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Glimpses of Creatures in Their Physical Worlds offers an eye-opening look into how the characteristics of the physical world drive the designs of animals and plants. These characteristics impose limits but also create remarkable and subtle opportunities for the functional biology of organisms. In particular, Steven Vogel examines the size and scale, and trade-offs among different physical processes. He pays attention to how the forms and activities of animals and plants reflect the materials available to nature, and he explores the unique constraints and possibilities provided by fluid flow, structural design, and environmental forces.

Each chapter of the book investigates a facet of the physical world, including the drag on small projectiles; the importance of diffusion and convection; the size-dependence of acceleration; the storage, conduction, and dissipation of heat; the relationship among pressure, flow, and choice in biological pumps; and how elongate structures tune their relative twistiness and bendiness. Vogel considers design-determining factors all too commonly ignored, and builds a bridge between the world described by physics books and the reality experienced by all creatures. Glimpses of Creatures in Their Physical Worlds contains a wealth of accessible information related to functional biology, and requires little more than a basic background in secondary-school science and mathematics.


Drawing examples from creatures of land, air, and water, the book demonstrates the many uses of biological diversity and how physical forces impact biological organisms.

How can geckoes walk on the ceiling and basilisk lizards run over water? What are the aerodynamic effects that enable small insects to fly? What are the relative merits of squids' jet-propelled swimming and fishes' tail-powered swimming? Why do horses change gait as they increase speed? What determines our own vertical leap? Recent technical advances have greatly increased researchers' ability to answer these questions with certainty and in detail.

This text provides an up-to-date overview of how animals run, walk, jump, crawl, swim, soar, hover, and fly. Excluding only the tiny creatures that use cilia, it covers all animals that power their movements with muscle--from roundworms to whales, clams to elephants, and gnats to albatrosses. The introduction sets out the general rules governing all modes of animal locomotion and considers the performance criteria--such as speed, endurance, and economy--that have shaped their selection. It introduces energetics and optimality as basic principles. The text then tackles each of the major modes by which animals move on land, in water, and through air. It explains the mechanisms involved and the physical and biological forces shaping those mechanisms, paying particular attention to energy costs.


Focusing on general principles but extensively discussing a wide variety of individual cases, this is a superb synthesis of current knowledge about animal locomotion. It will be enormously useful to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and a range of professional biologists, physicists, and engineers.

Most of us think about our circulatory system only when something goes wrong, but the amazing story of how it goes right--"magnificently right," as author Steven Vogel puts it--is equally worthy of our attention. It is physically remarkable, bringing food to (and removing waste from) a hundred trillion cells, coursing through 60,000 miles of arteries and veins (equivalent to over twice around the earth at the equator). And it is also intriguing. For instance, blood leaving the heart flows rapidly through the arteries, then slows down dramatically in the capillaries (to a speed of one mile every fifty days), but in the veins, on its way back to the heart, it speed up again. How? In Vital Circuits, Steven Vogel answers hundreds of such questions, in a fascinating, often witty, and highly original guide to the heart, vessels and blood. Vogel takes us through the realm of biology and into the neighboring fields of physics, fluid mechanics, and chemistry. We relive the discoveries of such scientists as William Harvey and Otto Loewi, and we consider the circulatory systems of such fellow earth-dwellers as octopuses, hummingbirds, sea gulls, alligators, snails, snakes, and giraffes. Vogel is a master at using everyday points of reference to illustrate potentially daunting concepts. Heating systems, kitchen basters, cocktail parties, balloons--all are pressed into service. And we learn not only such practical information as why it's a bad idea to hold your breath when you strain and why you might want to wear support hose on a long airplane flight, but also the answers to such seemingly unrelated issues as why duck breasts (but not chicken breasts) have dark meat and why dust accumulates on the blades of a fan. But the real fascination of Vital Circuits lies neither in its practical advice nor in its trivia. Rather, it is in the detailed picture we construct, piece by piece, of our extraordinary circulatory system. What's more, the author communicates not just information, but the excitement of discovering information. In doing so, he reveals himself to be an eloquent advocate for the cause of science as the most interesting of the humanities. Anyone curious about the workings of the body, whether afflicted with heart trouble or addicted to science watching, will find this book a goldmine of information and oelight.
Oxygen has had extraordinary effects on life. Three hundred million years ago, in Carboniferous times, dragonflies grew as big as seagulls, with wingspans of nearly a metre. Researchers claim they could have flown only if the air had contained more oxygen than today - probably as much as 35 per cent. Giant spiders, tree-ferns, marine rock formations and fossil charcoals all tell the same story. High oxygen levels may also explain the global firestorm that contributed to the demise of the dinosaurs after the asteroid impact. The strange and profound effects that oxygen has had on the evolution of life pose a riddle, which this book sets out to answer. Oxygen is a toxic gas. Divers breathing pure oxygen at depth suffer from convulsions and lung injury. Fruit flies raised at twice normal atmospheric levels of oxygen live half as long as their siblings. Reactive forms of oxygen, known as free radicals, are thought to cause ageing in people. Yet if atmospheric oxygen reached 35 per cent in the Carboniferous, why did it promote exuberant growth, instead of rapid ageing and death? Oxygen takes the reader on an enthralling journey, as gripping as a thriller, as it unravels the unexpected ways in which oxygen spurred the evolution of life and death. The book explains far more than the size of ancient insects: it shows how oxygen underpins the origin of biological complexity, the birth of photosynthesis, the sudden evolution of animals, the need for two sexes, the accelerated ageing of cloned animals like Dolly the sheep, and the surprisingly long lives of bats and birds. Drawing on this grand evolutionary canvas, Oxygen offers fresh perspectives on our own lives and deaths, explaining modern killer diseases, why we age, and what we can do about it. Advancing revelatory new ideas, following chains of evidence, the book ranges through many disciplines, from environmental sciences to molecular medicine. The result is a captivating vision of contemporary science and a humane synthesis of our place in nature. This remarkable book will redefine the way we think about the world.
There is no part of our bodies that fully rotates—be it a wrist or ankle or arm in a shoulder socket, we are made to twist only so far. And yet there is no more fundamental human invention than the wheel—a rotational mechanism that accomplishes what our physical form cannot. Throughout history, humans have developed technologies powered by human strength, complementing the physical abilities we have while overcoming our weaknesses. Providing a unique history of the wheel and other rotational devices—like cranks, cranes, carts, and capstans—Why the Wheel Is Round examines the contraptions and tricks we have devised in order to more efficiently move—and move through—the physical world.

Steven Vogel combines his engineering expertise with his remarkable curiosity about how things work to explore how wheels and other mechanisms were, until very recently, powered by the push and pull of the muscles and skeletal systems of humans and other animals. Why the Wheel Is Round explores all manner of treadwheels, hand-spikes, gears, and more, as well as how these technologies diversified into such things as hand-held drills and hurdy-gurdies. Surprisingly, a number of these devices can be built out of everyday components and materials, and Vogel’s accessible and expansive book includes instructions and models so that inspired readers can even attempt to make their own muscle-powered technologies, like trebuchets and ballista.

Appealing to anyone fascinated by the history of mechanics and technology as well as to hobbyists with home workshops, Why the Wheel Is Round offers a captivating exploration of our common technological heritage based on the simple concept of rotation. From our leg muscles powering the gears of a bicycle to our hands manipulating a mouse on a roller ball, it will be impossible to overlook the amazing feats of innovation behind our daily devices.
A provocative argument that environmental thinking would be better off if it dropped the concept of “nature” altogether and spoke instead of the built environment.

Environmentalism, in theory and practice, is concerned with protecting nature. But if we have now reached “the end of nature,” as Bill McKibben and other environmental thinkers have declared, what is there left to protect? In Thinking like a Mall, Steven Vogel argues that environmental thinking would be better off if it dropped the concept of “nature” altogether and spoke instead of the “environment”—that is, the world that actually surrounds us, which is always a built world, the only one that we inhabit. We need to think not so much like a mountain (as Aldo Leopold urged) as like a mall. Shopping malls, too, are part of the environment and deserve as much serious consideration from environmental thinkers as do mountains.

Vogel argues provocatively that environmental philosophy, in its ethics, should no longer draw a distinction between the natural and the artificial and, in its politics, should abandon the idea that something beyond human practices (such as “nature”) can serve as a standard determining what those practices ought to be. The appeal to nature distinct from the built environment, he contends, may be not merely unhelpful to environmental thinking but in itself harmful to that thinking. The question for environmental philosophy is not “how can we save nature?” but rather “what environment should we inhabit, and what practices should we engage in to help build it?”

This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the principles and applications of quantum mechanics with equal emphasis on concept building and problem solving. The book follows an integrated approach to expose the students to applications of quantum mechanics in both physics and chemistry streams. A chapter is devoted to biological applications as well, to evince the interest of the students pursuing courses in Biotechnology and Bioinformatics. Such unique organization of the book makes it suitable for both Quantum Mechanics and Quantum Chemistry courses, where the common areas like molecular structure and spectroscopy are emphasized. The book, in its second edition, continues to serve as an ideal textbook for the first-year postgraduate students of both physics and chemistry as well as for senior undergraduate students pursuing honours courses in these disciplines. It has been thoroughly revised and enlarged with the introduction of a new chapter on “Quantum Statistics and Planck's Law of Black-Body Radiation”, some important sections in various chapters and more worked-out examples. The book helps students learn difficult concepts of quantum mechanics with simpler mathematics and intuitive language, but without sacrificing rigour. It has informal classroom type approach suitable for self-learning. Key Features • Gives about 200 worked-out examples and chapter-end problems with hints and answers related to different areas of modern science including biology. • Highlights important technological developments based on Quantum Mechanics, such as electron microscope, scanning tunnelling microscope, lasers, Raman spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). • Provides adequate number of illustrations. • Includes detailed mathematical derivations separately in Appendices for a more rigorous approach.
This unique book looks for the first time at archery techniques from the point of view of the interrelationship between the anatomy of the human body and the anatomy of the bow. By highlighting the primary power sources involved in the performance of the sport it enables coaches and archers alike to understand and perfect their skills in ways that use the natural movements of archer and bow in co-ordination.
Previous books have emphasised, quite rightly, the importance of the right mental approach to the sport - concentration, determination, motivation and visualisation. However, mental powers on their own are not enough to guarantee a good performance. Archery is a natural psychophysical motor skill that depends on efficient use of bones, joints, muscles and tendons. Archery Anatomy combines clear, accurate drawings and diagrams with explanatory text to provide a primer on the subject that is accessible even to those with no technological bias.
The book is not tied to any specific national or international rules; it can be used by archers throughout the world to gain an understanding of the bio-mechanics of the sport. Originating from the author's awareness that the basic problems of most archers stemmed from their ignorance of these aspects, it should make an invaluable contribution to the overall improvement of performance standards.

Despite the important interrelationship in archery between the anatomy of the human body and the anatomy of the bow, no book on the subject has previously been published. ARCHERY ANATOMY will therefore be an important and unique primer for coaches and performers alike. Detailed drawings combined with explanatory text explain how the skeleton and muscles should be used to improve performance in the most natural way, without artificial or strained movements. The book will stimulate analysis and understanding of the sport and, since it is not tied to any national or international rules, it will be useful to archers throughout the world, regardless of what discipline is practised. Coming at a time when sports science is becoming an essential qualification for all coaches, it is likely to be recognised as the standard work on the subject.

Renal Physiology helps you to quickly and easily grasp the fundamentals of renal physiology and learn how to apply them in a clinical context. Thoroughly updated, this medical reference book in the Mosby Physiology Monograph Series provides a basic understanding of normal kidney function at the cellular and molecular level. Attractively illustrated with clear 2-color diagrams, it also facilitates study with learning objectives, "In the Clinic" and "At the Molecular Level" boxes, chapter summaries, and clinical cases with review questions and explained answers.Stay current with clear, accurate coverage of the physiology of normal renal function focusing on the needs of the student. Bridge the gap between normal function and disease with pathophysiology content throughout the book. Understand complex concepts by examining more than more than 250 clear, 2-color diagrams.Perform quick searches ... add your own notes and bookmarks ... and more! Put theory into practice with "In the Clinic" or "At the Molecular Level " boxes in each chapter that explain the practical applications of fundamental knowledge.Deepen your understanding of fundamental and advanced information with an expanded collection of review questions reviewed and reorganized by chapter.Master the material more easily with learning objectives, overview boxes, key words and concepts, and chapter summaries.Apply what you've learned to real-life clinical situations with clinical cases in question-answer format at the end of each chapter. Gain a quick and easy understanding of the physiology of kidney and renal function
In the United States, an estimated 42 million people suffer from some form of movement disorder. Common movement disorders include Parkinson's disease (PD), essential tremor (ET), and dystonia. Although medications may be helpful for these conditions, in many patients, symptoms cannot be controlled with medications alone. In such situations, their physicians may recommend a surgical procedure known as Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). DBS is a revolutionary technology using an implanted device to deliver electrical stimulation to the brain to help symptoms, alleviate suffering, and improve quality of life. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved DBS as a treatment for essential tremor in 1997, for Parkinson's disease in 2002, and dystonia in 2003.

Deep brain stimulation has dramatically changed the lives of many patients with uncontrollable tremors. Patients often can resume normal activities, such as feeding and dressing themselves, and can have active and fulfilling lives. The need for anti-tremor medications is often reduced or eliminated.

Though it's no longer considered experimental, DBS is, for now, still used as a second- or third-line treatment, reserved for patients with more advanced cases of the disease and those for whom medication alone is inadequate or can't be adjusted precisely enough to keep their tremors and writhing under control.

However the idea of this surgery being a "last resort" is an evolving concept. Ten years ago doctors were operating on only the most severe, disabled, wheelchair-dependent patients, now they are operating on patients with moderate-to-severe cases of PD, ET and Dystonia. The thought is that this trend will continue. Instead of saying "wait another five to ten years until you become more disabled" doctors are realizing that the earlier they use DBS, the more they can improve the quality of life of their patients.

Learn to improve the respiratory care of neonates, infants, and children. Neonatal and Pediatric Respiratory Care, 5th Edition gives you a solid foundation in the assessment and treatment of respiratory disorders. Clear, full-color coverage simplifies the principles of respiratory care while emphasizing clinical application. A critical piece in respiratory care’s total curriculum solution, this new edition includes all the changes in current clinical practice and in the education environment. Learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter break down key content into measurable behaviors, criteria, and conditions, and self-assessment questions provide an excellent review for the NBRC Neonatal/Pediatric Specialty exam.UPDATED! Content reflects the latest developments in the field meeting the needs of AD programs and BS Respiratory Care programs which are growing in this field.NBRC exam-style assessment questions test your comprehension of the material in each chapter.Neonatal and pediatric disorders case studies provide an opportunity to see how content covered in the text applies to the more difficult areas of care for neonatal and pediatric disorders. Comprehensive test preparation is provided through coverage of all the content in the matrix for the NPS exam.Learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter highlight what you should learn by breaking down key content into measurable behaviors, criteria, and conditions.Academic and authoritative presentation of content covers all of the major topics of respiratory care for neonates, infants, and children, including both theory and application.Dedicated Quality and Safety chapter addresses quality care for the neonatal/pediatric patient.NEW! Revised chapter Invasive Mechanical Ventilation of the Neonate and Pediatric Patient, conforms to the new terminology and taxonomy for modes of ventilation.NEW! Additional case studies provides more application opportunities for you. NEW! Revised content better correlates to the NBRC NPS exam.
This revised edition of an extremely clear Navy training manual leaves nothing to be desired in its presentation. Thorough in its coverage of basic theory, from the lever and inclined plane to internal combustion engines and power trains, it requires nothing more than an understanding of the most elementary mathematics.
Beginning with the simplest of machines — the lever — the text proceeds to discussions of the block and tackle (pulleys and hoists), wheel and axle, the inclined plane and the wedge, the screw, and different types of gears (simple, spur, bevel, herringbone, spiral, worm, etc.). A chapter on the concept of work discusses the measurement of work, friction, and efficiency; this is followed by investigations of power, force, and pressure, with explanations of the uses of scales, balances, gauges, and barometers. The fundamentals of hydrostatic and hydraulic machines (such as the hydraulic braking system and the hydraulic press) are discussed in detail.
The remaining chapters cover machine elements (bearings and springs), basic mechanisms (gear differential, couplings, cams, clutches), the internal combustion engine and power trains (including explanations of various transmission systems — synchromesh, auxiliary, etc.).
Every concept is clearly defined, and discussions always build easily from elementary theory to specific applications familiar to anyone with the slightest interest in mechanics. Important concepts, machine components, and techniques are clearly illustrated in more than 200 diagrams, drawings, and cross-sections that reveal inner workings — all of these help to clarify even further an already clear and well-organized presentation.
Although it was originally designed for use in U.S. Naval Training Schools, this book can be used to great advantage as a basic text in mechanical engineering in standard technical schools, and it will be immensely valuable even to lay readers who desire a basic knowledge of mechanics.
 English physicist and mathematician, Sir Isaac Newton is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time. Newton’s book ‘Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica’ laid the foundations for classical mechanics and ‘Optiks’ made seminal contributions to modern physical optics. This comprehensive eBook presents Newton’s collected works, with numerous illustrations, rare texts, informative introductions and the usual Delphi bonus material. (Version 1)


* Beautifully illustrated with images relating to Newton’s life and works

* New introductions, specially written for this collection, by Professor Kenneth Richard Seddon, OBE (QUILL, The Queen’s University of Belfast)

* Images of how the books were first published, giving your eReader a taste of the original texts

* Excellent formatting of the texts

* Key works are fully illustrated with their original diagrams

* Features three biographies - discover Newton’s intriguing life

* Scholarly ordering of texts into chronological order and genres


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CONTENTS:


Scientific Works

PHILOSOPHIÆ NATURALIS PRINCIPIA MATHEMATICA

THE MATHEMATICAL PRINCIPLES OF NATURAL PHILOSOPHY (MOTTE TRANSLATION)

OPTICKS


Theological Works

THE CHRONOLOGY OF ANCIENT KINGDOMS AMENDED

OBSERVATIONS ON DANIEL AND THE APOCALYPSE OF ST. JOHN

AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF TWO NOTABLE CORRUPTIONS OF SCRIPTURE


The Biographies

MEMOIRS OF SIR ISAAC NEWTON’S LIFE by William Stukeley

SIR ISAAC NEWTON by Sarah K. Bolton

SIR ISAAC NEWTON by Henry Martyn Taylor


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Take the easiest path to respiratory pharmacology mastery with Rau’s Respiratory Care Pharmacology, 9th Edition. With broken-down terminology, relatable explanations, and reader-friendly writing, Rau simplifies the process of learning pharmacology material like never before to prepare you for success on your exams and in professional practice! This new edition includes the most recent advances related to apneic and asthmatic pharmacology, twice the number of clinical scenarios, more drug formulation tables, and a new mobile app for interactive drug flashcards. Enhanced readability helps readers more easily understand difficult material.Full-color design makes the text more reader-friendly and helps the learner to identify relevant details within an illustration.Learning objectives parallel the levels tested by the NBRC exams to help readers identify important information that goes beyond memorization and recall.Key terms with definitions provide easy access to the pharmacologic vocabulary readers should embrace.Key points in each chapter highlight important concepts in the lesson.Self-assessment questions offer readers the opportunity to test themselves on content learned with thought-provoking questions that require short answers.Clinical scenarios with follow-up SOAP assessment help readers assess their comprehension of the material.Glossary of all key terms in the text aids readers in understanding the terminology associated with respiratory care pharmacology.Appendices on common units, systems of measurement, and acceptable mixtures provides references to need-to-know information such as abbreviations, conversion charts for temperatures, liquid metric and solids, and a simple drug compatibility chart for drug mixtures.Alphabetical drug index offers a direct index to look up information based on drug name.NEW! Recent advances related to apneic and asthmatic pharmacology familiarize readers with current information. NEW! Twice the number of clinical scenarios engages the reader and helps them apply what they have learned.NEW! Mobile app for interactive drug flashcards provides a more technology-savvy, portable approach to the study and review of respiratory pharmacology.NEW! More drug formulation tables that include drug categories, brand names, and dosages provide a go to reference for better consistency and readability.
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