Foreign language learning

Based on a research project funded by the Army Research Institute, Foreign Language Learning reports original empirical and theoretical research on foreign language acquisition and makes recommendations about applications to foreign language instruction. The ultimate goal of this project was to identify a set of psychological principles that can provide the foundation for--or at least, argumentation for--a foreign language training course. This book reviews the various studies of which the project is comprised. It begins with an overview chapter outlining the scope of the project and summarizing some of the experiments that were conducted in the laboratory. In each of the following chapters, the contributors report on previously unpublished research on selected specific psycholinguistic training principles; vocabulary and concept acquisition; language comprehension; reading processes; and bilingualism. The final chapter--prepared by a prominent expert on second language training--provides an overview and evaluation of the contribution of the research described in earlier chapters to the goal of improving instructional methods in foreign language learning.

Sandwiched between the introductory and final chapters are four major sections:
* Vocabulary and Concept Acquisition, which discusses the effect of first-language phonological configuration on lexical acquisition in a second language, contextual inference effects in foreign language vocabulary acquisition and retention, mediated processes in foreign language vocabulary acquisition and retention, and the status of the count-mass distinction in a mental grammar;
* Language Comprehension, which addresses voice communication between air traffic controllers and pilots who are nonnative speakers of English, cognitive strategies in discourse processing, and the effects of context and word order in Maasai sentence production and comprehension;
* Reading Processes, which discusses the enhancement of text comprehension through highlighting, the effect of alphabet and fluency on unitization processes in reading, and reading proficiency of bilinguals in their first and second languages; and
* Bilingualism, which addresses Stroop interference effects in bilinguals between similar and dissimilar languages, the individual differences in second language proficiency, and the hierarchical model of bilingual representation.
Bring medical terminology to life with Davi-Ellen Chabner's bestselling The Language of Medicine, 11th Edition! An illustrated, easy-to-understand approach presents medical terms within the context of the body’s anatomy and physiology, and in health and disease. With this proven resource, you’ll learn a working medical vocabulary built on the most frequently encountered prefixes, suffixes, and combining forms. Practical exercises and case studies make learning more interesting and demonstrate how medical terms are used in practice. Take advantage of interactive activities, games, quizzes, and flash cards on the Evolve companion website, and you will be ready to communicate fluently in the clinical setting and succeed in your healthcare career.Self-study text/workbook approach reinforces learning every step of the way with a wide variety of exercises, labeling diagrams, pronunciation tests, and reviews, all organized by body systems with additional chapters on key areas of health care such as cancer and psychiatry.Simple, clear, non-technical explanations demystify medical terminology even if you have little or no background in medicine or science.More than 500 full-color illustrations depict the details of anatomy, physiology, and pathology, putting medical terms in the context of the structure and function of the body system.Practical applications such as case reports, operative and diagnostic tests, and laboratory and x-ray reports demonstrate the use of medical terminology in the clinical environment.Pronunciation of Terms at the end of each chapter include phonetic spellings and spaces to write the meanings of terms.Abbreviations of terminology make it easy to learn the medical shorthand used in clinical practice.Error-prone abbreviations list derived from the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) list alerts you to abbreviations that should not be used in the clinical setting.Comprehensive glossaries and appendices serve as quick references for use in the classroom and on the job.An Evolve companion website lets you practice word parts and building terms with interactive word games, learning exercises, an audio glossary with pronunciations of over 3,000 terms, animations, an anatomy coloring book, electronic flash cards, and more. NEW terms and procedures keep you up to date with healthcare advances.NEW pathology photos illustrate difficult terms and procedures more clearly, showing the conditions that you will see, code, or manage in healthcare settings.NEW Hint feature provides helpful clues that assist with learning and retention of terminology.NEW! Electronic healthcare records on the Evolve companion website allows you to practice working with today’s medical records.NEW anatomic, pathologic and procedural animations on Evolve bring terminology to life and offer a 3D glimpse into the clinical world. NEW medical reports audio on Evolve provides the aural practice you need to be able to understand medical terminology in clinical settings.
 A Guide to School Services in Speech-Language Pathology, Third Edition serves as an introductory overview for the college student who is ready to embark on his or her school-based student teaching experience and thus is ideal for instructors of methods courses preparing practicum students for school-based experiences. Not only is it an excellent text for novices to the field, but it is also a very useful resource for the practicing, school-based speech-language pathologist.

Beginning with history related to school-based speech-language pathology services -- including a discussion of legal mandates (e.g., the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, No Child Left Behind Act, Every Student Succeeds Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act) -- the text then delves into a description of service delivery models; an introduction to the concept of a workload analysis approach to caseload standards in schools and example implementation strategies; a display of concrete, real-life success stories; and an offering of strategies for using evidence-based practice, proactive behavior management, conflict resolution, professional collaboration, conferencing and counseling skills, cultural competencies, goal writing, informal assessment procedures, and creating testing accommodations. A new chapter provides the evidence base for links between language, literacy, and the achievement of school standards. This chapter is a must-read for every school speech-language pathologist.

Real-life scenarios based on experiences shared by public school speech-language pathologists give the reader concrete examples upon which to scaffold the complex professional concepts. Chapter summaries provide an overview of the major points presented. Questions at the end of each chapter are designed to engage the reader in analysis and comprehension of material, and vocabulary related to each chapter is conveniently defined at the start of each chapter so that the reader can better grasp the subject matter within.

New to this edition:

A chapter on linking language, literacy, and the Common Core State StandardsPertinent information about the Every Student Succeeds Act of 2015The addition of four online resourcesThe addition of 10 new evidence-based practicesMore than 130 new referencesAn updated appendix of free Apps* Disclaimer: Please note that ancillary content (such as documents, audio, and video, etc.) may not be included as published in the original print version of this book. 
The new C++11 standard allows programmers to express ideas more clearly, simply, and directly, and to write faster, more efficient code. Bjarne Stroustrup, the designer and original implementer of C++, has reorganized, extended, and completely rewritten his definitive reference and tutorial for programmers who want to use C++ most effectively.

The C++ Programming Language, Fourth Edition, delivers meticulous, richly explained, and integrated coverage of the entire language—its facilities, abstraction mechanisms, standard libraries, and key design techniques. Throughout, Stroustrup presents concise, “pure C++11” examples, which have been carefully crafted to clarify both usage and program design. To promote deeper understanding, the author provides extensive cross-references, both within the book and to the ISO standard.

New C++11 coverage includes

Support for concurrency Regular expressions, resource management pointers, random numbers, and improved containers General and uniform initialization, simplified for-statements, move semantics, and Unicode support Lambdas, general constant expressions, control over class defaults, variadic templates, template aliases, and user-defined literals Compatibility issues

Topics addressed in this comprehensive book include

Basic facilities: type, object, scope, storage, computation fundamentals, and more Modularity, as supported by namespaces, source files, and exception handling C++ abstraction, including classes, class hierarchies, and templates in support of a synthesis of traditional programming, object-oriented programming, and generic programming Standard Library: containers, algorithms, iterators, utilities, strings, stream I/O, locales, numerics, and more The C++ basic memory model, in depth

This fourth edition makes C++11 thoroughly accessible to programmers moving from C++98 or other languages, while introducing insights and techniques that even cutting-edge C++11 programmers will find indispensable.

This book features an enhanced, layflat binding, which allows the book to stay open more easily when placed on a flat surface. This special binding method—noticeable by a small space inside the spine—also increases durability.

Routledge Introductions to Applied Linguistics is a series of introductory level textbooks covering the core topics in Applied Linguistics, primarily designed for those beginning postgraduate studies, or taking an introductory MA course as well as advanced undergraduates. Titles in the series are also ideal for language professionals returning to academic study.

The books take an innovative 'practice to theory' approach, with a 'back-to-front' structure. This leads the reader from real-world problems and issues, through a discussion of intervention and how to engage with these concerns, before finally relating these practical issues to theoretical foundations. Additional features include a glossary of key terms, and discussion questions.

Following the back-to-front approach of the series, the book takes problematic issues in language pedagogy as its starting points. These are then examined in terms of second language acquisition. Each chapter begins with a look at the pedagogical proposals found in teacher guides and then asks ‘Do these proposals accord with what we know about how languages are acquired?’ Pedagogical topics covered include teaching methods, syllabus design, explicit instruction, comprehension versus production-based instruction, task-based instruction, authentic materials, the role of the learners’ first language in the classroom, error correction and catering for individual differences.

Including a glossary of key terms and questions for discussion at the end of each chapter, and assuming no prior knowledge of second language acquisition, this is the ideal text for all students studying language teaching methods, language teacher education, English teaching methodology and second language acquisition modules in advanced undergraduate and postgraduate/graduate TESOL and Applied Linguistics courses.

Complex issues surround second language acquisition and foreign language learning in any language. There is no doubt that individuals are capable of acquiring two or more languages at different stages of human development, particularly in childhood. Research investigating how adults acquire two languages also carries important insights into what takes place during later stages of human development. From the fact that early and late bilinguals are faced with two languages in diverse stages of cognitive development we can predict differences in language processing between these two groups. In the case of the Japanese language, unfortunately, far fewer studies — particularly those written in English — have been presented on foreign-language learners and bilingual children. Designed to address some of these gaps in the literature, the chapters included in this book discuss various issues with regard to adult learners of Japanese as an L2 and English-Japanese bilingual children. This book provides the reader with an overview of the field of Japanese linguistics and its current concerns.

One of the main purposes of the book is to provide a forum in which to examine contributions in a variety of areas of Japanese linguistics to the teaching and learning of Japanese in the L2 classroom. This book has at least two interrelated areas of benefit. First, both researchers and teachers benefit from each other’s expertise and receive new insights that apply to their respective fields. Second and more important, the book serves as a forum to promote ways in which we can apply linguistic theory to the learning of Japanese as an L2. That is, what researchers have learned from both theory and practice can suggest what is important for the teaching of language; conversely, language educators have a great deal to offer linguists regarding the phenomenon of language. Thus, the goal of this book is to integrate theoretical concepts and empirical research findings in L2 development in order to apply them to educational practice.

This volume is the first to explore links between the Russian linguist Mikhail Bakhtin's theoretical insights about language and practical concerns with second and foreign language learning and teaching. Situated within a strong conceptual framework and drawing from a rich empirical base, it reflects recent scholarship in applied linguistics that has begun to move away from formalist views of language as universal, autonomous linguistic systems, and toward an understanding of language as dynamic collections of cultural resources. According to Bakhtin, the study of language is concerned with the dialogue existing between linguistic elements and the uses to which they are put in response to the conditions of the moment. Such a view of language has significant implications for current understandings of second- and foreign-language learning.

The contributors draw on some of Bakhtin's more significant concepts, such as dialogue, utterance, heteroglossia, voice, and addressivity to examine real world contexts of language learning. The chapters address a range of contexts including elementary- and university-level English as a second language and foreign language classrooms and adult learning situations outside the formal classroom. The text is arranged in two parts. Part I, "Contexts of Language Learning and Teaching," contains seven chapters that report on investigations into specific contexts of language learning and teaching. The chapters in Part II, "Implications for Theory and Practice," present broader discussions on second and foreign language learning using Bakhtin's ideas as a springboard for thinking.

This is a groundbreaking volume for scholars in applied linguistics, language education, and language studies with an interest in second and foreign language learning; for teacher educators; and for teachers of languages from elementary to university levels. It is highly relevant as a text for graduate-level courses in applied linguistics and second- and foreign-language education.
Second Language Testing for Student Evaluation and Classroom Research and its accompanying Student Workbook are introductory?level resources for classroom teachers of all levels of experience, and early?career graduate students in applied linguistics, TESOL, and second/foreign language teaching programs. The book gives a balance between practice and theory for student evaluation, and also aims for readers to use testing to connect to classroom research and to their own teaching. Indeed, Second Language Testing for Student Evaluation and Classroom Research aims at self?discovery and empowerment for readers, even as second language testing as a field undergoes major shifts in scope and areas of concern. Second Language Testing offer a strong basis for readers who wish to analyze and improve their own classroom tests, and for readers who wish to evaluate standardized tests they are required to use, or are thinking of using. We work with the general idea, “OK, now that I know test X has these strengths and weaknesses, what do I do?” Or, “Alright here are students’ scores, now how do I use them in my teaching?” At the same time our book provides more in?depth treatments of key testing topics for those readers who want to know “Why?” and “How?” “Why these terms?” “Why this or that analysis?” “Why does it work?” “How does it work?” “What do these numbers mean?” “How do I use them and how do I explain them to my students, my colleagues, my supervisors?” Second Language Testing for Student Evaluation and Classroom Research includes five Appendices for those readers whose interests continue into more advanced areas. Our information and observations on issues such as rater training (Appendix B) are current and discerning, and our Reference section and Glossary would be valued by any advanced testing practitioner or researcher. Second Language Testing is useful to readers at varied levels of engagement, at their choice.
Living Languages is simply bursting with practical and original ideas aimed at teachers and trainee teachers of foreign languages in primary schools. Written by a team of experienced linguists, this book will inspire and motivate the foreign language classroom and the teachers who work within it.

Living Languages comprises eight chapters and is structured around the integrated classroom, merging language learning with different aspects of the wider curriculum such as multimedia, performance, celebrations and festivals, creativity and alternative approaches to teaching languages. A DVD is also included with the book containing additional teaching materials and the associated films and audio recordings which make this a fully-developed and effective teaching resource.

Over 50 real-life case studies and projects are presented, all of which have been tried and tested in the classroom with several having won recent educational awards. Ideas and activities outlined in this unique resource include:

Languages across the curriculum helping to cement cross-curricular links and embed new languages in different contexts linking subjects such as history, science, PE and mathematics with French, German and Spanish;

Arts and crafts projects in Languages, making and doing, including making books, creating beach huts and cooking biscuits;

Languages, celebrations and festivals projects including the German Christmas market, Spanish Day of the Dead, celebrating Mardi Gras and the European Day of Languages among many others;

Continuing Professional Development to inspire primary teachers to continue their individual professional development. The chapter contains concrete examples of others’ experiences in this area and includes details of support organisations and practical opportunities.

Each project is explored from the teachers’ perspective with practical tips, lesson plans and reflections woven throughout the text such as what to budget, how to organise the pre-event period, how to evaluate the activity and whom to contact for further advice in each case. Activities and examples throughout are given in three languages – French, German and Spanish.

This volume addresses critical challenges and issues facing foreign language departments in colleges and universities across the U.S. It presents the insights of individuals who have built or are in the process of building foreign language curricula during a major transition period in postsecondary institutions.

The authors of this volume come from various language departments and institutional experience from across the U. S., including private and public postsecondary foreign language teachers, researchers and administrators. The chapters address issues and provide templates for curricular change at all learning levels.

The five sections of this book explore: Changing Perceptions about Foreign Language Learning; The Case for a Multi-literacy FL Curriculum in Concept and Assessment Praxis; Curricular Transformations: Historical Hurdles and Faculty Heuristics; Rethinking the Graduate Curriculum; Foreign Languages' Integration into the Interdisciplinary University.

“This thought-provoking and timely volume addresses the question of how historic and current disciplinary, institutional and political conditions affect curricular transformation in collegiate foreign language programs. Responding to the issues raised in the 2007 MLA Report, this collection of nine essays presents a diversity of curricular models and approaches from different theoretical perspectives focusing on the integration of language and content. The book will undoubtedly be of great interest to a broad audience, such as foreign language educators, curriculum designers, administrators, graduate students and researchers.” Nelleke Van Deusen-Scholl, Yale College, CT, USA.

The Diagnosis of Reading in a Second or Foreign Language explores the implications of language assessment research on classroom-based assessment practices by providing an in-depth look at the little-examined field of diagnosis in second and foreign language reading. This volume examines the development of second and foreign language reading and how subsequent research findings, couched in this knowledge, can help facilitate a more-informed teaching approach in second and foreign language classrooms. By contextualizing the latest in classroom settings and presenting implications for future research in this developing area of linguistics, this book is an ideal resource for those studying and working in applied linguistics, second language acquisition, and language assessment and education.

About the NPLA Series:

Headed by two of its leading scholars, the series captures the burgeoning field of language assessment by offering comprehensive and state-of-the-art coverage of its contemporary questions, pressing issues, and technical advances. It is the only active series of its kind on the market, and will include volumes on basic and advanced topics in language assessment, public policy and language assessment, and the interfaces of language assessment with other disciplines in applied linguistics. Each text presents key theoretical approaches and research findings, along with concrete practical implications and suggestions for readers conducting their own research or developmental studies.

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