Tropical medicine

This book intensively examines the efficacy of plant-derived products that have been used for over a thousand years by practitioners of so-called Traditional Chinese Medicine in the light of recent chemotherapeuticals. The chapters were written by renowned Chinese medical researchers and are supplemented by results obtained in German antiparasitic research projects.

Parasites and emerging diseases are a major threat of our time, which is characterized by an enormous increase in the size of the human population and by an unbelievably rapid globalization that has led to the daily transport of millions of humans and containers with goods from one end of the earth to the other. Furthermore the slow but constant global warming offers new opportunities for many agents of diseases to become established in new areas. Therefore it is essential that we develop precautions in order to avoid epidemics or even pandemics in overcrowded megacities or at the large-scale farm animal confinements that are needed to secure a steady flow of food in the crowded regions of the world.

Of course intensive research in the field of chemotherapy since 1900 has produced unbelievable breakthroughs in therapies for formerly untreatable and thus deadly diseases. However, a large number of untreatable diseases remain, as well as a constantly growing number of agents of disease that have developed resistances to standard chemical compounds.

As such, it is not only worthwhile but also vital to consider the enormous amounts of information that have been obtained by human “high cultures” in the past. Examples from the past (like quinine) or present (like artemisinin, a modern antimalarial drug) show that plant extracts may hold tremendous potential in the fight against parasites and/or against vector-transmitted agents of diseases.

We live in a medical fool's paradise, comforted, believing our sanitized Western world is safe from the microbes and parasites of the tropics. Not so, nor was it ever so.

Past--and present--tell us that tropical diseases are as American as the heart attack; yellow fever lived happily for centuries in Philadelphia. Malaria liked it fine in Washington, not to mention in the Carolinas where it took right over. The Ebola virus stopped off in Baltimore, and the Mexican pig tapeworm has settled comfortably among orthodox Jews in Brooklyn.

This book starts with the little creatures the first American immigrants brought with them on the long walk from Siberia 50,000 years ago. It moves on to all that unwanted baggage that sailed over with the Spanish, French, and the English and killed native Americans in huge numbers in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. (The native Americans, it appears, got some revenge by passing syphilis--including Pinta, a feisty strain of syphilis--back to Europe with Columbus's returning sailors.)

Nor have the effects of these diseases on people and economics been fully appreciated. Did slavery last so long because Africans were semi-immune to malaria and yellow fever, while Southern whites of all ranks fell in thousands to those diseases?

In the final chapters, Robert S. Desowitz takes us through the Good Works of the twentieth century, Kid Rockefeller and the Battling Hookworm, and the rearrival of malaria; and he offers a glimpse into the future with a host of "Doomsday bugs" and jet-setting viruses that make life, quite literally, a jungle out there.

Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens and Practice, by Drs. Richard L. Guerrant, David H. Walker, and Peter F. Weller, delivers the expert, encyclopedic guidance you need to overcome the toughest clinical challenges in diagnosing and treating diseases caused by infectious agents from tropical regions. Sweeping updates to this 3rd edition include vaccines, SARS, hepatitis A-E, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis and Omsk hemorrhagic fever, human papilloma virus, and mucormycosis. New full-color images throughout allow you to more accurately view the clinical manifestations of each disease and better visualize the life cycles of infectious agents. Definitive, state-of-the-art coverage of pathophysiology as well as clinical management makes this the reference you’ll want to consult whenever you are confronted with tropical infections, whether familiar or unfamiliar!
  • Obtain complete and trustworthy advice from hundreds of the leading experts on tropical diseases worldwide, including cutting-edge summaries of pathophysiology and epidemiology as well as clinical management.
  • Get the latest answers on vaccines, SARS, hepatitis A-E, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, tick-borne encephalitis and Omsk hemorrhagic fever, human papilloma virus, mucormycosis, and much more.
  • Implement best practices from all over the world with guidance from almost twice as many international authors - over 100 representing more than 35 countries.
  • Accurately view the clinical manifestations of each disease and visualize the life cycles of infectious agents with new full-color images throughout.
Tropical Diseases outlines the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases encountered in developing regions---areas where the unexpected can occur and where Western medical capabilities are often unavailable. Taking a pragmatic approach, it is an invaluable reference and resource for medical professionals and students travelling abroad or working in unfamiliar terrain. Diseases profiled here include a brief historical background, main signs and symptoms, and practical methods of individual prevention and treatment. Additional features include: - Over 60 maps depicting the geographic origins and modern distribution of tropical diseases - A classification scheme for parasitic diseases according to the location of the final parasitic stage in the human body - Clinical case studies For the new or experienced health care provider, Tropical Diseases is a handy, practical guide to treating and avoiding disease in any environment. Yann Meunier is the CEO of HealthConnect International Inc, a healthcare consulting company based in Silicon Valley, CA, and Advisor in the Medscholars Research Fellowships Program at Stanford University School of Medicine. He is honorary member of the Brazilian Academy of Medicine, associate member of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore, member of the International Academy of Fellows and Associates, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada and fellow of the Australasian College of Tropical Medicine. He received his Tropical Medicine specialty degree from the university Paris VI and was consultant in Tropical Medicine at the Pitié-Salpêtrière in Paris. He has practiced medicine for many years in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South America.
At the present time there are renewed global efforts to control the major tropical infections and to stem the tide of malnutrition, the two serious, often intertwined, problems that contribute to much of the morbidity and mortality in under privileged populations. Many international organizations have joined hands with national governments and with the private sector to search for new approaches to problems that beset much of the developing world, including countries in the tropical region. This volume continues the tradition of the previous publication in the Series. A variety of fare is offered to readers: explanations of the activities and achievements of the UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Re search and Training in Tropical Diseases; and studies of infant mortality, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, helminths, lactase deficiency, oral rehydration therapy, functional consequences of iron deficiency, and fertility control. Au thoritative state-of-the-art reviews provide a critical analysis of recent data. I hope the Series will continue to prove useful to all those working in the tropics and to those in the industrialized countries whose awareness of physical health problems of the Third World is relatively limited. R. K. Chandra St. John's, Newfoundland VlI Contents Chapter 1. The Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DAVID S. ROWE 1. Origins, Objectives, and Diseases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. The Modus Operandi of the Programme. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. 1. Scientific Working Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2. 2. Research Strengthening Group. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2. 3. The Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee. . . . . . . . . 7 2. 4. Joint Coordinating Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
From the difficult to diagnose to the difficult to treat, Manson’s Tropical Diseases prepares you to effectively handle whatever your patients may have contracted. Featuring an internationally recognized editorial team, global contributors, and expert authors, this revised and updated medical reference book provides you with the latest coverage on parasitic and infectious diseases from around the world.
  • Consult this title on your favorite e-reader
  • , conduct rapid searches, and adjust font sizes for optimal readability.
  • Incorporate the latest therapies into your practice, such as recently approved drugs and new treatment options.
  • Find what you need easily and apply it quickly with highlighted key information, convenient boxes and tables, extensive cross-referencing, and clinical management diagrams.
  • Make the most accurate Tropical Disease diagnoses
  • through a completely redesigned and modernized format, which includes full-color images throughout.
  • Apply the latest treatment strategies for HIV/AIDS, tropical neurology, malaria, and much more.
  • Put the latest international expertise to work for you and your patients with new chapters covering Global Health; Global Health Governance and Tropical Diseases; Non-communicable Diseases; Obesity in the Tropics; and Emergency and Intensive Care Medicine in Resource-poor Settings.
  • See which diseases are most prevalent in specific areas of the tropics through a new index of diseases by country, as well as online-only maps that provide additional detail.
  • Better understand the variations in treatment approaches across the globe.
Cysticercosis, an infection caused by the cystic larvae of the pork tapeworm Taenia solium, is one of the most frequent parasitic infections of the human nervous system (neurocysticercosis). It is endemic in most of Latin America, the sub-Saharan Africa, and vast parts of Asia, including the Indian subcontinent. It has also been increasingly diagnosed in developed countries because of migration of people from endemic zones and exposure in travelers. The life cycle involves the development of the adult tapeworm in the human small intestine (after ingesting infected pork with cysts) and larval infection in pig tissues (after ingesting human stools containing the eggs of the tapeworm). Humans get infected by the fecal-oral route, most often from a direct contact with an asymptomatic Taenia carrier. Most common clinical presentations are seizures (particularly late-onset seizures), chronic headaches, and intracranial hypertension. However, cysticerci can locate anywhere in the human nervous system, thus potentially causing almost any neurological syndrome and making clinical diagnosis a difficult task. Neuroimaging is the main diagnostic tool, and specific serology confirms the diagnosis and helps to define the diagnosis when images are unclear. Factors such as location (extraparenchymal versus intraparenchymal), number, size and evolutive stage of the parasites determine the clinical manifestations, therapeutic approach, and prognosis. Management includes symptomatic drugs (analgesics, antiepileptic drugs, anti-inflammatory agents) and in many cases cysticidal drugs, either albendazole or praziquantel. In recent years, efforts have focused on transmission control and potential elimination in endemic regions.
In 1866 Patrick Manson, a young Scottish doctor fresh from medical school, left London to launch his career in China as a port surgeon for the Imperial Chinese Customs Service. For the next two decades, he served in this outpost of British power in the Far East, and extended the frontiers of British medicine. In 1899, at the twilight of his career and as the British Empire approached its zenith, he founded the London School of Tropical Medicine. For these contributions Manson would later be called the "father of British tropical medicine."

In Imperial Medicine: Patrick Manson and the Conquest of Tropical Disease Douglas M. Haynes uses Manson's career to explore the role of British imperialism in the making of Victorian medicine and science. He challenges the categories of "home" and "empire" that have long informed accounts of British medicine and science, revealing a vastly more dynamic, dialectical relationship between the imperial metropole and periphery than has previously been recognized. Manson's decision to launch his career in China was no accident; the empire provided a critical source of career opportunities for a chronically overcrowded profession in Britain. And Manson used the London media's interest in the empire to advance his scientific agenda, including the discovery of the transmission of malaria in 1898, which he portrayed as British science.

The empire not only created a demand for practitioners but also enhanced the presence of British medicine throughout the world. Haynes documents how the empire subsidized research science at the London School of Tropical Medicine and elsewhere in Britain in the early twentieth century. By illuminating the historical enmeshment of Victorian medicine and science in Britain's imperial project, Imperial Medicine identifies the present-day privileged distribution of specialist knowledge about disease with the lingering consequences of European imperialism.

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