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The last part of the book is devoted to a mathematical interpretation of the main features of Dirac's formalism. It involves a pairing between distributional bras and kets, continuum expansions and continuum matrices.

This second edition was prepared jointly by P.M. Gruber and the author of the first edition. The authors have retained the existing text (with minor corrections) while adding to each chapter supplementary sections on the more recent developments. While this method may have drawbacks, it has the definite advantage of showing clearly where recent progress has taken place and in what areas interesting results may be expected in the future.

The book gathers results concerning linear operators defined in general spaces of a certain kind, principally in Banach spaces, examples of which are: the space of continuous functions, that of the pth-power-summable functions, Hilbert space, etc. The general theorems are interpreted in various mathematical areas, such as group theory, differential equations, integral equations, equations with infinitely many unknowns, functions of a real variable, summation methods and orthogonal series.

A new fifty-page section (``Some Aspects of the Present Theory of Banach Spaces'') complements this important monograph.

The first part contains a detailed treatment of the fundamentals of Geometric Logic, which combines four central ideas: natural transformations, sheaves, adjoint functors, and topoi.

A special feature of the work is a general calculus of relations presented in the second part. This calculus offers another, often more amenable framework for concepts and methods discussed in part one. Some aspects of this approach find their origin in the relational calculi of Peirce and Schroeder from the last century, and in the 1940's in the work of Tarski and others on relational algebras. The representation theorems discussed are an original feature of this approach.

The papers cover basic fields such as metrization and extension of maps, as well as newly-developed fields like categorical topology and topological dynamics. Each chapter may be read independently of the others, with a few exceptions. It is assumed that the reader has some knowledge of set theory, algebra, analysis and basic general topology.

Part I starts with finite-dimensional spaces and general spectral theory. But very soon (Chapter III), new material is presented, leading to new directions for research. Open questions are mentioned here. Part II concerns compactness and its applications, not only spectral theory for compact operators (Invariant Subspaces and Lomonossov's Theorem) but also duality between the space of nuclear operators and the space of all operators on a Hilbert space, a result which is seldom presented. Part III contains Algebra Techniques: Gelfand's Theory, and application to Normal Operators. Here again, directions for research are indicated. Part IV deals with analytic functions, and contains a few new developments. A simplified, operator-oriented, version is presented. Part V presents dilations and extensions: Nagy-Foias dilation theory, and the author's work about C1-contractions. Part VI deals with the Invariant Subspace Problem, with positive results and counter-examples.

In general, much new material is presented. On the Invariant Subspace Problem, the level of research is reached, both in the positive and negative directions.

About the Book

Established as a successful practical workbook series with more than 20 titles in the language learning category, Practice Makes Perfect now provides the same clear, concise approach and extensive exercises to key fields within mathematics. The key to the Practice Makes Perfect series is the extensive exercises that provide learners with all the practice they need for mastery.

The text is self-contained for readers with a modest knowledge of general topology and linear algebra; the necessary background material is collected in chapter 1, or developed as needed.

One can look upon this book as a complete and self-contained proof of Toruńczyk's Hilbert cube manifold characterization theorem: a compact ANR X is a manifold modeled on the Hilbert cube if and only if X satisfies the disjoint-cells property. In the process of proving this result several interesting and useful detours are made.

Hollywood actress and math whiz Danica McKellar has completely shattered the “math nerd” stereotype. For years, she’s been showing girls how to feel confident and ace their math classes – with style! With Girls Get Curves, she applies her winning techniques to high school geometry, giving readers the tools they need to feel great and totally “get” everything from congruent triangles to theorems, and more. Inside you’ll find:

· Time-saving tips and tricks for homework and tests

· Illuminating practice problems (and proofs!) with detailed solutions

· Totally relatable real-world examples

· True stories from Danica’s own life as an actress and math student

· A Troubleshooting Guide, for getting unstuck during even the trickiest proofs!

With Danica as a coach, girls everywhere can stop hiding from their homework and watch their scores rise!

This major survey of mathematics, featuring the work of 18 outstanding Russian mathematicians and including material on both elementary and advanced levels, encompasses 20 prime subject areas in mathematics in terms of their simple origins and their subsequent sophisticated developement. As Professor Morris Kline of New York University noted, "This unique work presents the amazing panorama of mathematics proper. It is the best answer in print to what mathematics contains both on the elementary and advanced levels."

Beginning with an overview and analysis of mathematics, the first of three major divisions of the book progresses to an exploration of analytic geometry, algebra, and ordinary differential equations. The second part introduces partial differential equations, along with theories of curves and surfaces, the calculus of variations, and functions of a complex variable. It furthur examines prime numbers, the theory of probability, approximations, and the role of computers in mathematics. The theory of functions of a real variable opens the final section, followed by discussions of linear algebra and nonEuclidian geometry, topology, functional analysis, and groups and other algebraic systems.

Thorough, coherent explanations of each topic are further augumented by numerous illustrative figures, and every chapter concludes with a suggested reading list. Formerly issued as a three-volume set, this mathematical masterpiece is now available in a convenient and modestly priced one-volume edition, perfect for study or reference.

"This is a masterful English translation of a stupendous and formidable mathematical masterpiece . . ." — Social Science

The problem of de Groot concerned compactifications of spaces by means of an adjunction of a set of minimal dimension. This minimal dimension was called the compactness deficiency of a space. Early success in 1942 lead de Groot to invent a generalization of the dimension function, called the compactness degree of a space, with the hope that this function would internally characterize the compactness deficiency which is a topological invariant of a space that is externally defined by means of compact extensions of a space. From this, the two extension problems were spawned.

With the classical dimension theory as a model, the inductive, covering and basic aspects of the dimension functions are investigated in this volume, resulting in extensions of the sum, subspace and decomposition theorems and theorems about mappings into spheres. Presented are examples, counterexamples, open problems and solutions of the original and modified compactification problems.

Graduate students majoring in differential geometry will find this monograph of great interest, as will researchers in differential and algebraic geometry, complex analysis and theory of several complex variables.

Although addressed primarily to the researcher, parts of this monograph can be used as a basis for a well-balanced, one-semester graduate course.

This book aims to strengthen the foundations in its presentation of mathematical approaches to neural networks. It is through these that a suitable explanatory framework is expected to be found. The approaches span a broad range, from single neuron details to numerical analysis, functional analysis and dynamical systems theory. Each of these avenues provides its own insights into the way neural networks can be understood, both for artificial ones and simplified simulations. As a whole, the publication underlines the importance of the ever-deepening mathematical understanding of neural networks.

This book contains a new theory developed by the authors to deal with problems occurring in diffentiable dynamics that are within the scope of general topology. To follow it, the book provides an adequate foundation for topological theory of dynamical systems, and contains tools which are sufficiently powerful throughout the book.

Graduate students (and some undergraduates) with sufficient knowledge of basic general topology, basic topological dynamics, and basic algebraic topology will find little difficulty in reading this book.

From ancient Greek geometry to today's cutting-edge research, Euler's Gem celebrates the discovery of Euler's beloved polyhedron formula and its far-reaching impact on topology, the study of shapes. In 1750, Euler observed that any polyhedron composed of V vertices, E edges, and F faces satisfies the equation V-E+F=2. David Richeson tells how the Greeks missed the formula entirely; how Descartes almost discovered it but fell short; how nineteenth-century mathematicians widened the formula's scope in ways that Euler never envisioned by adapting it for use with doughnut shapes, smooth surfaces, and higher dimensional shapes; and how twentieth-century mathematicians discovered that every shape has its own Euler's formula. Using wonderful examples and numerous illustrations, Richeson presents the formula's many elegant and unexpected applications, such as showing why there is always some windless spot on earth, how to measure the acreage of a tree farm by counting trees, and how many crayons are needed to color any map.

Filled with a who's who of brilliant mathematicians who questioned, refined, and contributed to a remarkable theorem's development, Euler's Gem will fascinate every mathematics enthusiast.

Scientists involved in discrete mathematics, combinatorics, computer science, information theory, geometry, algebra or number theory will find the book of particular significance. It is designed both as an introductory textbook for the beginner and as a reference book for the expert mathematician and engineer.

A number of unsolved problems suitable for research projects are also discussed.

This book focuses on keystream sequences which can be analysed using number theory. It turns out that a great deal of information can be deducted about the cryptographic properties of many classes of sequences by applying the terminology and theorems of number theory. These connections can be explicitly made by describing three kinds of bridges between stream ciphering problems and number theory problems. A detailed summary of these ideas is given in the introductory Chapter 1.

Many results in the book are new, and over seventy percent of these results described in this book are based on recent research results.

Can geometry be exciting?

It can for those who can appreciate the beauty of numbers and their relationships.

This book contains a meticulous geometric investigation of the 5 Platonic Solids and 5 other important polyhedra, as well as reference charts for each solid.

Poly (many) hedron (face) means "many faces." Polyhedra are 3 dimensional figures with 4 or more faces, or sides. These polyhedra are reflections of Nature herself, and a study of them provides insight into the way the world is structured. Nature is not only beautiful, but highly intelligent. As you explore the polyhedra in this book, this will become apparent over and over again.

The book contains a geometric explanation of the Phi Ratio and Fibonacci series, and a detailed analysis of the pentagon, which forms the basis for many of these solids. The pentagon is composed entirely of Phi relationships, and is integral to a proper understanding of sacred geometry.

With over 140 full-color illustrations, this book is perfect for teachers and students of geometry alike. It is a must for those who are serious about sacred geometry.

This book is dedicated to those who can appreciate the logic of numbers and the beauty of nature, for they are both aspects of the same unifying principle.

Prerequisites: knowledge of simple algebra and elementary trigonometry. No brainiac math skills required! Only the ability to appreciate nature's own logic.

Book #1 in the Geometric Explorations Series

From Loving Healing Press (www.LovingHealing.com)

Based on Mlodinow's extensive historical research; his studies alongside colleagues such as Richard Feynman and Kip Thorne; and interviews with leading physicists and mathematicians such as Murray Gell-Mann, Edward Witten, and Brian Greene, Euclid's Window is an extraordinary blend of rigorous, authoritative investigation and accessible, good-humored storytelling that makes a stunningly original argument asserting the primacy of geometry. For those who have looked through Euclid's Window, no space, no thing, and no time will ever be quite the same.

The algorithms form a new calculus which allows to make local and asymptotical analysis of solutions to those systems.

The efficiency of the calculus is demonstrated with regard to several complicated problems from Robotics, Celestial Mechanics, Hydrodynamics and Thermodynamics. The calculus also gives classical results obtained earlier intuitively and is an alternative to Algebraic Geometry, Differential Algebra, Lie group Analysis and Nonstandard Analysis.

The book offers a first complete treatment of the mathematical theory of codes on Euclidean spheres. Many new results are published here for the first time. Engineering applications are emphasized throughout the text. The theory is illustrated by many examples. The book also contains an extensive table of best known spherical codes in dimensions 3-24, including exact constructions.

As grandfather and grandson struggle with the question of whether there can ever be absolute certainty in mathematics or life, they are forced to reconsider their fundamental beliefs and choices. Their stories hinge on their explorations of parallel developments in the study of geometry and infinity--and the mathematics throughout is as rigorous and fascinating as the narrative and characters are compelling and complex.

Moving and enlightening, A Certain Ambiguity is a story about what it means to face the extent--and the limits--of human knowledge.

Techniques from general topology, infinite-dimensional topology, functional analysis and descriptive set theory

are primarily used for the study of these spaces. The mix of

methods from several disciplines makes the subject

particularly interesting. Among other things, a complete and self-contained proof of the Dobrowolski-Marciszewski-Mogilski Theorem that all function spaces of low Borel complexity are topologically homeomorphic, is presented.

In order to understand what is going on, a solid background in

infinite-dimensional topology is needed. And for that a fair amount of knowledge of dimension theory as well as ANR theory is needed. The necessary material was partially covered in our previous book `Infinite-dimensional topology, prerequisites and introduction'. A selection of what was done there can be found here as well, but completely revised and at many places expanded with recent results. A `scenic' route has been chosen towards the

Dobrowolski-Marciszewski-Mogilski Theorem, linking the

results needed for its proof to interesting recent research developments in dimension theory and infinite-dimensional topology.

The first five chapters of this book are intended as a text for

graduate courses in topology. For a course in dimension theory, Chapters 2 and 3 and part of Chapter 1 should be covered. For a course in infinite-dimensional topology, Chapters 1, 4 and 5. In Chapter 6, which deals with function spaces, recent research results are discussed. It could also be used for a graduate course in topology but its flavor is more that of a research monograph than of a textbook; it is therefore

more suitable as a text for a research seminar. The book

consequently has the character of both textbook and a research monograph. In Chapters 1 through 5, unless stated

otherwise, all spaces under discussion are separable and

metrizable. In Chapter 6 results for more general classes of spaces are presented.

In Appendix A for easy reference and some basic facts that are important in the book have been collected. The book is not intended as a basis for a course in topology; its purpose is to collect knowledge about general topology.

The exercises in the book serve three purposes: 1) to test the reader's understanding of the material 2) to supply proofs of statements that are used in the text, but are not proven there

3) to provide additional information not covered by the text.

Solutions to selected exercises have been included in Appendix B.

These exercises are important or difficult.

· Unique book on interactions of stream ciphers and number theory.

· Research monograph with many results not available elsewhere.

· A revised edition with the most recent advances in this subject.

· Over thirty research problems for stimulating interactions between the two areas.

· Written by leading researchers in stream ciphers and number theory.

* It contains a variety of inequalities which find numerous applications in various branches of mathematics.

* It contains many inequalities which have only recently appeared in the literature and cannot yet be found in other books.

* It will be a valuable reference for someone requiring a result about inequalities for use in some applications in various other branches of mathematics.

* Each chapter ends with some miscellaneous inequalities for futher study.

* The work will be of interest to researchers working both in pure and applied mathematics, and it could also be used as the text for an advanced graduate course.

Key features

- Theory of connections of vectors and directions on the unitary tangent fibre bundle.

- Complete list of Bianchi identities for a regular conection of directions.

- Geometry of generalized Einstein manifolds.

- Classification of Finslerian manifolds.

- Affine, isometric, conformal and projective vector fields on the unitary tangent fibre bundle.

Key features:

* New the Hardy – Friedrichs – Wirtinger type inequalities as well as new integral inequalities related to the Cauchy problem for a differential equation.

* Precise exponents of the solution decreasing rate near boundary singular points and best possible conditions for this.

* The question about the influence of the coefficients smoothness on the regularity of solutions.

* New existence theorems for the Dirichlet problem for linear and quasilinear equations in domains with conical points.

* The precise power modulus of continuity at singular boundary point for solutions of the Dirichlet, mixed and the Robin problems.

* The behaviour of weak solutions near conical point for the Dirichlet problem for m – Laplacian.

* The behaviour of weak solutions near a boundary edge for the Dirichlet and mixed problem for elliptic quasilinear equations with triple degeneration.

* Precise exponents of the solution decreasing rate near boundary singular points and best possible conditions for this.

* The question about the influence of the coefficients smoothness on the regularity of solutions.

* New existence theorems for the Dirichlet problem for linear and quasilinear equations in domains with conical points.

* The precise power modulus of continuity at singular boundary point for solutions of the Dirichlet, mixed and the Robin problems.

* The behaviour of weak solutions near conical point for the Dirichlet problem for m - Laplacian.

* The behaviour of weak solutions near a boundary edge for the Dirichlet and mixed problem for elliptic quasilinear equations with triple degeneration.

The exposition concentrates on key concepts and then elementary results concerning these numbers. The reader learns how complex numbers can be used to solve algebraic equations and to understand the geometric interpretation of complex numbers and the operations involving them.

The theoretical parts of the book are augmented with rich exercises and problems at various levels of difficulty. A special feature of the book is the last chapter, a selection of outstanding Olympiad and other important mathematical contest problems solved by employing the methods already presented.

The book reflects the unique experience of the authors. It distills a vast mathematical literature, most of which is unknown to the western public, and captures the essence of an abundant problem culture. The target audience includes undergraduates, high school students and their teachers, mathematical contestants (such as those training for Olympiads or the W. L. Putnam Mathematical Competition) and their coaches, as well as anyone interested in essential mathematics.

The Appendix sketches some of the most essential new results, constructions and ideas, including the solutions of the Luroth and Zariski problems, the theory of the descent and obstructions to the Hasse principle on rational varieties, and recent applications of K-theory to arithmetic.