Yet the scientific evidence is clear: IQ tests are extraordinarily useful. IQ scores are related to a huge variety of important life outcomes like educational success, income, and even life expectancy, and biological studies have shown they are genetically influenced and linked to measures of the brain. Studies of intelligence and IQ are regularly published in the world's top scientific journals.
This book will offer an entertaining introduction to the state of the art in intelligence and IQ, and will show how we have arrived at what we know from a century's research. It will engage head-on with many of the criticisms of IQ testing by describing the latest high-quality scientific research, but will not be a simple point-by-point rebuttal: it will make a positive case for IQ research, focusing on the potential benefits for society that a better understanding of intelligence can bring.
In this provocative and accessible book, Michael Howe exposes serious flaws in our most widely accepted beliefs about intelligence. He shows that crucial assumptions are simply wrong and have had destructive social consequences. IQ is real enough, but the common idea that a quality of intelligence is the underlying cause of people's differing abilities is based on poor science as well as faulty reasoning.
Offering a powerful case for a better understanding of human intelligence, IQ in Question contradicts erroneous and destructive claims such as: IQ tests provide a measure of inherent mental capacities; intelligence and `race' are linked; IQ measures are good predictors of a person's success; intelligence cannot be changed; there is a `gene for intelligence'; and low IQ always means restricted capabilities.
The attempt to understand and engineer these abilities constitutes the new interdisciplinary field of artificial psychology, which is characterized by contributions from philosophy, cognitive psychology, neuroscience, computer science, and robotics. This work is intended for use as a main or supplementary introductory textbook for a course in cognitive psychology, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, or the philosophy of mind. It examines human abilities as operating requirements that an artificial person must have and analyzes them from a multidisciplinary approach.
The book is comprehensive in scope, covering traditional topics like perception, memory, and problem solving. However, it also describes recent advances in the study of free will, ethical behavior, affective architectures, social robots, and hybrid human-machine societies.
The editors have built Issues in Perception, Cognition, Development, and Personality: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Perception, Cognition, Development, and Personality in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Perception, Cognition, Development, and Personality: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility.
Cognition and Neuropsychology is dedicated to summarizing and characterizing the current scientific research in three substantive content areas, (i) Perception, Attention, and Action, (ii) Social Cognition, and (iii) Learning, Memory and Development. While some of the contributions focus on relatively narrow areas of research, others adopt a much broader stance, trying to understand and explain many different facets of behaviour across widely differing situations. Some contributions even try to bridge the fundamental gap between behaviour and genetics. The final part contains two chapters that discuss fundamental general issues in psychology, such as the fate of mentalism and the significance of phenomenal analyses. All chapters offer fascinating insights into current theorizing on the mind, and are written by some of the best-known scholars of our time.
This book will be an invaluable resource for researchers, professionals, teachers and students in the field of psychology.
One of the purposes of this volume, originally published in 1986, was to articulate some of the fundamental distinctions between and concordances among different orientations concerning the study of cognition. The collection includes chapters on information processing, ecological, Gestalt, physiological, and operant psychology.
The authors have attempted to discern the contribution of the study of bias to our understanding of the cognitive processes involved in each case, rather than proposing an inventory of the different types of biases. A special section has been devoted to studies on the correction of biases and cognitive aids.
Why are we surprised when smart people act foolishly? Smart people do foolish things all the time. Misjudgments and bad decisions by highly educated bankers and money managers, for example, brought us the financial crisis of 2008. Smart people do foolish things because intelligence is not the same as the capacity for rational thinking. The Rationality Quotient explains that these two traits, often (and incorrectly) thought of as one, refer to different cognitive functions. The standard IQ test, the authors argue, doesn't measure any of the broad components of rationality—adaptive responding, good judgment, and good decision making.
The authors show that rational thinking, like intelligence, is a measurable cognitive competence. Drawing on theoretical work and empirical research from the last two decades, they present the first prototype for an assessment of rational thinking analogous to the IQ test: the CART (Comprehensive Assessment of Rational Thinking).
The authors describe the theoretical underpinnings of the CART, distinguishing the algorithmic mind from the reflective mind. They discuss the logic of the tasks used to measure cognitive biases, and they develop a unique typology of thinking errors. The Rationality Quotient explains the components of rational thought assessed by the CART, including probabilistic and scientific reasoning; the avoidance of “miserly” information processing; and the knowledge structures needed for rational thinking. Finally, the authors discuss studies of the CART and the social and practical implications of such a test. An appendix offers sample items from the test.
Thinking Visually supports comprehension by reducing jargon and by providing many illustrations, educational applications, and problems for readers to solve. It provides a broad overview of topics that range from the visual images formed by babies to acting classes designed for the elderly, from visual diagrams created by children to visual diagrams created by psychologists, from producing and manipulating images to viewing animations. The final chapters discuss examples of instructional software and argue that the lack of such software in classrooms undermines the opportunity to develop visual thinking. The book includes the Animation TutorTM DVD to illustrate the application of research on visual thinking to improve mathematical reasoning.
Accessibly written, the book explores the mismatch between the complexities of economics and the constraints of human cognition that lie at the root of our misconceptions. The authors document and explain the gamut of cognitive strategies laypeople employ as they grapple with such complex topics as inflation, unemployment, economic crises, finance, and money in the modern economy. The book examines sources of misconceptions ranging from the intentionality fallacy, whereby economic phenomena are assumed to have been caused deliberately rather than to have come about by an interplay of many agents and causal factors, to the role of ideology in framing economic thinking.
Exposing the underlying biases and assumptions that undermine financial and economic literacy, and concluding with recommendations for how policies and ideas should be framed to enable a clearer understanding, this will be essential reading not only for students and researchers across psychology and economics, but also anyone interested in progressive public policy.
Visit the associated website for the book here: http://www.misunderstandeconomics.com/
In the area of education, findings from the study of memory are described which could have a major impact on testing practice, revision techniques for examinations and teaching basic literacy and numeracy. In applications to the law, recent findings shed new light on the dynamics of child abuse investigations, the status of traumatic memories recovered after long delays and a further challenge for the eyewitness: change blindness. Finally, in neuroscience, contributions cover the frightening question of whether patients can remember incidents during surgical operations under anaesthetic, the unexpected impact of handedness and rapid eye movements on memory proficiency and the status of déjà vu: mystical experience or memory error?
These accounts of recent research on applied memory have been written by leading experts in the field from both Europe and America, with the non-specialist in mind. They will interest students who wish to extend their reading beyond core material in cognitive psychology, graduates on more specialised courses in education, forensics and neuropsychology, and all those who wish to enrich their knowledge of the contemporary frontiers of applied memory research.
Core and established topics such as memory, attention, categorization, perception, and language are considered in depth, and from a fresh perspective, yet three chapters on cognitive neuroscience and two chapters on computational and mathematical modelling are a particularly innovative feature of this Handbook.
The Handbook is divided into the following sections:
Section I: Perception, Attention and Action
Section II: Learning and Memory
Section III: Language
Section IV: Reasoning and Decision-Making
Section V: Cognitive Neuropsychology
Section VI: Modelling Cognition
Coherent, authoritative, international and accessible to both advanced students as well as researchers, the Handbook of Cognition represents a guided tour of the research literature in cognitive psychology and cognitive science. Whether an established researcher in this field, or someone approaching it for the first time at a senior level, this volume will be indispensable reading and a reference for many years to come.
Chapters discuss the philosophy of Bayesian inference as well as provide several algorithms for performing ABC. Chapters also apply some of the algorithms in a tutorial fashion, with one specific application to the Minerva 2 model. In addition, the book discusses several applications of ABC methodology to recent problems in cognitive science.
Likelihood-Free Methods for Cognitive Science will be of interest to researchers and graduate students working in experimental, applied, and cognitive science.
Providing a subtheme of contemporary concern, Gillespie argues that a psychological theory open to everyday contexts has important implications for women, whose perspectives have been underrepresented in the literature of cognitive psychology. She does not posit contextualism as the next exclusive viewpoint but suggests instead a pluralism with no one viewpoint overshadowing the others.