The Defence Budget is looked at intently to get the general emphasis of the government on security. Brig Gurmeet Kanwal has debated this lucidly. Maintaining a large standing armed force requires more than mere day-to-day support. An ill-equipped large force mired with equipment hollowness is not a guarantee for security but in a future war will be cannon fodder for the adversary. Someone will have to be held accountable to the nation for this debilitating lapse. Or take a conscious decision to reduce its size if this country cannot afford a well equipped large armed force!!! Preparing an armed force on a long-term basis requires a deeply considered perspective of its future role in the national security scheme and the road map for its implementation. The absence of a doctrine and the hesitation of establishing a single point of contact on all matters military have been well debated in this issue. Generals Harwant and Banerjee and Colonel Achutan look at the aspects of doctrine.
‘Make in India’ has been the didactic theme of this Government. It needs to be spelt out in clear terms and not left to the (mis-)interpretation of the bureaucracy. Make in India will be feasible only when the basic industrial manufacturing has notched up a number of counts and the manpower skills to go with it are matching. Currently it is more theoretical than implementable. The articles Dr Misra, Air Marshal Kukreja and Group Captain Noronha address these issues with particular reference to the aero-space industry.
Two articles relate to the major current event on PM Modi’s visit to China; the first is on Tibet and the second on the boundary issue. Cyber space is emerging the next frontier; Gen Davinder Kumar has generated an excellent discussion on the issue. Col Harjeet has looked at the implications of social media on security. As a first Claude Arpi has documented a diary highlighting prominent issues relating to China’s PLA in this first quarter. This will now be a regular feature in the print edition.Wishing all our readers a worthwhile professionally invigorating reading experience.
INDIAN DEFENCE REVIEW COMMENT :Indian Military Doctrine: An Analysis - Gp Capt Johnson Chacko
Surface Air Defence Missile Systems: Potent and Relevant - Air Marshal Anil Chopra
Force Multipliers for the IAF: Enhancing Aerial Power and Reach - Gp Capt Joseph Noronha
Modernisation of the IAF’S Helicopter Fleet - Gp Capt AK Sachdev
LCA Tejas: Still a Long Way - Air Marshal Anil Chopra
The Nuances of Air Threat and its Implications - Lt Gen VK Saxena
Integrated Simulators for Training of Mechanised Forces: The Way Ahead - Maj Gen Rajiv Narayanan
The Space Race, The Cold War - Martand Jha
Oil - Is it a Dyaing Resource? - Air Marshal Dhiraj Kukreja
Electronic Warfare: Emerging Trends in Technology - Col Subhasis Das
Will jihad kill China-Pakistan Economic Corridor!!! - RSN Singh
Fifth-Generation Fighter Aircraft for the IAF: A Mirage or Reality? - Gp Capt Joseph Noronha
Role of the IAF in a Two-Front War - Gp Capt AK Sachdev
Army to get its own Apaches Attack Helicopters - Lt Gen BS Pawar
Aerospace and Defence News - Priya Tyagi
Rise of China: An Enigma - Col Anil Athale
Logjam in Indigenous Aircraft Production - Prof SN Misra
Infantry’s Day as it Was - Danvir Singh
Battleground Afghanistan - Lt Gen Prakash Katoch
North Korea and South China Sea Flashpoints: Are worthwhile Options left on US Table? - Maj Gen SB Asthana
Central Armed Police Forces: Do we really care? - Rakesh Kr Sinha
To ‘Act East’, Act in the North East India First! - Col Anil Athale
The New Line-up in China’s Defense Forces - Claude Arpi
Virtual Currencies: Bitcoin as an Emerging Terror Financing Threat to India - Dr SV Raghavan
J&K: The Sacrifice of Past Generations should not go in Vain - Col Jaibans Singh
Indo-Pak War 1965: Are Commemorations Due? – Lt Gen JS Bajwa (Editor)
INDIAN DEFENCE REVIEW COMMENT
Indian Army’s Multi-Calibre Individual Weapon System – Danvir Singh
Getting More from Less: Force Multipliers for the IAF – Gp Capt Joseph Noronha
Quietly Effective, Vigilant Airborne ISR – John Kiehle
Look Beyond FDI: Laying the Right Foundation for Defence Manufacturing – Dr JP Dash
Making “Make in India” Succeed – Lt Gen Anjan Mukherjee
Restructuring Defence Procurement Procedure – Ashish Puntambekar
Airborne and Special Forces: Reassessing Role, Tasks and Organisations – Brig Deepak Sinha
The IAF and its Need for Close Air Support – Sqn Ldr Vijainder K Thakur
India: An Aerospace Power? – Gp Capt TP Srivastava
Computer Network Operations and Electronic Warfare Complementary or Competitive? – Lt Gen Davinder Kumar
Spectre of China’s Artificial Islands – Prof Swaran Singh & Dr Lilian Yamamoto
China’s Game of Territorial Claims – Lt Gen Gautam Banerjee
Aerospace and Defence News – Priya Tyagi
The Dragon’s Adventures in the Indian Ocean – Vice Admiral Anup Singh
Influence of Aerial Combat on the Development of Armoured Fighting Vehicles – Artsrun Hovhannisyan
Fifty Years Since Haji Pir – Special Correspondent
The Middle East: An Assessment – Air Marshal Dhiraj Kukreja
Climate Change in the Himalayas: A Ticking Time-Bomb? – Col CP Muthanna
Restructuring Defence Reforms for National Security – Brig Gurmeet Kanwal
Wanted A Full Spectrum Military Doctrine – Brig Amar Cheema
Reviewing India’s Foreign Policy: From Regional Power to Potential Super Power – Anant Mishra
The PLA Digest – Claude Arpi
INDIAN DEFENCE REVIEW COMMENTIndian Air Force: 2025 – Air Marshal Anil Chopra
PLAAF: Rising Challenge for the IAF – Gp Capt B Menon
Pakistan Air Force Today: Implications for India – Gp Capt B Menon
LCA Tejas: The never ending wait! – Air Marshal Anil Chopra
The IAF and its need for close Air Support – Sqn Ldr Vijainder K Thakur
Need for an Indian Marine Force – Col JK Achuthan
Taiwan – Why Shy Full Relations? – Lt Gen Prakash Katoch
India - Taiwan Relations: A Comprehensive Security Perspective – Tien-Sze Fang
BRICS: A Strategic Self Appraisal – S Rajasimman
India’s Military Might: The Real Truth – Lt Gen Amarjeet S Chabbewal
Flexible Reach: Balancing the IAF’s Air Transport Fleet – Gp Capt Joseph Noronha
Future of Rotary Wing Craft – Gp Capt AK Sachdev
Aerospace and Defence News – Priya Tyagi
No place to Hide: Latest Developments in Air Defence Missiles – Gp Capt Joseph Noronha
Will advances in UAVs Edge out Manned Aircraft? – Gp Capt AK Sachdev
What Ails India’s Defence Industrial Complex? – Lt Gen Prakash Katoch
MSMES in Defence Production: A Neglected Sector – Air Marshal Dhiraj Kukreja
Russian Domination of the Syrian Battleground – Danvir Singh
Petro-Jihadism: The Conspiracy within the Imperishable War in the Arab World – Maj Lal Ananth
Splintering Naxalism in India: Maoism or Money? – V Balasubramaniyan
But how much truth is there to some of these claims you keep hearing about? What is the real history of the mysterious group? Do they continue to exist today? What is the evidence? And what are they doing?
After a decade of research sifting through the facts and the fiction, secret society expert Mark Dice will help you navigate through the complex maze from the original documents to rare revelations by elite politicians, bankers and businessmen, as he takes you Inside the Illuminati.
How and when the original writings of Adam Weishaupt and the Illuminati were discovered and what they say.
See their own contingency plans showing they were prepared to continue operating in the event that they were discovered.
The direct link between the Skull & Bones society at Yale University and the Bavarian Illuminati.
The connection to communism and Karl Marx’ admission that he was a member of a secret society which commissioned him to write The Communist Manifesto.
How they control the mainstream news media and use blockbuster films as propaganda tools to promote their agenda and shape our culture.
How they created various front groups like the Bilderberg Group, the Council on Foreign Relations, and the Federal Reserve to carry out their plans.
Discover the virtually unknown secret society of secretaries and personal assistants who are trusted to serve elite businessmen and politicians.
Investigations into the supposed bloodlines of the Illuminati, the Nephilim, and the Divine right of kings.
Uncovering the Zodiac Club and their little-known twelve-member intimate dinner parties in New York.
The elite secret society of scientists funded by the Department of Defense who were responsible for creating the atomic bomb.
The secret of “sex magic” and its alleged capabilities and perverted practitioners.
The Jesuits, the Black Pope, and the Vatican’s child molesting mafia.
Looking into allegations of child abuse, murder, and snuff films rumored to have taken place at the Bohemian Grove.
The all-female version of the Bohemian Grove consisting of America’s most powerful women.
Stunning Rockefeller and Rothschild family admissions and the extent of their power and influence.
The secret Jekyll Island meeting that gave birth to the Federal Reserve System.
Skull & Bones sister societies Scroll & Key and Wolf’s Head at Yale University and the inter-council meetings these “Big Three” hold.
The strange spiritual beliefs, philosophies, and occult symbolism of the Mystery Schools and their offshoots.
Investigations into alleged ex-members ‘Doc’ Marquis, Leo Zagami, Kevin Trudeau, Brice Taylor, George Green, Mark Cleminson, and others.
The Illuminati’s ultimate goal of creating a New World Order, a cashless society, and soon revealing the “royal secret,” admitting that they do in fact worship Satan.
Their Transhumanist dream to become immortal Gods using advanced anti-aging technology, cybernetic neural interfaces, and mind uploading for what they see as the final step in human evolution.
Their preparation for the arrival of the Illuminati messiah (the Antichrist), believing that he will finally rule planet earth as a God.
How you can work to free yourself from mental, spiritual, and financial enslavement and avoid many of the traps set to ensnare ignorant and uniformed people.
By the author of The Illuminati: Facts & Fiction
World Sans a Global Policeman: Turmoil as Us Exits - Lt Gen JS Bajwa (Editor) INDIAN
DEFENCE REVIEW COMMENT :
India’s Defence Forces: A 5 Years Review - Danvir Singh
Modernisation of the Indian Air Force - Air Marshal Anil Chopra
UAVs & UCAVs: The Next Generation Threat - Lt Col Mukund Bhardwaj
Deconstructing the Rafale Ambiguity - Sumit Walia
Tibet Infrastructure: New Panacea for the Middle Kingdom? - Claude Arpi
Xi Jinping’s World-Class Military: Not Only Fights, But also Wins Wars - Dr Amrita Jash
From Teaching to Learning a Lesson: China’s Nightmare in Pakistan - Dr Sundaram Rajasimman
Unmanned Platforms in the IAF: The Need to Bolster - Gp Capt AK Sachdev
‘Make in India’ and the Indian Aerospace Industry: Quo Vadis? - Gp Capt AK Sachdev
Indo-US Military Ties in the Regime of Air Power - Air Marshal Anil Chopra
Is China Preparing for a conflict with India? - Gp Capt Ravinder Singh Chhatwal
Did India ever formulate a Kashmir Policy? - RSN Singh
Afghanistan: Thinking in Terms of Hindu Kush - Dr Sundaram Rajasimman
Defence Forces and National Budget - Lt Gen Harwant SinghAerospace and Defence News - Priya Tyagi
Group Captain Sachdev looks critically into whether the
Indian Air Force equipped for a two-front war in case China-Pakistan join hands
to attack India at the same time. The IAF has already informed the government
that they are not prepared to handle the two-front war and hence, finalization
of MMRCA deal is extremely vital.
There is an interesting debate of shaping, equipping and
employing Special Forces by Saikat Dutta and Force Projection by Brig Deepak
Sinha. Also our senior military experts propose tired board defence against China.
With the classified Handerson Brooke report leaked out, Gen Bajwa, former Chief
of Staff Eastern Command draws interesting lessons from it.
On the other hand, Bharat Verma takes apart and attempt to
create a ‘fake military coup’ as also details the incompetence of the defence
minister, which has lowered the military preparedness in the last 10 years
against increasing and multiplying security threats on India’s border.
In this nature’s paradise, is a human hell where the lives are lost daily in pursuit of Ideology. Armed by own set of Justifications India, Pakistan and the Kashmiris battle each other to no end in sight.
Zealous young men continue to die for a cause diseased by treachery and celebrated by heroism. The territorial desire of Pakistan has cost dearly to the generations stifled in this conflict. This fight has devastated many a homes with ever widening chasm and deepening scars.
Punctuated by blood curdling violence, Kashmiris are prisoners of a historic mistake. In the ongoing series of Pakistan’s grand design to wrest control of this state, a proxy war was unleashed by them in 1989. This war still continues as I write.
Jim Sciutto, CNN’s Chief National Security Correspondent, reveals the invisible fronts that make up 21st century warfare, from disinformation campaigns to advanced satellite weapons.
Poisoned dissidents. Election interference. Armed invasions. International treaties thrown into chaos. Secret military buildups. Hackers and viruses. Weapons deployed in space. China and Russia (and Iran and North Korea) spark news stories here by carrying out bold acts of aggression and violating international laws and norms. Isn’t this just bad actors acting badly?
That kind of thinking is outdated and dangerous. Emboldened by their successes, these countries are, in fact, waging a brazen, global war on the US and the West. This is a new Cold War, which will not be won by those who fail to realize they are fighting it. The enemies of the West understand that while they are unlikely to win a shooting war, they have another path to victory. And what we see as our greatest strengths—open societies, military innovation, dominance of technology on Earth and in space, longstanding leadership in global institutions—these countries are undermining or turning into weaknesses.
In The Shadow War, CNN anchor and chief national security correspondent Jim Sciutto provides us with a revealing and at times disturbing guide to this new international conflict. This Shadow War is already the greatest threat to America’s national security, even though most Americans know little or nothing about it. With on-the-ground reporting from Ukraine to the South China Sea, from a sub under the Arctic to unprecedented access to America’s Space Command, Sciutto draws on his deep knowledge, high-level contacts, and personal experience as a journalist and diplomat to paint the most comprehensive and vivid picture of a nation targeted by a new and disturbing brand of warfare.
Thankfully, America is adapting and fighting back. In The Shadow War, Sciutto introduces readers to the dizzying array of soldiers, sailors, submariners and their commanders, space engineers, computer scientists, civilians, and senior intelligence officials who are on the front lines of this new kind of forever war. Intensive and disturbing, this invaluable and important work opens our eyes and makes clear that the war of the future is already here.
During the author’s archival peregrinations on the Himalayan border, he goes into some relatively little known issues, such as the checkered history of Tawang; the British India policy towards Tibet and even the possibility for India to militarily defend the Roof of the World.
The author also looks into why the Government still keeps the Henderson Brooks Report under wraps and what were Mao’s motivations for ‘teaching India a lesson’.
Throughout this series of essays, the thread remains the Tibet-India frontier in the North-East and the Indo-Chinese conflict.
The more one digs into this question, the more one discovers that the entire issue is intimately linked with the history of modern Tibet; particularly the status of the Roof of the World as a de facto independent nation.
British India had a Tibet Policy, Independent India, did not.
This led to the unfortunate events of 1962.
The history of the Middle East is an epic story of tragedy, betrayal and world-shaking events. It is a story that Robert Fisk has been reporting for over thirty years. His masterful narrative spans the most volatile regions of the Middle East, chronicling with both rage and compassion the death by deceit of tens of thousands of Muslims, Christians and Jews.
Robert Fisk’s remarkable history is also the tale of a journalist at war – learning of the 9/11 attacks while aboard a passenger jet, reporting from a bombed-out Baghdad, interviewing Osama bin Laden – and of the courage and frustration of a life spent writing the first draft of history.
Saviano is a journalist of rare courage and a thinker of impressive intellectual depth and moral imagination, able to see the connections between far-flung phenomena and bind them into a single epic story. Most drug-war narratives feel safely removed from our own lives; Saviano offers no such comfort. As heart racing as it is heady, Zero Zero Zero is a fusion of a variety of disparate genres into a brilliant new form that can only be called Savianoesque.
In his newest book, Hedges argues that the conscious inertia of the left is destroying the progressive movement. Inaction and empty moral posturing leads not to change, but to an orgy of self-adulation and self-pity.
Hedges argues that the gravest danger we face as a nation is not from the far right, although the right may well inherit power. Instead, the threat comes from a bankrupt liberal class that has lost the will to fight and the moral courage to stand up for what it espouses.
Alfred W. McCoy’s 2009 book Policing America’s Empire won the Kahin Prize from the Association for Asian Studies.
Moving across local, regional, and national scales, St. John shows how government officials, Native American raiders, ranchers, railroad builders, miners, investors, immigrants, and smugglers contributed to the rise of state power on the border and developed strategies to navigate the increasingly regulated landscape. Over the border's history, the U.S. and Mexican states gradually developed an expanding array of official laws, ad hoc arrangements, government agents, and physical barriers that did not close the line, but made it a flexible barrier that restricted the movement of some people, goods, and animals without impeding others. By the 1930s, their efforts had created the foundations of the modern border control apparatus.
Drawing on extensive research in U.S. and Mexican archives, Line in the Sand weaves together a transnational history of how an undistinguished strip of land became the significant and symbolic space of state power and national definition that we know today.
On the day of his son’s fourteenth birthday, Hashem al-Souki lay somewhere in the Mediterranean, crammed in a wooden dinghy. His family was relatively safe—at least for the time being—in Egypt, where they had only just settled after fleeing their war-torn Damascus home three years prior. Traversing these unforgiving waters and the treacherous terrain that would follow was worth the slim chance of securing a safe home for his children in Sweden. If he failed, at least he would fail alone.
Hashem’s story is tragically common, as desperate victims continue to embark on deadly journeys in search of freedom. Tracking the harrowing experiences of these brave refugees, The New Odyssey finally illuminates the shadowy networks that have facilitated the largest forced exodus since the end of World War II.
The Guardian’s first-ever migration correspondent, Patrick Kingsley has traveled through seventeen countries to put an indelible face on this overwhelming disaster. Embedding himself alongside the refugees, Kingsley reenacts their flight with hundreds of people across the choppy Mediterranean in the hopes of better understanding who helps or hinders their path to salvation. From the starving migrants who push through sandstorms with children strapped to their backs to the exploitive criminals who prey on them, from the smugglers who dangerously stretch the limits of their cargo space to the volunteers who uproot their own lives to hand out water bottles—what emerges is a kaleidoscope of humanity in the wake of tragedy. By simultaneously tracing the narrative of Hashem, who endured the trek not once but twice, Kingsley memorably creates a compassionate, visceral portrait of the mass migration in both its epic scope and its heartbreaking specificity.
Exposing the realities of this modern-day odyssey as well as the moral shortcomings evident in our own indifference, the result is a crucial call to arms and an unprecedented exploration of a world we too often choose not to know.
In The End of the Myth, acclaimed historian Greg Grandin explores the meaning of the frontier throughout the full sweep of U.S. history—from the American Revolution to the War of 1898, the New Deal to the election of 2016. For centuries, he shows, America’s constant expansion—fighting wars and opening markets—served as a “gate of escape,” helping to deflect domestic political and economic conflicts outward. But this deflection meant that the country’s problems, from racism to inequality, were never confronted directly. And now, the combined catastrophe of the 2008 financial meltdown and our unwinnable wars in the Middle East have slammed this gate shut, bringing political passions that had long been directed elsewhere back home.
It is this new reality, Grandin says, that explains the rise of reactionary populism and racist nationalism, the extreme anger and polarization that catapulted Trump to the presidency. The border wall may or may not be built, but it will survive as a rallying point, an allegorical tombstone marking the end of American exceptionalism.
What happens when you take on the establishment? In Adults in the Room, the renowned economist and former finance minister of Greece Yanis Varoufakis gives the full, blistering account of his momentous clash with the mightiest economic and political forces on earth.
After being swept into power with the left-wing Syriza party, Varoufakis attempts to renegotiate Greece’s relationship with the EU—and sparks a spectacular battle with global implications. Varoufakis’s new position sends him ricocheting between mass demonstrations in Athens, closed-door negotiations in drab EU and IMF offices, and furtive meetings with power brokers in Washington, D.C. He consults and quarrels with Barack Obama, Emmanuel Macron, Christine Lagarde, the economists Larry Summers and Jeffrey Sachs, and others, as he struggles to resolve Greece’s debt crisis without resorting to punishing austerity measures. But despite the mass support of the Greek people and the simple logic of Varoufakis’s arguments, he succeeds only in provoking the fury of Europe’s elite.
Varoufakis’s unvarnished memoir is an urgent warning that the economic policies once embraced by the EU and the White House have failed—and spawned authoritarianism, populist revolt, and instability throughout the Western world. Adults in the Room is an extraordinary tale of brinkmanship, hypocrisy, collusion, and betrayal that will shake the global establishment to its foundations.
In a feat of daring reportage, Potter gets onto the flight deck with these outlaws and tells the story of their fearless missions. Dodging gunfire, Potter is taken from place to place by men trafficking everything from illicit weapons to emergency aid, making enemies everywhere but no reliable friends. As the world changes, we see the options for the crew first explode, then slowly diminish, until, in a desperate maneuver, they move their operations to the most lawless corners of Africa, where they operate to this day.
The story of these outlaws is a microcosm of the world since the end of the cold war: secret contracts, guerrilla foreign policy, and conflicts too thorny to be handled in public. Potter uses the story of these men to articulate an underground history of the globalized world. At once thrilling, provocative, and morally circumspect, this book is a must-read for anyone with an interest in espionage, or in how the world works today.
The world is blowing up. Every day a new blaze seems to ignite: the bloody implosion of Iraq and Syria; the East-West standoff in Ukraine; abducted schoolgirls in Nigeria. Is there some thread tying these frightening international security crises together? In a riveting account that weaves history with fast-moving reportage and insider accounts from the Afghanistan war, Sarah Chayes identifies the unexpected link: corruption.
Since the late 1990s, corruption has reached such an extent that some governments resemble glorified criminal gangs, bent solely on their own enrichment. These kleptocrats drive indignant populations to extremes—ranging from revolution to militant puritanical religion. Chayes plunges readers into some of the most venal environments on earth and examines what emerges: Afghans returning to the Taliban, Egyptians overthrowing the Mubarak government (but also redesigning Al-Qaeda), and Nigerians embracing both radical evangelical Christianity and the Islamist terror group Boko Haram. In many such places, rigid moral codes are put forth as an antidote to the collapse of public integrity.
The pattern, moreover, pervades history. Through deep archival research, Chayes reveals that canonical political thinkers such as John Locke and Machiavelli, as well as the great medieval Islamic statesman Nizam al-Mulk, all named corruption as a threat to the realm. In a thrilling argument connecting the Protestant Reformation to the Arab Spring, Thieves of State presents a powerful new way to understand global extremism. And it makes a compelling case that we must confront corruption, for it is a cause—not a result—of global instability.
Combining on-the-ground reporting with extensive research, Dawn Paley moves beyond the usual horror stories, beyond journalistic rubbernecking and hand-wringing, to follow the thread of the Drug War story throughout the entire region of Latin America and all the way back to US boardrooms and political offices. This unprecedented book chronicles how terror is used against the population at large in cities and rural areas, generating panic and facilitating policy changes that benefit the international private sector, particularly extractive industries like petroleum and mining. This is what is really going on. This is drug war capitalism.
Dawn Paley is a freelance journalist who has been reporting from South America, Central America, and Mexico for over ten years. Her writing has been published in the Nation, the Guardian, Vancouver Sun, Globe and Mail, Ms. magazine, the Tyee, Georgia Straight, and NACLA, among others.
In today's U.S. defense policy debates, big land wars are out. Drones, cyber weapons, special forces, and space weapons are in. Accordingly, Pentagon budget cuts have honed in on the army and ground forces: this, after the long wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, seems like an appealing idea. No one really wants American boots on the ground in bloody conflicts abroad. But it is not so easy to simply declare an end to messy land wars. A survey of the world's trouble spots suggests that land warfare has more of a future than many now seem to believe.
In The Future of Land Warfare, Michael O'Hanlon offers an analysis of the future of the world's ground forces: Where are large-scale conflicts or other catastrophes most plausible? Which of these could be important enough to require the option of a U.S. military response? And which of these could in turn demand significant numbers of American ground forces in their resolution? O'Hanlon is not predicting or advocating big American roles in such operations—only cautioning against overconfidence that we can and will avoid them.
O'Hanlon considers a number of illustrative scenarios in which large conventional forces may be necessary: discouraging Russia from even contemplating attacks against the Baltic states; discouraging China from considering an unfriendly future role on the Korean peninsula; handling an asymmetric threat in the South China Sea with the construction and protection of a number of bases in the Philippines and elsewhere; managing the aftermath of a major and complex humanitarian disaster superimposed on a security crisis—perhaps in South Asia; coping with a severe Ebola outbreak not in the small states of West Africa but in Nigeria, at the same time that country falls further into violence; addressing a further meltdown in security conditions in Central America.