Foreign Language Study
The C++ Programming Language, Fourth Edition, delivers meticulous, richly explained, and integrated coverage of the entire language—its facilities, abstraction mechanisms, standard libraries, and key design techniques. Throughout, Stroustrup presents concise, “pure C++11” examples, which have been carefully crafted to clarify both usage and program design. To promote deeper understanding, the author provides extensive cross-references, both within the book and to the ISO standard.
New C++11 coverage includesSupport for concurrency Regular expressions, resource management pointers, random numbers, and improved containers General and uniform initialization, simplified for-statements, move semantics, and Unicode support Lambdas, general constant expressions, control over class defaults, variadic templates, template aliases, and user-defined literals Compatibility issues
Topics addressed in this comprehensive book includeBasic facilities: type, object, scope, storage, computation fundamentals, and more Modularity, as supported by namespaces, source files, and exception handling C++ abstraction, including classes, class hierarchies, and templates in support of a synthesis of traditional programming, object-oriented programming, and generic programming Standard Library: containers, algorithms, iterators, utilities, strings, stream I/O, locales, numerics, and more The C++ basic memory model, in depth
This fourth edition makes C++11 thoroughly accessible to programmers moving from C++98 or other languages, while introducing insights and techniques that even cutting-edge C++11 programmers will find indispensable.
This book features an enhanced, layflat binding, which allows the book to stay open more easily when placed on a flat surface. This special binding method—noticeable by a small space inside the spine—also increases durability.
Fully revised, this new edition includes over 350 new entries. Previous definitions have been revised or replaced in order to make this the most up-to-date and comprehensive dictionary available.
Providing straightforward and accessible explanations of difficult terms and ideas in applied linguistics, this dictionary offers:Nearly 3000 detailed entries, from subject areas such as teaching methodology, curriculum development, sociolinguistics, syntax and phonetics. Clear and accurate definitions which assume no prior knowledge of the subject matter helpful diagrams and tables cross references throughout, linking related subject areas for ease of reference, and helping to broaden students' knowledgeThe Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistics is the definitive resource for students.
The book covers all the main theoretical perspectives currently active in the SLA field and sets them in a broader perspective per chapter, e.g. linguistic, cognitive or sociolinguistic. Each chapter examines how various theories view language, the learner, and the acquisition process. Summaries of key studies and examples of data relating to a variety of languages illustrate the different theoretical perspectives. Each chapter concludes with an evaluative summary of the theories discussed. This third edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect the very latest research in the field of SLA.
Key features include:a fully re-worked chapter on cognitive models of language and language learning a new chapter on information processing, including the roles of different types of memory and knowledge in language learning the addition of a glossary of key linguistic terms to help the non-specialist a new timeline of second language learning theory development
This third edition takes account of the significant developments that have taken place in the field in recent years. Highly active domains in which theoretical and methodological advances have been made are treated in more depth to ensure that this new edition of Second Language Learning Theories remains as fresh and relevant as ever.
This is the first descriptive grammar of Kotiria (Wanano), a member of the Tukanoan language family spoken in the Vaupes River basin of Colombia and Brazil in the northwest Amazon rain forest. The Kotirias have lived in this remote region for more than seven hundred years and participate in the complex Vaupes social system characterized by longstanding linguistic and cultural interaction. The Kotirias remained relatively isolated from the dominant societies until the early part of the twentieth century, when the region began to experience increasing outside influence leading to processes of rapid social and linguistic change. Today the Kotirias number only about sixteen hundred people and their language, though still used in traditional communities, is rapidly becoming endangered.
Kristine Stenzel draws on eight years of intensive work with the Kotirias to promote, record, and revitalize their language. Working with dozens of native speakers and drawing on numerous oral narratives and written texts, this book is the first comprehensive study of this endangered language and one of the few reference grammars of this language family.
Each chapter is authored by leading advocates for the approach described: James Lantolf for the sociocultural approach; Diane Larsen-Freeman for the complexity theory approach; Gabriele Kasper and Johannes Wagner for the conversation-analytic approach; Bonny Norton and Carolyn McKinney for the identity approach; Patricia Duff and Steven Talmy for the language socialization approach and Dwight Atkinson for the sociocognitive approach.
Introductory and commentary chapters round out this volume. The editor’s introduction describes the significance of alternative approaches to SLA studies given its strongly cognitivist orientation. Lourdes Ortega’s commentary considers the six approaches from an 'enlightened traditional' perspective on SLA studies – a viewpoint which is cognitivist in orientation but broad enough to give serious and balanced consideration to alternative approaches.
This volume is essential reading in the field of second language acquisition.
The Meta-Programming System (MPS) is a new kind of tool called a language workbench that simply stated makes it easier and more fun to write programs. With traditional programming, it is common to choose one programming language to solve a problem and being limited by this choice. When working with MPS you can use and combine different languages to solve a problem. You can also create simple languages (e.g., Domain Specific Languages) or extend existing ones when the languages available do not exactly meet the evolving needs of the problem at hand. The languages that you create with MPS will integrate nicely with languages developed by others.
MPS is open-source and can be obtained from http://jetbrains.com/mps or http://github.com/JetBrains/MPS. This book explains the MPS programming paradigm and gradually introduces the reader to the many features of the MPS platform. This book may yet be the simplest way to discover the MPS language workbench and the powerful new approach to programming that this tool offers.
The third edition of this book describes MPS 3.3.
Sandwiched between the introductory and final chapters are four major sections:
* Vocabulary and Concept Acquisition, which discusses the effect of first-language phonological configuration on lexical acquisition in a second language, contextual inference effects in foreign language vocabulary acquisition and retention, mediated processes in foreign language vocabulary acquisition and retention, and the status of the count-mass distinction in a mental grammar;
* Language Comprehension, which addresses voice communication between air traffic controllers and pilots who are nonnative speakers of English, cognitive strategies in discourse processing, and the effects of context and word order in Maasai sentence production and comprehension;
* Reading Processes, which discusses the enhancement of text comprehension through highlighting, the effect of alphabet and fluency on unitization processes in reading, and reading proficiency of bilinguals in their first and second languages; and
* Bilingualism, which addresses Stroop interference effects in bilinguals between similar and dissimilar languages, the individual differences in second language proficiency, and the hierarchical model of bilingual representation.
The books take an innovative 'practice to theory' approach, with a 'back-to-front' structure. This leads the reader from real-world problems and issues, through a discussion of intervention and how to engage with these concerns, before finally relating these practical issues to theoretical foundations. Additional features include a glossary of key terms, and discussion questions.
Following the back-to-front approach of the series, the book takes problematic issues in language pedagogy as its starting points. These are then examined in terms of second language acquisition. Each chapter begins with a look at the pedagogical proposals found in teacher guides and then asks ‘Do these proposals accord with what we know about how languages are acquired?’ Pedagogical topics covered include teaching methods, syllabus design, explicit instruction, comprehension versus production-based instruction, task-based instruction, authentic materials, the role of the learners’ first language in the classroom, error correction and catering for individual differences.
Including a glossary of key terms and questions for discussion at the end of each chapter, and assuming no prior knowledge of second language acquisition, this is the ideal text for all students studying language teaching methods, language teacher education, English teaching methodology and second language acquisition modules in advanced undergraduate and postgraduate/graduate TESOL and Applied Linguistics courses.
Ideal as a textbook for students of applied linguistics, foreign language education, TESOL, and education, it is also recommended for students of linguistics, developmental psycholinguistics, psychology, and cognitive science.
Supporting resources for tutors are available free at www.routledge.com/ortega.
As modestly described by the authors in the Preface to the First Edition, this "is not an introductory programming manual; it assumes some familiarity with basic programming concepts like variables, assignment statements, loops, and functions. Nonetheless, a novice programmer should be able to read along and pick up the language, although access to a more knowledgeable colleague will help."
How are issues of race relevant to second language education?
How does whiteness influence students’ and teachers’ sense of self and instructional practices?
How do discourses of racialization influence the construction of student identities and subjectivities?
How do discourses on race, such as colorblindness, influence classroom practices, educational interventions, and parental involvement?
How can teachers transform the status quo?
Each chapter is grounded in theory and provides implications for engaged practice. Topics cover a wide range of themes that emerge from various pedagogical contexts. Authors from diverse racial/ethnic/cultural backgrounds and geopolitical locations include both established and beginning scholars in the field, making the content vibrant and stimulating. Pre-reading Questions and Discussion Questions in each chapter facilitate comprehension and encourage dialogue.
This book has a companion website: http://dx.doi.org/10.1075/z.183.website
The redesigned fourth edition of Second Language Acquisition retains the features that students found useful in the current edition but also provides new pedagogical tools that encourage students to reflect upon the experiences of second language learners. As with previous editions, discussion questions and problems at the end of each chapter help students apply their knowledge, and a glossary defines and reinforces must-know terminology. This clearly-written, comprehensive, and current textbook, by expert Sue Gass, is the ideal textbook for the introductory SLA course in second language studies, applied linguistics, linguistics, TESOL, and language education programs.
The contributors draw on some of Bakhtin's more significant concepts, such as dialogue, utterance, heteroglossia, voice, and addressivity to examine real world contexts of language learning. The chapters address a range of contexts including elementary- and university-level English as a second language and foreign language classrooms and adult learning situations outside the formal classroom. The text is arranged in two parts. Part I, "Contexts of Language Learning and Teaching," contains seven chapters that report on investigations into specific contexts of language learning and teaching. The chapters in Part II, "Implications for Theory and Practice," present broader discussions on second and foreign language learning using Bakhtin's ideas as a springboard for thinking.
This is a groundbreaking volume for scholars in applied linguistics, language education, and language studies with an interest in second and foreign language learning; for teacher educators; and for teachers of languages from elementary to university levels. It is highly relevant as a text for graduate-level courses in applied linguistics and second- and foreign-language education.
Based on the research of the authors and other international experts, together with the work of a consortium established by the authors and teachers in a range of secondary schools, the book focusses on the development of language skills and communicative competence. It also proposes an assessment system which better reflects how learners progress in language learning than current models.
Taking as its starting point the challenge of a curriculum in flux and complex pedagogical approaches, this book offers clear research-informed guidance for effective planning, teaching and learning. It will be essential reading for all those concerned with the improvement of language learning and teaching in the secondary classroom.
The contributing authors approach their respective chapters relying on both qualitative and quantitative research. Their experience and conclusions will prove helpful for any foreign language professional working in tertiary education.
About the NPLA Series:
Headed by two of its leading scholars, the series captures the burgeoning field of language assessment by offering comprehensive and state-of-the-art coverage of its contemporary questions, pressing issues, and technical advances. It is the only active series of its kind on the market, and will include volumes on basic and advanced topics in language assessment, public policy and language assessment, and the interfaces of language assessment with other disciplines in applied linguistics. Each text presents key theoretical approaches and research findings, along with concrete practical implications and suggestions for readers conducting their own research or developmental studies.
The topics chosen coincide with the areas in which the communicative approach to language teaching, dominant in European and American language programs since the 1970s and 80s, has been the object of most revision. In its first part, the book appeals both to pragmatics and to discourse analysis to research the specifics of classroom discourse and classroom interaction, as well as the differences between interactions among Spanish native speakers and interactions among non natives, in order to develop methodologies for the effective incorporation of these aspects to the Spanish language classroom, such as tasks to teach interaction or techniques to implement learner-centered interactive class dynamics and cooperative learning.
In its second part, this book reviews the pedagogical advantages of language description based on Cognitive Linguistic theory to explain different aspects of Spanish grammar. The main purpose of our contribution is to show how taking different dimensions of construal and perspective in linguistic representations into account helps teachers to elucidate idiosyncratic and subtle contrasts of Spanish structure that other views and approaches cannot clarify on a meaningful base, such as the aspectual opposition between preterits or the modal opposition between indicative and subjunctive, both of high importance for the English speaking student.
The work selected for this book, by experts from Columbia University and from several universities in Spain, represents the most current lines of inquiry in this “post-communicative” approach as applied specifically to the teaching of Spanish. This book seeks to be to be a “must-read” for the present and future. It tackles unexplored territory, for journals and applied linguistics collections have mainly addressed these problems in relation to English language and instruction.
In response, Foreign Language Education in America is an edited book with contributions that represent the diversity in foreign language education today, including perspectives from elementary, middle schools, high schools, university-level courses, summer programs, federal government, and international learning. This is a practical guide to the state of the field that fills a much-needed gap for scholars, researchers, administrators, and practitioners who are looking for a resource that describes effective practices across the field.
*social contexts of second language learning;
*research methodologies in second-language learning, acquisition, and teaching;
*contributions of applied linguistics to the teaching and learning of second language skills;
*second language processes and development;
*teaching methods and curricula;
*issues in second or foreign language testing and assessment;
*identity, culture, and critical pedagogy in second language teaching and learning; and
*important considerations in language planning and policies.
The Handbook of Research in Second Language Teaching and Learning is intended for researchers, practitioners, graduate students, and faculty in teacher education and applied linguistics programs; teachers; teacher trainers; teacher trainees; curriculum and material developers; and all other professionals in the field of second language teaching and learning.