenesis and epigenesis in the formation of mineral deposits - wish to honour with their articles a scientist who has contributed to, and substantially promoted the understanding of the genesis of mineral deposits in the last decades. The majority of the articles deal with strata-bound depos its, thus reflecting one of his main scientific interests. In the tradition of his professors, Paul Niggli and Paul Ramdohr, G.C. Amstutz has maintained an open and active interest in many fields of earth science. His numerous papers have triggered a remarkable number of new ideas and investigations in a variety of fields, and the "happy marriage" of economic geology with sedimentology is cer tainly one of his main successes, starting with the first Symposium on Sedimentology and Ore Genesis at the Sixth International Sedimentological Congress at Delft in 1963.
The New Uranium Mining Boom: Challenge and lessons learned
The book presents the results from the Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology Conference (UMH VI) held in September 2011, in Freiberg, Germany. The following subjects are emphasised: Uranium Mining, Phosphate Mining and Uranium recovery. Cleaning up technologies for water and soil. Analysis and sensor for Uranium and Radon and Modelling.
The Collector’s Book of Fluorescent Minerals
Manuel A. Robbins
Over the last several decades, the number of people who are actively involved in the hobby or science of mineral collecting has grown at an increasing pace. In response to the growing demand for informa tion which this large and active group has created, a number of books have been published dealing with mineralogy. As a result, the reader now has a choice among mineral locality guides, field handbooks, photo collections, or books dedicated to the systematic description of minerals. However, as interest in mineralogy has grown, as collectors have become increasingly knowledgeable and aware of mineralogy in its many facets, the need for more specialized information has also grown. Nowhere is this need greater than in the subject of the fluorescence of minerals. The number of collectors who now main tain a fluorescent collection is substantial, interest is constantly increasing, and manufacturers have recently responded by the intro duction of new ultraviolet equipment with major improvements in utility and performance. Yet when the collector searches for any information on this subject, little will be found. He or she will seek in vain for the answers to questions which present themselves as in terest in fluorescent minerals grows and matures. Which minerals fluoresce? Where are fluorescent minerals found? What makes a mineral fluoresce? Why does ultraviolet light produce fluorescence? What is an activator, and how does it contribute to fluorescence? On these matters, the available mineralogy books are largely silent.
Authigenic Minerals in Sedimentary Rocks
G. I. Teodorovich
The present work. Authigenic Minerals in Sedimentary Rocks, is designed for the broad circle of lithologists, and also for the geologists and geochemists who are studying sedimentary rocks and ores. Its specific purpose is to stir up interest among lithologists and geologists in the geochemical environment associated with the formation of authigenic minerals in sedimentary rocks, to encourage work in tracing the sequence of formation of these min erals, and to direct attention to other genetic problems. The book by no means pretends to be a determinative atlas of the authigenic minerals in sedimentary rocks; its task is to draw the reader's attention to questions of origin and, at the same time, to equip him with systematic knowledge about the physical and, especially, the optical properties of these minerals. In addition, the simplified chemical reactions indicated in the book wiIl permit one to distinguish similar minerals, and will also allow him to detect various mineral deposits in the field. Another purpose of the book is to acquaint chemists and geochemists with the properties of the minerals they study in making chemical analyses, minerals that com monly occur as polymineralic aggregates in the samples that are examined.
Classical Loop-in-Loop Chains: And Their Derivatives
ThiS is not only a book of instruction in chainmaking but it is also a work celebrating man's continuous creativity over thousands of years. At times something that man creates has far-reach ing effects; an example that quickly comes to mind is the wheel, which has enabled many devel opments, from pottery to computers. At this point it is important to note that these same wheels could not have been made without metal tools. From early Neolithic times on gold was a favorite choice in the making of jewelry. During the Neolithic period these "shining stones," probably alluvial, were prized. Actually gold was cold worked as if it were a stone. There is a surviving example of cold-worked gold from Catahuyuk (present day Turkey) estimated to have been made in 6500 B. C. There were only four metals on the earth's surface that were found in sufficient quantity to be used: gold, copper, silver, and meteoric iron. An understanding of the malleability of gold, and of the annealing effect of fire, changed jewelry making; new forms were found. Gold was no longer a piece of stone but a material that could be flattened and made very thin. Sheet and foil are the oldest forms of worked gold. The smiths' tools were stone, wood, and horn.
Mineral Deposits of the Alps and of the Alpine Epoch in Europe: Proceedings of the IV. ISMIDA Berchtesgaden, October 4–10, 1981
Bitumens in Ore Deposits
This volume covers the occurrence, interpretation and significance of bitumens (hydrocarbon residues) in ore deposits. Bitumens occur with a wide variety of ores, including deposits of base metals, mercury, uranium, gold and other precious metals. The papers included reflect this variety of bitumen occurrences and the potential for obtaining useful data from them. The contributions are written by acknowledged experts in this field, who cover analytical techniques and case studies using diverse petrographic and geochemical approaches which will give ore geologists and geochemists an excellent insight into the interpretation of bitumens during mineral exploration. The large number of plates in particular will help the non-specialist to make good use of the volume through the application to new deposits. This is the most comprehensive set of contributions published on a subject of growing interest; at a time when explorationists are increasingly recognising the occurrence of bitumens in ore deposits and the fact that the evolution of mineralising fluids and hydrocarbon fluids may be closely interlinked.
Petrology of the Metamorphic Rocks: Edition 2
There has been a great advance in the understanding of processes of meta morphism and of metamorphic rocks since the last edition of this book appeared. Methods for determining temperatures and pressures have become almost routine, and there is a wide appreciation that there is not a single temperature and pressure of metamorphism, but that rocks may preserve, in their minerals, chemistry and textures, traces of their history of burial, heating, deformation and permeation by fluids. However, this excit ing new knowledge is still often difficult for non-specialists to understand, and this book, like the first edition, aims at enlightenment. I have concen trated on the interpretation of the plate tectonic settings of metamorphism, rather than following a geochemical approach. Although there is an impress ive degree of agreement between the two, I believe that attempting to discover the tectonic conditions accompanying rock recrystallization will more readily arouse the interest of the beginner. I have used a series of case histories, as in the first edition, drawing on my own direct experience as far as possible. This m
Volcanic Successions Modern and Ancient: A geological approach to processes, products and successions
from volcanological and sedimentological perspec The idea for this book carne into being between 1981 and 1982 when J. V. W. came to Monash tives. One of our aims in the book is to provide geologists with a sound basis for making their own University to take up a Monash Postdoctoral Fellowship. During this period a short course on well founded interpretations. For that reason we facies analysis in modern and ancient successions cover not only concepts about processes, and the was put together, integrating J. V. W. 's extensive nature of the products, but also methods and volcanological experience in numerous modern approaches that may be useful in analysing both modern and ancient successions. Most importantly, volcanic terrains with R. A. F. C. 's extensive sedi mentological and volcanological experience in we treat the diversity of products in volcanic older volcanic and associated sedimentary succes terrains as facies, and we use the method of facies sions in the Palaeozoic and Precambrian of analysis and interpretation as a means of construct Australia. The enthusiastic response from the ing facies models for different volcanic settings. participants to the first short course, taught in May These models will, we hope, be useful as norms 1982, and to subsequent annual re-runs, encour for comparison for workers in ancient terrains. aged us to develop the short course notes into this The only publication which overlaps with this one book.
Uranium geochemistry, mineralogy, geology, exploration and resources: Published for the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy
B. de Vivo
turning points that, in the course of a few years, have made this The uranium minerals that today are at the centre of worldwide metal an essential raw material. attention were unknown until 1780, when Wagsfort found a First, the destructive property of fission reactions made uranium a metal of fundamental strategic importance, increas pitchblende sample in 10hanngeorgenstadt. This discovery passed unnoticed, however, since Wags fort thought that it ing research in some nations, but the revolution came with the plan for the real possibility of utilizing chain reactions for contained a black species of a zinc mineral-hence the n':lme 'pitchblende' (= pitch-like blende). Seven years later, Klaproth, energy production in place of conventional fuels. while examining the mineral, noted that it contained an oxide Since that time a 'uranium race' has been in progress in many countries-often justified by the well-founded hope of of an unknown metal, which he called 'uranium' in honour of the planet Uranus, recently discovered by Herschel. Klaproth becoming self-sufficient with regard to energy, or at least of also believed that he had separated the metal, but, in fact, the paying off a part of the financial deficit due to increasing fuel imports.
Minerals Handbook 1984–85
Time- and Strata-Bound Ore Deposits
The problem of time-and strata-bound formation of ore deposits has during the past decade become one of the most debated topics in cur rent international discussion. Due to the amazing results of modern mineral exploration and world-wide geophysical research, the mutual relationship between the complex geological history pf a crustal seg ment and the development of distinct metallogenic provinces (ore belts) has received much interest. Reviewing the earth's history in this light one can now recognize metallogenic epochs even of global range which document the existence of world-wide time-bound ore enrich ments. The knowledge of these metallogenetic processes has been growing step by step for several decades. It began with simple observations and sceptic interpretations, which at first threw heretical spot lights on to the edifices of the prevailing theories on granitic differentiation as the favoured source of ore deposits. It was obvious that the new ideas at first referred to ore enrichments in sedimentary sequences, nowadays summarized under the term strata-bound, and mainly interpreted as stratiform or sedimentary ore deposits. Moreover, the modern term "strata-bound" also includes ore mineralizations which are bound to distinct units of layered (intrusive or extrusive) igneous complexes as a general descriptive term without genetical restriction! Albert Maucher is one of the representatives of the initial era who discussed these genetical questions critically in the decade before the 2nd World War.
Image Analysis in Earth Sciences: Microstructures and Textures of Earth Materials
Image Analysis in Earth Sciences is a graduate level textbook for researchers and students interested in the quantitative microstructure and texture analysis of earth materials. Methods of analysis and applications are introduced using carefully worked examples. The input images are typically derived from earth materials, acquired at a wide range of scales, through digital photography, light and electron microscopy. The book focuses on image acquisition, pre- and post-processing, on the extraction of objects (segmentation), the analysis of volumes and grain size distributions, on shape fabric analysis (particle and surface fabrics) and the analysis of the frequency domain (FFT and ACF). The last chapters are dedicated to the analysis of crystallographic fabrics and orientation imaging. Throughout the book the free software Image SXM is used.
High-temperature Metamorphism and Crustal Anatexis
This second volume in the new series produced by the Mineralogical Society is concerned with the study of rocks from the deep continental crust. It is, we hope, timely to summarize recent petrological advances contributing to this field of active interest. Based mainly on review papers read at a conference, the chapters have subsequently been revised and expanded, while the editors have produced an introductory overview as Chapter 1. The conference was the Winter Meeting of the Mineralogical Society on 15 December 1988, at wh ich Prof. R. C. Newton delivered the 20th Hallimond Lecture of the Society (which forms the basis of Ch. 7). The editors are grateful to all who contrib uted to the smooth running of the meeting at Kingston Polytechnic, and in the ensuing preparation of the volume: in particular, we sincerely thank all of the following for their labours as referees: A. J. Baker, L. M. Barron, M. J. Bickle, A. D. Chambers, J. D. Clemens, J. S. Daly, G. T. R. Droop, C. R. L. Friend, E. S. Grew, S. L. Harley, R. S. Harmon, N. B. W. Harris, B. Harte, T. J. B. Holland, N. F. C. Hudson, W. S. MacKenzie, W. Perkins, H. R. Rollinson, J. W. Sheraton, D. J. Waters, R. H. Worden and B. W. D. Yardley. John R.
Electron-Diffraction Analysis of Clay Mineral Structures
B. B. Zvyagin
As a method of structure analysis, electron diffraction has its own spe cial possibilities and advantages in comparison to the X -ray method for the study of finely dispersed minerals with layer or pseudolayer structures. How ever, possibly because of the prior existence of the X-ray method, which found universal application in different fields and attracted the main efforts of spe cialists, electron diffraction has been unevenly disseminated and developed in different countries. In particular, the oblique texture method, which gives very complete and detailed structural information, has been mainly used in the Soviet Union, where electron-diffraction cameras specially suited to the method have been constructed. In other countries, studies have been made of micro-single crystals, because these studies could be carried out with existing electron microscopes. It should be recognized that the scale of distribution and use attained by electron-diffraction methods, at present limited by exist ing experimental conditions. is more than justified by the value of the results which may be obtained by their aid. The author hopes that the present book will give the reader a fuller idea of the valuable advantages of the method, and of the structural crystallography picture which has been built up for clay minerals, and layer silicates in general, from electron-diffraction data. The time between the appearance of this book and that of the Russian edition has been comparatively short.
Atmospheric Tides: Thermal and Gravitational
Everyone is familiar with the daily changes of air temperature. The barometer shows that these are accompanied by daily changes of mass distribution of the atmosphere, and consequently with daily motions of the air. In the tropics the daily pressure change is evident on the barographs; in temperate and higher latitudes it is not noticeable, being overwhelmed by cyclonic and anticyclonic pressure variations. There too, however, the daily change can be found by averaging the variations over many days; and the same process suffices to show that there is a still smaller lunar tide in the atmosphere, first sought by Laplace. Throughout nearly two centuries these 'tides', thermal and gravitational, have been extensively discussed in the periodical literature of science, although they are very minor phenomena at ground level. This monograph summarizes our present knowledge and theoretical under standing of them. It is more than twenty years since the appearance of the one previous monograph on them - by Wilkes - and nearly a decade since they were last comprehensively reviewed, by Siebert. The intervening years have seen many additions to our know ledge of the state of the upper atmosphere, and of the tides there, on the basis of measurements by radio, rockets and satellites.
Statistical Models for Optimizing Mineral Exploration
J.G. De Geoffroy
After the spectacular successes of the 1960's and 1970's, the mineral exploration business is at a crossroads, facing uncertain t:imes in the decades ahead. This situation requires a re-thinking of the philosophy guiding mineral exploration if it is to emulate its recent performance. The ma:i. n argument of a previous volume titled "Designing Opt:lmal Strategies for Mineral Exploration", published in 1985 by Plenum Publishing Corporation of New York, is that a possible answer to the challenge facing mineral explorationists lies in the philosophy of opt:irn1zation. This new approach should help exploration staff make the best achievable use of the sophisticated and costly technology which is presently available for the detection of ore deposits. The main emphasis of the present volume is placed on the mathematical and computational aspects of the opt:irn1zation of mineral exploration. The seven chapters making up the ma:i. n body of the book are devoted to the description and application of various types of computerized geomathematical models which underpin the optimization of the mineral exploration sequence. The topics covered include: (a) the opt:lmal selection of ore deposit types and regions of search, as well as prospecting areas within the regions (Chapters 2, 3, 4, 6), (b) the designing of airborne and ground field programs for the opt:lmal coverage of prospecting areas (Chapters 2, 3, 4), (c) delineation and evaluation of exploration targets within prospecting areas by means of opt:irn1zed models (Chapter 5).
Deformation Processes in Minerals, Ceramics and Rocks
This monograph has its origins in a two-day meeting with the same title held in London, England in the spring of 1987. The idea for the meeting came from members of the UK Mineral and Rock Physics Group. It was held under the auspices of, and made possible by the generous support of, the Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Additional financial assistance was provided by ECC International pIc and the Cookson Group pIc. The aims of the London meeting were to survey the current state of knowledge about deformation processes in non-metallic materials and to bring together both experts and less experienced Earth scientists and ceramicists who normally had little contact but shared common interests in deformation mechanisms. This monograph has similar aims and, indeed, most of its authors were keynote speakers at the meeting. Consequently, most of the contributions contain a review element in addition to the presentation and discussion of new results. In adopting this format, the editors hope that the monograph will provide a valuable state-of-the-art sourcebook, both to active researchers and also to graduate students just starting in the relevant fields.
Minerals and Mineraloids in Marine Sediments: An Optical Identification Guide
Over 60% of the Earth's surface is covered with deep marine sediments, however, until the early 1980s, no comprehensive text books appeared to support the rapid expansion in the study of these sediments. While the whole field of marine geology has expanded enormously and entirely new disciplines, such as paleoceanography, have been developed, there remains a lack of reference texts on study techniques that investigators in the marine community can turn to. Minerals and Mineraloids in Marine Sediments is an optical identifica tion guide that I believe will become a standard reference text for use in the microscope analysis of marine sediment& and sedimentary rocks. The systematic collection of sediment cores from the deep ocean floor began in earnest with the Swedish Deep Sea Expedition, 1947-1948. Much of the microscopic examination of the sediments collected in these piston cores (10 m+ long) was conducted on separated grain mounts or thin sections of impregnated sediments. By the late 1960s a simpler technique of examining a mounted smear of the cored silt and clay size sediment on a microscope slide had become standard practice in American oceanographic institutions. This semi quantitative technique became the standard tool used in core description aboard Glomar Challenger through the 15 years of the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), 1968-1983. Visual percentage estimates of biogenic and mineral components were made using petrologic micro scopes.
The Magic of Minerals
Mineralogy, as a branch of geoscience, has as its subject the composition of the solid crust of the earth. We recognize that our earth once circled the sun as a red-hot glowing sphere, many billions of years ago- a length of time virtually unimaginable to the human mind.
Faulting in Brittle Rocks: An Introduction to the Mechanics of Tectonic Faults
This book provides an introduction into the mechanics of faulting in the brittle crust of the Earth. It developed from my annual two-semester course on tectono mechanics for graduate students of engineering geology and of rock engineering at the Technical University of Graz (Austria). In this course, it is not my task to present a broad exposition and geometrical description of geological structures, but rather to focus on the mechanical processes that produce the structures. Although this was also the aim of my former book "Mechanics of Tectonic Faulting - Models and Basic Concepts" (1988, Elsevier), henceforth referred to as MTF, the present book is different in organisation and content, in order to meet the requirements of the courses and to include more recent developments. Instead of following the traditional subdivision into extensional, compressional and strike-slip faulting, the presentation focuses on mechanical aspects of tectonic faulting that are common to various, or even all types of tectonic faults in the brittle regime. In this way, geometrically disparate or dissimilar fault structures may be revealed as closely related by the underlying mechanical process, and complex structures may be better understood. It may be useful to indicate how the chapters in the book are organised. The first three chapters are an introduction to rock mechanics, tailored to applications in geology. It also presents the extremely useful graphical method of Mohr's stress circle, which is freely used throughout the book to keep the mathematics to an absolute minimum.
Proceedings of the 37th International Symposium on Archaeometry, 13th - 16th May 2008, Siena, Italy
The book contains the Proceedings of the 37th International Symposium on Archaeometry, 12th -16th May 2008, Siena, Italy. The aim of the Symposium is to promote the development and use of scientific techniques in order to extract archaeological and historical information from the cultural heritage and the paleoenvironment. It involves all Natural Sciences and all types of objects and materials related with human activity. Papers deal with the development and/or application of scientific techniques for extracting information related to human activities of the past, including the biological nature of man himself and the environment in which he lived. They are grouped according to the following Symposium Sessions and Sub-sessions: 1. Field Archaeology 2. Archaeo-chronometry 3.Recent Developments in Radiocarbon Dating Human - Environment Interactions (Geoarchaeology, Palaeoclimate studies, Landscape Archaeology, Environmental reconstructions, etc Bioarchaeology 4. Food preparation and consumption in Antiquity 5 .Stone, Plaster and Pigments (Technology and Provenance) 6. Ceramics, Glazes, Glass and Vitreous Materials (Technology and Provenance) 7.Metals and Metallurgical Ceramics (Technology and Provenance) 8.Integrated Site Studies (they should combine: excavation procedure, scientific studies of materials and environment, and archaeological interpretation) 9. Special Theme Session for Siena Micro/nano diagnostic and ancient technology
Mixtures and Mineral Reactions
Considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the physicochemical evolution of natural rocks through systematic analysis of the compositional properties and phase relations of their mineral assemblages. This book brings together concepts of classical thermodynamics, solution models, and atomic ordering and interactions that constitute a major basis of such analysis, with appropiate examples of application to subsolidus petrological problems. This book is written for an audience with a senior undergraduate level background in chemistry. Derivations of fundamental thermodynamic relations which are in need of reemphasis and clarification are presented.
Physical Properties and Thermodynamic Behaviour of Minerals
The role played by earth sciences in the scientific community has changed considerably during this century. Since the revolutionary discoveries of global processes such as plate tectonics, there has been an increasing awareness of just how fundamental many of the mechanisms which dominate in these processes depend on the physical properties of the materials of which the earth is made. One of the prime objectives of mineral sciences is now to understand and predict these properties in a truly quantitative manner. The macroscopic properties which are of most immediate interest in this context fall within the conventional definitions of thermodynamics, magnetism, elasticity, dielectric susceptibilities, conductivity etc. These properties reflect the microscopic contributions, at an atomistic level, of harmonic and anharmonic lattice vibrations, ionic and electronic transport as well as a great variety of ordering and clustering phenomena. The advances made by solid state physicists and chemists in defining the underlying phenomena lnvolved in the thermal evolution of materials have stimulated major new research initiatives within the Earth Sciences. Earth Scientists have combined to form active groups within the wider community of solid state and materials scientists working towards a better understanding of those physical processes which govern not only the behaviour of simple model compounds but also that of complex materials like minerals. Concomitant with this change in direction has come an increasing awareness of the need to use the typical working tools of other disciplines.
Diamonds in Nature: A Guide to Rough Diamonds
Diamonds in Nature: A Guide to Rough Diamonds illustrates the range of crystal shapes, colours, surface textures, and mineral inclusions of rough, uncut, naturally forming diamonds. Each chapter contains photographs that show the unique physical characteristics of the diamonds, and the accompanying text describes the processes that led to their formation. This book is an invaluable reference manual for professional geoscientists—including gemmologists and exploration geologists.
Metal Deposits in Relation to Plate Tectonics: Edition 2
In this book metal deposits, in particular those of non-ferrous and precious metals, are classified and analyzed in terms of their plate tectonic settings. This approach allows a meaningful treatment of metal deposits of different types and provides significant insights into both their genesis and formative environments. The updated 2nd edition incorporates the most significant advances in economic geology of the last 5 years. Particular attention is paid to the geological settings and generative models of gold deposits of all kinds.
Designing Optimal Strategies for Mineral Exploration
J.G. De Geoffroy
Few knowledgeable people would deny that the field of mineral exploration is facing some difficult times in the foreseeable future. Among the woes, we can cite a worldwide economic uneasiness reflected by sluggish and at times widely fluctuating metal prices, global financial uncertainties, and relentless pressures on costs despite a substantial slowing down of the rate of inflation. Furthermore, management is forced to tum to more sophisticated and expensive technologies and to look farther afield to more remote regions, as the better quality and more easily accessible ore deposits have now been revealed. This rather gloomy outlook should persuade explorationists to cast about for a new philosophy with which to guide mineral exploration through the challenging decades ahead. Once already, in the early 1960s, a call for change had been heard (Ref. 30 in Chapter 1), when it became obvious that the prospecting methods of yesteryear, so successful in the past, could not keep up with the rapidly growing demand for minerals of the postwar period. The answer, a massive introduction of sophisticated geophysical and geochemical technologies backed by new geo logical models, proved spectacularly successful throughout the 1960s and the 1970s. But for both economic and technological reasons, the brisk pace of the last two decades has considerably slowed down in the early 1980s, as if a new threshold has been reached.
Kimberlites and Their Xenoliths
In these days of information explosion and high-cost publishing, it is perhaps only reasonable for an author to convince the reading public that it is getting something worth reading. After all, intense research into the upper mantle over the past two decades has already resulted in a number of volumes on kim berlites and their xenoliths. So why yet another one? First, in this book I have concentrated on kimberlite as an individual rock-type and a sampler of the upper mantle, in the hope of complementing such monographs as Deep seated inclusions in kimberlites and the problem of the composition of the upper mantle by N. V. Sobolev and Geologie du Diamant by M. G. Bardet, which have concentrated more on specific aspects of kimberlite and upper mantle geology; as a result I have not attempted to describe diamond prospecting and mining and, although I have attempted to give some of the up-to-date views on xenolith petrology, the confines of space have not permitted me to explore the complexities of the upper mantle as deeply as has Sobolev. Second, the literature is vast and I have tried to pull together for the reader the wide range of views and infor mation presented both in the recent geological literature and in recent multi-author volumes such as the Proceedings Vol umes of the two International Conferences on Kimberlite held at Capetown in 1973 and Santa Fe in 1977.
Quartz: Deposits, Mineralogy and Analytics
The book will include contributions of the state of the art of quartz raw materials (deposits and properties) and their analytics.
The chapters are presented by leading scientists in the quartz field. The presentations cover the main interrelations between genesis of quartz - formation of specific properties - analytics - industrial applications of SiO2 raw materials.
Introduction to Mineralogy: Crystallography and Petrology
Carl W. Correns
The first edition of this book has been out of print for seven years. The ques tion as to whether a new edition should be produced was answered affirmatively on many counts. I think that the considerations which led me to write this book in 1949 are still valid (see Preface to the First Edition). Moreover, a description of those areas of interest which together comprise the field of Mineralogy seems to be more necessary than ever, because of the rapid advances which have been made. Due to the rapid extension of our knowledge, I did not dare again to treat the whole field by myself. Accordingly, Professor ZEMANN kindly agreed to revise the first part of the book dealing with Crystallography. He made many important corrections. In Part II the basic question arose as to whether the physical-chemical approach to rock forming processes, becoming more and more important, required inclusive treatment of the fundamentals of physical chemistry in the book. I see certain dangers in trying to produce a petrology text which is physical chemically self-sufficient. Thus, I retain the same opinion which prevailed when I wrote the previous edition; namely that the necessary basic knowledge should be acquired in lectures and laboratory classes in physics, chemistry, and physical chemistry, and with the help of standard literature dealing with these subjects. This back ground is, therefore, presumed and fundamentals are only referred to occasionally.
Tectonics and the Formation of Magmas
Yu. M. Sheinmann
It is a pleasure to any author to enlarge the circle of his readers. Naturally this is a pleasure to me. At the same time, however, misgivings arise: whether these pages will con vey to the circle of new readers the thoughts that excite the author. Science is advancing rapidly in our day. It is already apparent that many things in the book should have been stated differently. I have tried to make additions to the English-language edition in such a way that they do not require great alteration of the text. I ask my new readers to remember that this book was written primarily for my fellow countrymen and that, because of this, some chapters contain descriptions of regions little known to you and information on the USSR almost unknown from other publications. I hope that, despite this, geologists who read the English-language edition will find something of interest to themselves in it and that their labor will not have been in vain. Yu. M. Sheinmann Institute of Phys ics of the Earth Moscow v PREFACE The study of endogenetic processes has long pushed us into investigation of ever deeper parts of the earth. Not long ago all attention was focused on depths where ore deposits appear, where metamorphic and igneous rocks, which later become exposed at the surface, are formed, where granites originate.
Petrology and Genesis of Leucite-Bearing Rocks
Hydrodynamics of Oil and Gas
There has long been interest in the flow of fluids through permeable aqui fers. Stratigraphic trapping of oil and gas by permeability changes in an aquifer and the amounts of hydrocarbons so trapped are major concerns to the oil industry. The variations of aquifer width and geometry and of the positions in an aquifer where hydrocarbons can be trapped by hydro dynamic forces are intimately intertwined in determining the shape, and thus the volume, of hydrocarbons. Perhaps the seminal work in this area is reflected by King Hubbert's massive review paper "Entrapment of Petroleum under Hydrodynamic Conditions" (Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull. 37(8), 1954-2026, 1953), in which a wide variety of effects, such as capillarity, buoyancy, surface tension, and salinity of water, are incorporated as basic factors influenc ing the positioning and shaping of hydrocarbon masses in hydrodynami cally active aquifers. In those days, while the basic physics could readily be appreciated, development of a detailed quantitative understanding of the interplay of the various factors in controlling or modulating hydro dynamic shapes was severely limited by computer abilities. Indeed, Hub bert actually constructed and photographed physical models, using alcohol and water, to illustrate basic concepts. It is difficult to obtain an appreciation of the behavior of flow geometries from such experiments when all factors are permitted to vary simultaneously.
Metallogeny of Tin
Metallogeny of Tin attempts to develop a general metallogenic model for tin in identifying the essential or relevant processes in tin ore formation. The methodological principle is based on an interplay between a background of basic petrogenetic concepts and a number of specific local and regional data on tin deposits and tin provinces. The author condenses the many apparently specific complexities encountered in individual ore deposits to a few major processes of general importance.
Statistical Evaluations in Exploration for Mineral Deposits
Statistical evaluations of exploration data are the basis for decisions to be made at various stages of an exploration project. In contrast to other geostatistical books, Statistical Evaluations in Exploration for Mineral Deposits focuses not only on theory, but examples are also given, frequently originating from experience in mineral exploration by the author who worked worldwide for a mining company. Together with its companion volume, Economic Evaluations in Exploration, the book illustrates methods used in exploration campaigns and mining activities. It is intended as a vademecum for geologists who are forced to make quick decisions regarding an exploration project. It also addresses scientists and students involved in teaching or in mineral economic evaluations, recommendations or decisions.
Feldspars and Feldspathoids: Structures, Properties and Occurrences
The feldspars form the most abundant group of minerals in the crust of the Earth and Moon and also occur in many meteo rites. They playa fundamental role in all rock-forming processes at shallow depths, but are rare or absent from the upper mantle. Their detailed study is thus essential for the understan ding of such varied processes as magma genesis and differentia tion, metamorphism, al teration, erosion and sedimentation. This interest is show by the fact that two previous NATO Advanced Study Institutes on feldspars were held in Oslo in 1962 and in Manchester in 1972. The feldspars are particularly sui table for detailed studies, as they have very simple chemistry and develop some of the most complex microstructures known. The microstructures are often slow to form but are easily preserved, so that they are potentially extremely informative about the geological history of the rocks in which they occur. Furthermore, their study involves physical and chemical methods of increasing sophistication so that the results obtained are not always immediately understandable to research workers outside the field of modern mineralogy. Progress in knowledge about feldspars is probably slower in penetrating the fields of petrology and geochemistry than that on other mineral groups. For these reasons among others, i~ was particularly appropriate to hold a third NATO ASI on feldspars approximately ten years after the last one.
Mineral Resource Estimation
Mario E. Rossi
Mineral resource estimation has changed considerably in the past 25 years: geostatistical techniques have become commonplace and continue to evolve; computational horsepower has revolutionized all facets of numerical modeling; mining and processing operations are often larger; and uncertainty quantification is becoming standard practice. Recent books focus on historical methods or details of geostatistical theory. So there is a growing need to collect and synthesize the practice of modern mineral resource estimation into a book for undergraduate students, beginning graduate students, and young geologists and engineers. It is especially fruitful that this book is written by authors with years of relevant experience performing mineral resource estimation and with years of relevant teaching experience. This comprehensive textbook and reference fills this need.
Igneous Rocks of South-West England
This volume illustrates some of the significant aspects of magmatic activity from Devonian (408 million years ago) to early Permian (270 million years ago) times in SW England. This period covers the progressive development of the Variscan mountain-building episode, from initial basin formation to final deformation and the subsequent development of a fold mountain belt - the Variscan Orogen. Both extrusive (volcanic) and intrusive (plutonic) rocks are found in the orogen, and chart the various stages of its magmatic development. The sites described in this volume are key localities selected for conservation because they are representative of the magmatic history of the orogen from initiation to stabilization. Some of the earliest volcanic activity in the Devonian is represented by submarine basaltic and rhyolitic lavas developed in subsiding basins, caused by the attenuation of the existing continental crust. In some cases, extensive rifting and attendant magmatism produced narrow zones of true oceanic crust, whereas elsewhere basaltic volcanism is related to fractures in the continental crust at the margins of the basins. After the filling of the sedimentary basins, and their deformation caused by crustal shortening (late Carboniferous Period), further activity is manifested by the emplacement of the Cornubian granites and later minor basaltic volcanism in the early Permian. Accounts of the constituent parts of this history have enriched geological literature from the nineteenth century onwards, and have contributed to the advancement and understanding of magmatic and tectonic processes.
Base Metal Sulfide Deposits in Sedimentary and Volcanic Environments: Proceedings of the DMG-GDMB-SGA-Meeting Aachen, 1985
The geology and metallogeny of "base metal sulfide deposits" in Europe, Africa and Australia was the topic of the DMG-GDMB-SAG Joint Meeting held in Aachen (FRG), September 16-19, 1985. Divided into two parts, the presented papers cover the description and interpretation of sediment-hosted as well as volcanic-sediment-hosted and volcanic-hosted copper-zinc-lead (gold-silver) deposits. The present compilation is an overview of current research activities and results on copper-zinc-lead deposits in classical mining districts considering geological, lithological, geochemical and tectonic parameters of ore formation. Even in periods of depressed metal prices, "base metal sulfide deposits" still remain one of the most attractive mineral exploration targets. This extensive review provides valuable information to researchers and explorationists.
Manganese Ores of Supergene Zone: Geochemistry of Formation
The major part of the world's high grade industrial manganese ore is being mined in supergene deposits. This book represents the first attempt to bring together not only academic but also commercial data on all aspects of the geochemistry of formation of supergene manganese ores. It is a distinctive account of the geology, geochemistry, mineralogy, experimental modelling studies, mechanisms of formation processes and geochemical evolution through geological time of manganese ores for all types of supergene deposits. Special emphasis is placed on the general geochemical model of supergene manganese ore formation, which can be applied in geochemical exploration. Despite the fact that supergene manganese ores have been used by mankind since the early centuries, it is only during the last decade that a comprehensive understanding of the nature of geochemical processes of formation of these deposits has become available and their potential as an economic resource has been recognized against other genetical types of manganese accumulations. Audience: This substantial and comprehensive volume is of interest to economic geologists, mining engineers, geochemists, mineralogists and other specialized geoscientists.
Hydrothermal Mineral Deposits: Principles and Fundamental Concepts for the Exploration Geologist
This book is intended primarily for exploration geologists and post graduate students attending specialist courses in mineral exploration. Exploration geologists are engaged not only in the search for new mineral deposits, but also in the extension and re-assessment of existing ones. To succeed in these tasks, the exploration geologist is required to be a "generalist" of the Earth sciences rather than a specialist. The exploration geologist needs to be familiar with most aspects of the geology of ore deposits, and detailed knowledge as well as experience play an all important role in the successful exploration for mineral commodities. In order to achieve this, it is essential that the exploration geologist be up to date with the latest developments in the evolution of concepts and ideas in the Earth sciences. This is no easy task, as thousands of publications appear every year in an ever increasing number of journals, periodicals and books. For this reason it is also difficult, at times, to locate appropriate references on a particular mineral deposit type, although this problem is alleviated by the existence of large bibliographic data bases of geological records, abstracts and papers on computers. During my teaching to explorationists and, indeed, during my years of work as an explorationist, the necessity of having a text dealing with the fundamental aspects of hydrothermal mineral deposits has always been compelling. Metallic mineral deposits can be categorised into three great families, namely: (I) magmatic; (2) sedimentary and residual; (3) hydrothermal.
Site Terms of Service
Location: United States
Language: English (United States)
By purchasing this item, you are transacting with Google Payments and agreeing to the Google Payments
Terms of Service