More related to cognitive psychology

Section I: Reaction time and mental speed 1. Ageing and response times: a comparison of sequential sampling models, Roger Ratcliff, Anjali Thapar, Philip L. Smith & Gail McKoon2. Inconsistency in response time as an indicator of cognitive ageing, David F. Hultsch, Michael A. Hunter, Stuart W. S. MacDonald & Esther Strauss3. Ageing and the ability to ignore irrelevant information in visual search and enumeration tasks, Elizabeth A. Maylor & Derrick G. Watson4. Individual differences and cognitive models of the mind: using the differentiation hypothesis to distinguish general and specific cognitive processes, Mike Anderson & Jeff Nelson5. Reaction time parameters, intelligence aging and death: the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study, Ian J. Deary & Geoff Der6. The wrong tree: time perception and time experience in the elderly, John WeardenSection II: Cognitive control and frontal lobe function 7. The chronometrics of task-set control, Stephen Monsell8. An evaluation of the frontal lobe theory of cognitive ageing, Louise H. Phillips & Julie D. Henry9. The gateway hypothesis of rostral prefrontal cortex (area 10) function, Paul W. Burgess, Jon S. Simons, Iroise Dumontheil & Sam J. Gilbert10. Prefrontal cortex and Spearmans g, John DuncanSection III: Memory and age 11. On reducing age-related declines in memory and executive control, Fergus I. M. Craik12. Working memory and ageing, Alan Baddeley, Hilary Baddeley, Dino Chincotta, Simona Luzzi & Christobel Meikle13. The own-age effect in face recognition, Timothy J. Perfect & Helen C. MoonSection IV: Real-world cognition 14. Cognitive ethology: giving real life to attention research, Alan Kingstone, Daniel Smilek, Elina Birmingham, Dave Cameron & Walter Bischof15. Are automated actions beyond conscious access?, Peter McLeod, Peter Sommerville & Nick Reed16. Operator functional state: the prediction of breakdown in human performance, Robert J. Hockey
How to assess critical aspects of cognitive functioning that are not measured by IQ tests: rational thinking skills.

Why are we surprised when smart people act foolishly? Smart people do foolish things all the time. Misjudgments and bad decisions by highly educated bankers and money managers, for example, brought us the financial crisis of 2008. Smart people do foolish things because intelligence is not the same as the capacity for rational thinking. The Rationality Quotient explains that these two traits, often (and incorrectly) thought of as one, refer to different cognitive functions. The standard IQ test, the authors argue, doesn't measure any of the broad components of rationality—adaptive responding, good judgment, and good decision making.

The authors show that rational thinking, like intelligence, is a measurable cognitive competence. Drawing on theoretical work and empirical research from the last two decades, they present the first prototype for an assessment of rational thinking analogous to the IQ test: the CART (Comprehensive Assessment of Rational Thinking).

The authors describe the theoretical underpinnings of the CART, distinguishing the algorithmic mind from the reflective mind. They discuss the logic of the tasks used to measure cognitive biases, and they develop a unique typology of thinking errors. The Rationality Quotient explains the components of rational thought assessed by the CART, including probabilistic and scientific reasoning; the avoidance of “miserly” information processing; and the knowledge structures needed for rational thinking. Finally, the authors discuss studies of the CART and the social and practical implications of such a test. An appendix offers sample items from the test.

Based on a symposium honoring the extensive work of Allen Newell -- one of the founders of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, human-computer interaction, and the systematic study of computational architectures -- this volume demonstrates how unifying themes may be found in the diversity that characterizes current research on computers and cognition. The subject matter includes:

* an overview of cognitive and computer science by leading researchers in the field;
* a comprehensive description of Allen Newell's "Soar" -- a computational architecture he developed as a unified theory of cognition;
* commentary on how the Soar theory of cognition relates to important issues in cognitive and computer science;
* rigorous treatments of controversial issues in cognition -- methodology of cognitive science, hybrid approaches to machine learning, word-sense disambiguation in understanding material language, and the role of capability processing constraints in architectural theory;
* comprehensive and systematic methods for studying architectural evolution in both hardware and software;
* a thorough discussion of the use of analytic models in human computer interaction;
* extensive reviews of important experiments in the study of scientific discovery and deduction; and
* an updated analysis of the role of symbols in information processing by Herbert Simon.

Incorporating the research of top scientists inspired by Newell's work, this volume will be of strong interest to a large variety of scientific communities including psychologists, computational linguists, computer scientists and engineers, and interface designers. It will also be valuable to those who study the scientific process itself, as it chronicles the impact of Newell's approach to research, simultaneously delving into each scientific discipline and producing results that transcend the boundaries of those disciplines.
This is the first book to explain why people misunderstand economics. From the cognitive shortcuts we use to make sense of complex information, to the metaphors we rely on and their effect on our thinking, this important book lays bare not only the psychological traits that distort our ability to understand such a vital topic, but also what this means for policy makers and civil society more widely.

Accessibly written, the book explores the mismatch between the complexities of economics and the constraints of human cognition that lie at the root of our misconceptions. The authors document and explain the gamut of cognitive strategies laypeople employ as they grapple with such complex topics as inflation, unemployment, economic crises, finance, and money in the modern economy. The book examines sources of misconceptions ranging from the intentionality fallacy, whereby economic phenomena are assumed to have been caused deliberately rather than to have come about by an interplay of many agents and causal factors, to the role of ideology in framing economic thinking.

Exposing the underlying biases and assumptions that undermine financial and economic literacy, and concluding with recommendations for how policies and ideas should be framed to enable a clearer understanding, this will be essential reading not only for students and researchers across psychology and economics, but also anyone interested in progressive public policy.

Visit the associated website for the book here:

The Handbook of Cognition provides a definitive synthesis of the most up-to-date and advanced work in cognitive psychology in a single volume. The editors have gathered together a team of world-leading researchers in specialist areas of the field, both traditional and `hot' new areas, to present a benchmark - in terms of theoretical insight and advances in methodology - of the discipline; a thorough overview of the most significant and current research in cognitive psychology that will serve this academic community like no other volume.

Core and established topics such as memory, attention, categorization, perception, and language are considered in depth, and from a fresh perspective, yet three chapters on cognitive neuroscience and two chapters on computational and mathematical modelling are a particularly innovative feature of this Handbook.

The Handbook is divided into the following sections:

Section I: Perception, Attention and Action

Section II: Learning and Memory

Section III: Language

Section IV: Reasoning and Decision-Making

Section V: Cognitive Neuropsychology

Section VI: Modelling Cognition

Coherent, authoritative, international and accessible to both advanced students as well as researchers, the Handbook of Cognition represents a guided tour of the research literature in cognitive psychology and cognitive science. Whether an established researcher in this field, or someone approaching it for the first time at a senior level, this volume will be indispensable reading and a reference for many years to come.

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