Chemical industry

It’s the new rock and roll. It’s the new black. Sustainability is trendy, and not just among hipsters and pop stars. The uncool chemical sector helped pioneer it, and today, companies inside and outside the sector have embraced it. But what have they embraced? Surely not the Brundtland definition of meeting “the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”

Sustainability describes a change in the chemical industry’s approach to the external world: to regulators, to greens, to neighbors, to investors and to the general public. Displacing the adversarialism of the 1970s-80s, sustainability is a new approach to social/political conflict, and an attempt to rebuild the industry’s long-suffering public image. In practice, it consists of:
A ‘stakeholder’ approach to communications and external relations
A rebranding of regulatory compliance and risk management, with the emphasis on their benefits to stakeholders
Recognition (and even celebration) of the opportunities, not just the costs, of environmental and social protection

The core of this book is a survey of the world’s 29 largest chemical companies: how they put sustainability into action (six of the 29 do not), and the six ‘sustainability brands’ they have created. It begins with a history of stakeholders conflict, before looking at various definitions of sustainability – by academics, by the public and by investors. After the survey and analysis, the book covers sustainability and ‘greenwash’ plus the ROI of sustainability, and it gives five recommendations.

Discussing the technological supremacy of the chemical industry, including pharmaceuticals, and how it will adopt a leading position to solve some of the largest global challenges humans have even seen, this book details how the industry will address climate change, aging populations, resource scarcity, globality, networks speed, pandemics, and massive growth and demand.

Following a detailed introduction to some of the megatrends shaping our world over the forthcoming decades, the book goes on to provide several scenarios of how the world could look by 2050, including 'business as usual' and a 'sustainable' one. Chapter 3 gives a comprehensive overview of the current status, while providing a short historical review of the chemical industry, its origins, achievements and fundamentals. The following chapter reviews the potential impact of each of the selected megatrends on the industry, while Chapter 5 proposes how it could look by 2050. Several features of the chemical industry are presented and discussed, including the industrial relevance from an economical, technological and profitability point of view. The largest chemicals markets in absolute and per capita bases and the areas and countries with largest growth potential for chemicals, pharmaceuticals and feedstock. This chapter also reviews the impact of climate change on the chemical industry from a feedstocks and products point of view and, more specifically, the potential costs in reducing CO2 emissions. A final, concluding chapter summarizes the forthcoming megatrends and potential challenges, opportunities and the outlook for the industry as a whole.
An essential introduction to the organic chemicals industry—in the context of globalization, advances in technology, and environmental concerns

Providing 95 percent of the 500 billion pounds of organic chemicals produced in the world, the petroleum and natural gas industries are responsible for products that ensure our present quality of life. Products as diverse as gasoline, plastics, detergents, fibers, pesticides, tires, lipstick, shampoo, and sunscreens are based on seven raw materials derived from petroleum and natural gas. In an updated and expanded Third Edition, Industrial Organic Chemicals examines why each of these chemical building blocks—ethylene, propylene, C4 olefins (butenes and butadiene), benzene toluene, the xylenes, and methane—is preferred over another in the context of an environmental issue or manufacturing process, as well as their individual chemistry, derivatives, method of manufacture, uses, and economic significance.

The new edition details the seismic shifts in the world's chemistry industry away from the United States, Western Europe and Japan, transforming the Middle East and Asia-Pacific region, especially China, into major players. The book also details:

  • The impact of globalization on the patterns of worldwide transportation of chemicals, including methods of shipping chemicals
  • The technological advances in the area of polymerization and catalysis, including catalyst design and single-site catalysts
  • Chemicals for electronics, with much new material on conducting polymers, photovoltaic cells, and related materials
  • The discovery of vast reserves of shale gas and shale oil, altering long-term predictions of resource depletion in the United States and other countries
  • Commercial and market aspects of the chemical industry, with coverage of emerging new companies such as INEOS, Formosa Plastics, LyondellBasell, and SABIC

With expanded coverage on the vital role of green chemistry, renewables, chemicals and fuels on issues of sustainability and climate change, Industrial Organic Chemicals offers an unparalleled examination of what is at the heart of this multi-billion dollar industry, how globalization has transformed it, and its ever growing role in preserving the Earth and its resources.

Human Factors in the Chemical and Process Industries: Making it Work in Practice is a comprehensive overview of human factors within this sector, focusing on the practical application. It has been written by acknowledged industry experts from the Keil Centre, which is a leading practice of chartered ergonomics and human factors specialists, chartered safety specialists, registered occupational psychologists, and registered clinical psychologists

The book was inspired by the international human factors training course run by the Keil Centre with the IChemE(, which has reached four continents across the world. The book is written for those who want a comprehensive overview of the subject, focusing on the practical application of human factors. It has been written for safety professionals, engineers and operational disciplines within industry, and those aspiring to these disciplines, who either deal with human factors issues or any aspect of the ‘human element’ in their core role.

The book explains what ‘human factors’ is about and how human factors issues are best managed from a practical perspective. It will help readers develop a greater understanding of the area and how to establish more effective solutions for human factors related issues.

  • Provides comprehensive coverage of the most relevant human factors within this sector, with succinct overviews of each topic
  • Uses case studies and practical examples to illustrate topics and explains the material in a fully accessible, easy to understand style
  • Written by a single team of eleven industry practitioners, drawing on the combined expertise of different human factors specialisms which are rarely comprehensively combined in a single resource
The editors wish to thank the European Science Foundation for its support of the programme on the Evolution of Chemistry in Europe, 1789-1939, as well as for sponsoring the publication of this volume. Through the subdivision of this initiative that deals specifically with chemical industry it has been possible for historians of science, technology, business and economics to share often widely differing viewpoints and develop consensus across disciplinary and cultural boundaries. The contents of this volume are based on the third of three workshops that have considered the emergence of the modern European chemical industry prior to 1939, the first held in Liege (1994), the second in Maastricht (1995), and the third in Strasbourg (1996). All contributors and participants are thanked for their participation in often lively and informative debates. The generous hospitality of the European Science Foundation and its staff in Strasbourg is gratefully acknowledged. Introduction Emerging chemical knowledge and the development of chemical industry, and particularly the interaction between them, offer rich fields of study for the historian. This is reflected in the contents of the three workshops dealing with the emergence of chemical industry held under the aegis of the European Science Foundation's Evolution of Chemistry in Europe, 1789-1939, programme. The first workshop focused mainly on science for industry, 1789- 1850, and the second on the two-way traffic between science and industry, 1850-1914. The third workshop, dealing with the period 1900-1939, covers similar issues, but within different, and wider, contexts.
WINNER OF THE PULITZER PRIZE • Winner of The New York Public Library’s Helen Bernstein Book Award • “A new classic of science reporting.”—The New York Times

The riveting true story of a small town ravaged by industrial pollution, Toms River melds hard-hitting investigative reporting, a fascinating scientific detective story, and an unforgettable cast of characters into a sweeping narrative in the tradition of A Civil Action, The Emperor of All Maladies, and The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks.

One of New Jersey’s seemingly innumerable quiet seaside towns, Toms River became the unlikely setting for a decades-long drama that culminated in 2001 with one of the largest legal settlements in the annals of toxic dumping. A town that would rather have been known for its Little League World Series champions ended up making history for an entirely different reason: a notorious cluster of childhood cancers scientifically linked to local air and water pollution. For years, large chemical companies had been using Toms River as their private dumping ground, burying tens of thousands of leaky drums in open pits and discharging billions of gallons of acid-laced wastewater into the town’s namesake river.

In an astonishing feat of investigative reporting, prize-winning journalist Dan Fagin recounts the sixty-year saga of rampant pollution and inadequate oversight that made Toms River a cautionary example for fast-growing industrial towns from South Jersey to South China. He tells the stories of the pioneering scientists and physicians who first identified pollutants as a cause of cancer, and brings to life the everyday heroes in Toms River who struggled for justice: a young boy whose cherubic smile belied the fast-growing tumors that had decimated his body from birth; a nurse who fought to bring the alarming incidence of childhood cancers to the attention of authorities who didn’t want to listen; and a mother whose love for her stricken child transformed her into a tenacious advocate for change.

A gripping human drama rooted in a centuries-old scientific quest, Toms River is a tale of dumpers at midnight and deceptions in broad daylight, of corporate avarice and government neglect, and of a few brave individuals who refused to keep silent until the truth was exposed.


“A thrilling journey full of twists and turns, Toms River is essential reading for our times. Dan Fagin handles topics of great complexity with the dexterity of a scholar, the honesty of a journalist, and the dramatic skill of a novelist.”—Siddhartha Mukherjee, M.D., author of the Pulitzer Prize–winning The Emperor of All Maladies
“A complex tale of powerful industry, local politics, water rights, epidemiology, public health and cancer in a gripping, page-turning environmental thriller.”—NPR

“Unstoppable reading.”The Philadelphia Inquirer
“Meticulously researched and compellingly recounted . . . It’s every bit as important—and as well-written—as A Civil Action and The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks.”The Star-Ledger
“Fascinating . . . a gripping environmental thriller.”Kirkus Reviews (starred review)
“An honest, thoroughly researched, intelligently written book.”Slate
“[A] hard-hitting account . . . a triumph.”Nature
“Absorbing and thoughtful.”USA Today
In recent years many developments have taken place in promote co-operation between governments and other the field of risk assessment of chemicals. Many reports parties involved in chemical safety and to provide policy have been published by national authorities, industries guidance with emphasis on regional and subregional co and scientific researchers as well as by international bod operation. The Inter-Organization Programme for the ies such as the European Union, the Organization of Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC) was estab Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and lished in 1995 and provides a mechanism for the six par the joint International Programme on Chemical Safety ticipating organizations (UNEP, ILO, FAO, UNIDO,WHO (IPCS) of the World Health Organization (WHO), the and OECD) to better co-ordinate policies and activities in International Labour Organization (lLO), and the United the field of chemical risk management. Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). The present book is an introduction to risk assessment of The development and international harmonization of risk chemicals. It contains basic background information on assessment methods is an important challenge. In sources, emissions, distribution and fate processes for Agenda 21 of the United Nations Conference on exposure estimation. It includes dose-effects estimation Environment and Development (UNCED), chapter 19 is for both human health related toxicology and ecotoxicol entirely devoted to the management of chemicals. For ogy as well as information on estimation methodologies. one of its recommendations, i. e.
Now updated - the authoritative reference on one of the most exciting and challenging areas of the modern chemical industry

This highly readable and informative reference continues to take a comprehensive, in-depth view of the products, markets, and technology of the fine chemicals industry and business. Dr. Peter Pollak, one of the foremost authorities in the field, provides an insider's unique perspective on fine chemicals from both a technological and a commercial viewpoint, covering all recent developments. He provides ample facts and figures including sixty-three tables, thirty figures, and nineteen photo inserts - making this a well-illustrated and documented text.

This reference is divided into three parts:

  • Part One: The Industry discusses the types of fine chemical companies, the range of products and services, the role of research and development, the underlying technologies, and the challenges facing management

  • Part Two: The Business explores the key markets for fine chemicals - such as the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, and animal health industries - and the relevant marketing strategies, as well as the ins and outs of pricing, distribution channels, intellectual property rights, account management, and promotion

  • Part Three: Outlook examines trends such as globalization and outsourcing, forecasts future growth and development by industry segment, and discusses prerequisites for success in the field

This new edition features both updated and new information on the offer/demand balance for fine chemicals and the escalating impact of emerging companies in Asia, particularly from China and India. It describes the inversion of the mergers and acquisitions scenario from a seller's to a buyer's market, the broadening of the fine chemical business model, and the expanding role of biotechnology, as well as the impact of increased outsourcing of chemical manufacturing and the growing consumption of pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals by the life science industry. Also included are numerous molecular structures, engineering diagrams, and tables to facilitate understanding.

For a thorough understanding of the technology, the business, and the future of the fine chemicals industry, this book's insight is unprecedented. It is ideally suited for those in the industry - including employees, suppliers, customers, investors, and consulting companies - as well as academic and other research organizations, students and educators, public officials, media representatives, and anyone else who wants to understand the intricacies of the industry.

Fine Chemicals has been recognized as Outstanding Academic Title 2012 (Choice, v.50, no. 05, January 2013).

A Machine to Make a Future represents a remarkably original look at the present and possible future of biotechnology research in the wake of the mapping of the human genome. The central tenet of Celera Diagnostics--the California biotech company whose formative work during 2003 is the focus of the book--is that the emergent knowledge about the genome, with its profound implications for human health, can now be turned into a powerful diagnostic apparatus--one that will yield breakthrough diagnostic and therapeutic products (and, potentially, profit). Celera's efforts--assuming they succeed--may fundamentally reshape the fabric of how health and health care are understood, practiced, and managed.

Presenting a series of interviews with all of the key players in Celera Diagnostics, Paul Rabinow and Talia Dan-Cohen open a fascinating window on the complexity of corporate scientific innovation. This marks a radical departure from other books on the biotech industry by chronicling the vicissitudes of a project during a finite time period, in the words of the actors themselves.

Ultimately, the authors conclude, Celera Diagnostics is engaged in a future characterized not by geniuses and their celebrated discoveries but by a largely anonymous and widely distributed profusion of data and results--a "machine to make a future."

In their new afterword, Rabinow and Dan-Cohen revisit Celera Diagnostics as its mighty machine grinds along, wondering, along with the scientists, "what constitutes success and what constitutes failure?" The pathos of the situation turns on how one poses the question as much as how one answers it.
Industrial products that are made from, or contain, nitrogen are described in parts of some encyclopedias and standard reference works. However it is not always simple to determine from these varied sources the present status of the technology and markets for various nitrogen products. We therefore perceived a need for a text that provides a comprehensive description of: 1) products that are made from or that contain nitrogen; 2) the processes that produce these products; and 3) the markets that consume these products. I have attempted to present the material in a standardized format that should make this book easy to use and helpful to the readers. The standard format for each product is: Introduction, Process, Production, and Uses, with some variations in different chapters. This book provides information that could be used by a wide range of readers: Fertilizer companies—to evaluate different production processes and review general trends in the market. Basic chemical companies—to evaluate different production processes and review general trends in the market. Specialty chemical companies—to investigate new chemical production and/or sales opportunities and the processes that could make those sales a possibility. Chemical distributors—to obtain a feel for the general market size for some chemicals and the basic handling and distribution procedures for various chemicals. Engineering Companies—to evaluate different production processes and review general trends in the market. Engineering and Chemistry Students—to learn more about practical applications of the principals that they have experienced in their classrooms and laboratories.
The tremendous progress in biology over the last half century - from Watson and Crick's elucidation of the structure of DNA to today's astonishing, rapid progress in the field of synthetic biology - has positioned us for significant innovation in chemical production. New bio-based chemicals, improved public health through improved drugs and diagnostics, and biofuels that reduce our dependency on oil are all results of research and innovation in the biological sciences. In the past decade, we have witnessed major advances made possible by biotechnology in areas such as rapid, low-cost DNA sequencing, metabolic engineering, and high-throughput screening. The manufacturing of chemicals using biological synthesis and engineering could expand even faster. A proactive strategy - implemented through the development of a technical roadmap similar to those that enabled sustained growth in the semiconductor industry and our explorations of space - is needed if we are to realize the widespread benefits of accelerating the industrialization of biology.

Industrialization of Biology presents such a roadmap to achieve key technical milestones for chemical manufacturing through biological routes. This report examines the technical, economic, and societal factors that limit the adoption of bioprocessing in the chemical industry today and which, if surmounted, would markedly accelerate the advanced manufacturing of chemicals via industrial biotechnology. Working at the interface of synthetic chemistry, metabolic engineering, molecular biology, and synthetic biology, Industrialization of Biology identifies key technical goals for next-generation chemical manufacturing, then identifies the gaps in knowledge, tools, techniques, and systems required to meet those goals, and targets and timelines for achieving them. This report also considers the skills necessary to accomplish the roadmap goals, and what training opportunities are required to produce the cadre of skilled scientists and engineers needed.

The petroleum and chemical industries contain a wide variety of corrosive environments, many of which
are unique to these industries. Oil and gas production operations consume a tremendous amount of iron
and steel pipe, tubing, pumps, valves, and sucker rods. Metallic corrosion is costly. However, the cost of
corrosion is not just financial. Beyond the huge direct outlay of funds to repair or replace corroded structures are the indirect costs – natural resources, potential hazards, and lost opportunity. Wasting natural resources is a direct contradiction to the growing need for sustainable development.

By selecting the correct material and applying proper corrosion protection methods, these costs can be
reduced, or even eliminated. This book provides a minimum design requirement for consideration when
designing systems in order to prevent or control corrosion damage safely and economically, and addresses:

• Corrosion problems in petroleum and chemical industries
• Requirements for corrosion control
• Chemical control of corrosive environments
• Corrosion inhibitors in refineries and petrochemical plants
• Materials selection and service life of materials
• Surface preparation, protection and maintainability
• Corrosion monitoring - plant inspection techniques and laboratory corrosion testing techniques

Intended for engineers and industry personnel working in the petroleum and chemical industries, this book is also a valuable resource for research and development teams, safety engineers, corrosion specialists and researchers in chemical engineering, engineering and materials science.

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