What does E=mc2 actually mean? Dr. Brian Cox and Professor Jeff Forshaw go on a journey to the frontier of twenty-first century science to unpack Einstein's famous equation. Explaining and simplifying notions of energy, mass, and light-while exploding commonly held misconceptions-they demonstrate how the structure of nature itself is contained within this equation. Along the way, we visit the site of one of the largest scientific experiments ever conducted: the now-famous Large Hadron Collider, a gigantic particle accelerator capable of re-creating conditions that existed fractions of a second after the Big Bang.A collaboration between one of the youngest professors in the United Kingdom and a distinguished popular physicist, Why Does E=mc2? is one of the most exciting and accessible explanations of the theory of relativity.
The Handbook concentrates on practical aspects and introduces the principle function of ion sources. The basic plasma parameters are defined and discussed. The working principles of various ion sources are explained, and examples of each type of ion source are presented with their operational data. Tables of ion current for various elements and charge states summarize the performance of different ion sources.
The problems related to the production of ions of non-gaseous elements are detailed, and data on useful materials for evaporation and ion source construction are summarized. Additional chapters are dedicated to extraction and beam formation, ion beam diagnosis, ion source electronics, and computer codes for extraction, acceleration, and beam transport. Emittance and brilliance are described and space charge effects and neutralization discussed. Various methods for the measurement of current, profile, emittance, and time structure are presented and compared. Intensity limits for these methods are provided for different ion energies.
Typical problems related to the operation of ion source plasmas are discussed and practical examples of circuits are given. The influence of high voltage on ion source electronics and possibilities for circuit protection are covered. The generation of microwaves and various microwave equipment are described and special problems related to microwave operation are summarized.
The Handbook of Ion Sources is a valuable reference on the subject, of benefit to practitioners and graduate students interested in accelerators, ion implantation, and ion beam techniques.
Timeless and collectible, the lectures are essential reading, not just for students of physics but for anyone seeking an introduction to the field from the inimitable Feynman.
“A modern voyage of discovery.” —Frank Wilczek, Nobel Laureate, author of The Lightness of Being
The Higgs boson is one of our era’s most fascinating scientific frontiers and the key to understanding why mass exists. The most recent book on the subject, The God Particle, was a bestseller. Now, Caltech physicist Sean Carroll documents the doorway that is opening—after billions of dollars and the efforts of thousands of researchers at the Large Hadron Collider in Switzerland—into the mind-boggling world of dark matter. The Particle at the End of the Universe has it all: money and politics, jealousy and self-sacrifice, history and cutting-edge physics—all grippingly told by a rising star of science writing.
The first edition of Principles of Plasma Discharges and MaterialsProcessing, published over a decade ago, was lauded for itscomplete treatment of both basic plasma physics and industrialplasma processing, quickly becoming the primary reference forstudents and professionals.
The Second Edition has been carefully updated and revised toreflect recent developments in the field and to further clarify thepresentation of basic principles. Along with in-depth coverage ofthe fundamentals of plasma physics and chemistry, the authors applybasic theory to plasma discharges, including calculations of plasmaparameters and the scaling of plasma parameters with controlparameters.
New and expanded topics include:
* Updated cross sections
* Diffusion and diffusion solutions
* Generalized Bohm criteria
* Expanded treatment of dc sheaths
* Langmuir probes in time-varying fields
* Electronegative discharges
* Pulsed power discharges
* Dual frequency discharges
* High-density rf sheaths and ion energy distributions
* Hysteresis and instabilities
* Helicon discharges
* Hollow cathode discharges
* Ionized physical vapor deposition
* Differential substrate charging
With new chapters on dusty plasmas and the kinetic theory ofdischarges, graduate students and researchers in the field ofplasma processing should find this new edition more valuable thanever.
With great humor and clarity, Chad Orzel explains to Emmy, and to human readers, just what quantum mechanics is and how it works—and why, although you can’t use it to catch squirrels or eat steak, it’s still bizarre, amazing, and important to every dog and human.
In 1900, German physicist Max Planck postulated that light, or radiant energy, can exist only in the form of discrete packages or quanta. This profound insight, along with Einstein's equally momentous theories of relativity, completely revolutionized man's view of matter, energy, and the nature of physics itself.
In this lucid layman's introduction to quantum theory, an eminent physicist and noted popularizer of science traces the development of quantum theory from the turn of the century to about 1930 — from Planck's seminal concept (still developing) to anti-particles, mesons, and Enrico Fermi's nuclear research. Gamow was not just a spectator at the theoretical breakthroughs which fundamentally altered our view of the universe, he was an active participant who made important contributions of his own. This "insider's" vantage point lends special validity to his careful, accessible explanations of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, Niels Bohr's model of the atom, the pilot waves of Louis de Broglie and other path-breaking ideas.
In addition, Gamow recounts a wealth of revealing personal anecdotes which give a warm human dimension to many giants of 20th-century physics. He ends the book with the Blegdamsvej Faust, a delightful play written in 1932 by Niels Bohr's students and colleagues to satirize the epochal developments that were revolutionizing physics. This celebrated play is available only in this volume.
Written in a clear, lively style, and enhanced by 12 photographs (including candid shots of Rutherford, Bohr, Pauli, Heisenberg, Fermi, and others), Thirty Years that Shook Physics offers both scientists and laymen a highly readable introduction to the brilliant conceptions that helped unlock many secrets of energy and matter and laid the groundwork for future discoveries.
Welcome to Atom Land, the impossibly small world of quantum physics. With award–winning physics Jon Butterworth as your guide, you’ll set sail from Port Electron in search of strange new terrain. Each discovery will expand the horizons of your trusty map—from the Hadron Island to the Isle of Quarks and beyond. Just beware of Dark Energy and other sea monsters!
A masterful work of metaphor, Atom Land also gives form to the forces that shape the universe: Electromagnetism is a highway system; the strong force, a railway; the weak force, an airline. But, like Butterworth, you may find that curiosity is the strongest force of all—one that pulls you across the subatomic seas, toward the unknown realm of Antimatter, and to the very outer reaches of the cosmos.
An internationally known author, speaker, and medical physicist, Dr. Mould visited the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in December 1987 and in June 1998. Chernobyl Record: The Definitive History of the Chernobyl Catastrophe begins with a brief description of why the accident occurred and of eye witness accounts. The book then examines the early medical response and follow up of patients with acute radiation syndrome, including power plant workers and liquidators, the evacuation and resettlement, the current and future status of the sarcophagus, dose measurement and estimation methods, population doses, the contamination of the environment, psychological illness in adults and thyroid cancer in children, and the predicted cancer incidence in the 21st century, including leukemia and solid cancers.
Highly illustrated, the book includes color photographs of the early and late effects on the skin of firemen who fought the blaze, the control room where operators survived, the damage inside the sarcophagus, and the remaining radioactive fuel masses within the sarcophagus, such as the so-called "Elephant's Foot" mass for which samples were chipped off using Kalashnikov rifles. Authored by a member of the UK Government Delegation that attended the first post-accident conference in August 1986 at the IAEA in Vienna, the book also covers the accidents at Three Mile Island, Kyshtym, and Tokaimura; the effects of the Hiroshoma and Nagasaki atomic bombs; and information concerning the semi-palatinsk nuclear weapons test site in the former USSR.
About this new exam: The AP Physics 1 course focuses on the big ideas typically included in the first and second semesters of an algebra-based, introductory college-level physics course. REA's all-new AP Physics 1 Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject.
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The Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the new AP® Physics 1 course description outline and actual AP® test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Written by an AP® Physics teacher, the targeted review prepares students for the new test by focusing on the new framework concepts and learning objectives tested on the redesigned AP® Physics 1 exam.
Easy-to-read review chapters in outline format cover all the topics tested on the new exam: kinematics; dynamics; Newton's laws; circular motion and universal law of gravitation; work, energy, and conservation of energy; rotational motion; DC circuits; mechanical waves and sound; and more.
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• It took more than an iceberg to sink the Titanic.
• The Challenger disaster was predicted.
• Unbreakable glass dinnerware had its origin in railroad lanterns.
• A football team cannot lose momentum.
• Mercury thermometers are prohibited on airplanes for a crucial reason.
• Kryptonite bicycle locks are easily broken.
“Things fall apart” is more than a poetic insight—it is a fundamental property of the physical world. Why Things Break explores the fascinating question of what holds things together (for a while), what breaks them apart, and why the answers have a direct bearing on our everyday lives.
When Mark Eberhart was growing up in the 1960s, he learned that splitting an atom leads to a terrible explosion—which prompted him to worry that when he cut into a stick of butter, he would inadvertently unleash a nuclear cataclysm. Years later, as a chemistry professor, he remembered this childhood fear when he began to ponder the fact that we know more about how to split an atom than we do about how a pane of glass breaks.
In Why Things Break, Eberhart leads us on a remarkable and entertaining exploration of all the cracks, clefts, fissures, and faults examined in the field of materials science and the many astonishing discoveries that have been made about everything from the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger to the crashing of your hard drive. Understanding why things break is crucial to modern life on every level, from personal safety to macroeconomics, but as Eberhart reveals here, it is also an area of cutting-edge science that is as provocative as it is illuminating.
From the Hardcover edition.
As computer chips continue to shrink in size, scientists anticipate the end of the road: A computer in which each switch is comprised of a single atom. Such a device would operate under a different set of physical laws: The laws of quantum mechanics. Johnson gently leads the curious outsider through the surprisingly simple ideas needed to understand this dream, discussing the current state of the revolution, and ultimately assessing the awesome power these machines could have to change our world.
From the Trade Paperback edition.
* Includes chapters on practical examples and problems
* Contains hints to solving problems which are included in theappendix
* Avoids complex and extensive mathematical treatments
* A modern approach to nuclear physics, covering the basic theory,but emphasising the many and important applications
Max Delbruck and George Gamow, the so-called ordinary geniuses of Segre's third book, were not as famous or as decorated as some of their colleagues in midtwentieth-century physics, yet these two friends had a profound influence on how we now see the world, both on its largest scale (the universe) and its smallest (genetic code). Their maverick approach to research resulted in truly pioneering science.
Wherever these men ventured, they were catalysts for great discoveries. Here Segre honors them in his typically inviting and elegant style and shows readers how they were far from "ordinary". While portraying their personal lives Segre, a scientist himself, gives readers an inside look at how science is done--collaboration, competition, the influence of politics, the role of intuition and luck, and the sense of wonder and curiosity that fuels these extraordinary minds.
Ordinary Geniuses will appeal to the readers of Simon Singh, Amir Aczel, and other writers exploring the history of scientific ideas and the people behind them.
When Marie Curie, Enrico Fermi, and Edward Teller forged the science of radioactivity, they began a revolution that ran from the nineteenth century through the course of World War II and the Cold War to our current confrontation with the dangers of nuclear power and proliferation. While nuclear science improves our lives, radiation’s invisible powers can trigger cancer and cellular mayhem. Writing with a biographer’s passion, New York Times bestselling author Craig Nelson unlocks one of the great mysteries of the universe.
In The Age of Radiance, Nelson illuminates a pageant of fascinating historical figures: Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, J. Robert Oppenheimer, Curtis LeMay, John F. Kennedy, Robert McNamara, Ronald Reagan, and Mikhail Gorbachev, among others. He reveals how Jewish scientists fleeing Hitler transformed America from a nation that created light bulbs into one that split atoms; Alfred Nobel’s dream of global peace; and how, in our time, emergency workers and utility employees fought to contain life-threatening nuclear reactors. By tracing our complicated relationship with the dangerous energy we unleashed, Nelson discusses how atomic power and radiation are indivisible from our everyday lives.
Brilliantly told and masterfully crafted, The Age of Radiance provides a new understanding of a misunderstood epoch in history and restores to prominence the forgotten heroes and heroines who have changed all of our lives for better and for worse. “This is the kind of book that doesn’t just inform you but leaves you feeling smarter.” (The Dallas Morning News).
The world of quantum physics is generally thought of as hopelessly esoteric. While classical physics gives us the laws governing why a ball rolls downhill, how a plane is able to fly, and so on, its quantum cousin gives us particles that are actually waves, “spooky” action at a distance, and Schrodinger’s unlucky cat. But, believe it or not, even the most mundane of everyday activities is profoundly influenced by the abstract and exotic world of the quantum.
In Breakfast with Einstein, Chad Orzel illuminates the strange phenomena lurking just beneath the surface of our ordinary lives by digging into the surprisingly complicated physics involved in his (and anyone’s) morning routine. Orzel, author of How to Teach Quantum Physics to Your Dog, explores how quantum connects with everyday reality, and offers engaging, layperson-level explanations of the mind-bending ideas central to modern physics.
From the sun, alarm clocks, and the red glow of a toaster’s hot filaments (the glow that launched quantum mechanics) to the chemistry of food aroma, a typical day is rich with examples of quantum weirdness. Breakfast with Einstein reveals the hidden physics all around us, and after reading this book, your ordinary mornings will never seem quite as ordinary again.
With Reactions bestselling author Theodore Gray continues the journey through our molecular and chemical world that began with the tour de force The Elements and continued with Molecules. In The Elements, Gray gave us a never-before-seen, mesmerizing photographic view of the 118 elements in the periodic table. In Molecules, with the same phenomenal photographic acumen, plus beautifully rendered computer generated graphics, he showed us how the elements combine to form the content that makes up our universe, from table salt to oxygen to the panoply of colors and smells that surround us. At last, we've reached Reactions, in which Gray once again puts his photography and storytelling to work demonstrating how molecules interact in ways that are essential to our very existence. The book begins with a brief recap of elements and molecules and then goes on to explain important concepts the characterize a chemical reaction, including Energy, Entropy, and Time. It is then organized by type of reaction including chapters such as "Fantastic Reactions and Where to Find Them," "On the Origin of Light and Color," "The Boring Chapter," in which we learn about reactions such as paint drying, grass growing, and water boiling, and "The Need for Speed," including topics such as weather, ignition, and fire.
It provides an introduction to both plasma physics and fusion technology at a level that can be understood by advanced undergraduates and graduate students in the physical sciences and related engineering disciplines.
As such, the contents cover various plasma confinement concepts, the support technologies needed to confine the plasma, and the designs of ITER as well as future fusion reactors.
With end of chapter problems for use in courses.
It describes in detail all aspects of solar cell function, the physics behind every single step, as well as all the issues to be considered when improving solar cells and their efficiency. The text is now complete with examples of how the appropriate characterization techniques enable the distinction between several potential limitation factors, describing how quantities that have been introduced theoretically in earlier chapters become experimentally accessible.
With exercises after each chapter to reinforce the newly acquired knowledge and requiring no more than standard physics knowledge, this book enables students and professionals to understand the factors driving conversion efficiency and to apply this to their own solar cell development.
Particle physics as we know it depends on the Higgs boson: It’s the missing link between the birth of our universe—as a sea of tiny, massless particles—and the tangible world we live in today. But for more than 50 years, scientists wondered: Does it exist?
Physicist Jon Butterworth was at the frontlines of the hunt for the Higgs at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider—perhaps the most ambitious experiment in history. In Most Wanted Particle, he gives us the first inside account of that uncertain time, when an entire field hinged on a single particle, and life at the cutting edge of science meant media scrutiny, late-night pub debates, dispiriting false starts in the face of intense pressure, and countless hours at the collider itself. As Butterworth explains, our first glimpse of the elusive Higgs brings us a giant step closer to understanding the universe—and points the way to an entirely new kind of physics.
Exploring a broad range of topics, the book focuses on the analytical aspects of industrial processes that involve uranium, its presence in the environment, health and biological implications of exposure to uranium compounds, and nuclear forensics.
Examples of procedures used to characterize uranium in environmental samples of soil, sediments, vegetation, water, and air Analytical methods used to examine the rigorous specifications of uranium and its compounds deployed in the nuclear fuel cycle Health aspects of exposure to uranium and the bioassays used for exposure assessment Up-to-date analytical techniques used in nuclear forensics for safeguards in support of non-proliferation, including single particle characterization
Each chapter includes an overview of the topic and several examples to demonstrate the analytical procedures. This is followed by sample preparation, separation and purification techniques where necessary. The book supplies readers with a solid understanding of the analytical chemistry approach used today for characterizing the different facets of uranium, providing a good starting point for further investigation into this important element.
In the 2nd edition, fantastic phenomena associated with the interlayer phase coherence in the bilayer system were extensively described. The microscopic theory of the QHE was formulated based on the noncommutative geometry. Furthermore, the unconventional QHE in graphene was reviewed, where the electron dynamics can be treated as relativistic Dirac fermions and even the supersymmetric quantum mechanics plays a key role.
In this 3rd edition, all chapters are carefully reexamined and updated. A highlight is the new chapter on topological insulators. Indeed, the concept of topological insulator stems from the QHE. Other new topics are recent prominent experimental discoveries in the QHE, provided by the experimentalists themselves in Part V. This new edition presents an instructive and comprehensive overview of the QHE. It is also suitable for an introduction to quantum field theory with vividly described applications. Only knowledge of quantum mechanics is assumed. This book is ideal for students and researchers in condensed matter physics, particle physics, theoretical physics and mathematical physics.