Image

Image analysis is a computational feat which humans show excellence in, in comp- ison with computers. Yet the list of applications that rely on automatic processing of images has been growing at a fast pace. Biometric authentication by face, ?ngerprint, and iris, online character recognition in cell phones as well as drug design tools are but a few of its benefactors appearing on the headlines. This is, of course, facilitated by the valuable output of the resarch community in the past 30 years. The pattern recognition and computer vision communities that study image analysis have large conferences, which regularly draw 1000 parti- pants. In a way this is not surprising, because much of the human-speci?c activities critically rely on intelligent use of vision. If routine parts of these activities can be automated, much is to be gained in comfort and sustainable development. The - search ?eld could equally be called visualintelligence because it concerns nearly all activities of awake humans. Humans use or rely on pictures or pictorial languages to represent, analyze, and develop abstract metaphors related to nearly every aspect of thinking and behaving, be it science, mathematics, philosopy, religion, music, or emotions. The present volume is an introductory textbook on signal analysis of visual c- putation for senior-level undergraduates or for graduate students in science and - gineering. My modest goal has been to present the frequently used techniques to analyze images in a common framework–directional image processing.
Introduction Imageprocessing,computervisionandcomputergraphicsarenowestablished - search areas. Pattern recognition and arti?cial intelligence were the origins of the explorationofthespace ofimages.Simplistic digitaltechniquesusedatthe beg- ning of 60’s for gray image processing operations have been now replaced with a complex mathematical framework that aims to exploit and understand images in two and three dimensions. Advances in computing power continue to make the use and processing of visual information an important part of our lives. The evolution of these techniques was a natural outcome of the need to p- cess an emerging informationspace, the space of natural images. Images in space and time are now a critical part of many human activities. First, pictures and now video streams were used to eternalize small and signi?cant moments of our life. Entertainment including movies, TV-programs and video games are part of our every-day life where capturing, editing, understanding and transmitting images are issues to be dealt with. The medical sector is also a major area for the use of images. The evolution of the acquisition devices led to new ways of capturing information, not visible by the human eye. Medical imaging is probably the most established market for processing visual information[405]. Visualization of c- plex structures and automated processing towards computer aided diagnosis is used more and more by the physicians in the diagnostic process. Safety and se- rity are also important areas where images and video play a signi?cant role [432].
Earth observation is the field of science concerned with the problem of monitoring and modeling the processes on the Earth surface and their interaction with the atmosphere. The Earth is continuously monitored with advanced optical and radar sensors. The images are analyzed and processed to deliver useful products to individual users, agencies and public administrations. To deal with these problems, remote sensing image processing is nowadays a mature research area, and the techniques developed in the field allow many real-life applications with great societal value. For instance, urban monitoring, fire detection or flood prediction can have a great impact on economical and environmental issues. To attain such objectives, the remote sensing community has turned into a multidisciplinary field of science that embraces physics, signal theory, computer science, electronics and communications. From a machine learning and signal/image processing point of view, all the applications are tackled under specific formalisms, such as classification and clustering, regression and function approximation, data coding, restoration and enhancement, source unmixing, data fusion or feature selection and extraction. This book covers some of the fields in a comprehensive way. Table of Contents: Remote Sensing from Earth Observation Satellites / The Statistics of Remote Sensing Images / Remote Sensing Feature Selection and Extraction / Classification / Spectral Mixture Analysis / Estimation of Physical Parameters
To look at one was to see the other. For family, even the girls' own father, it was a constant guessing game. For strangers, the surprise was overwhelming. And for the twins Olivia and Victoria Henderson, two remarkable young women coming of age at the turn of the century, their bond was mysterious, marvelous, and often playful--a secret realm only they inhabited.

Olivia and Victoria were the beloved daughters of a man who never fully recovered from his wife's death bearing them in 1893. Shy, serious Olivia, born eleven minutes before her sister, had taken over the role of mother in their lush New York estate, managing not only a household but her rebellious twin's flights of fancy. Free-spirited Victoria wanted to change the world. She embraced the women's suffrage movement and dreamed of sailing to war-torn Europe. Then, in the girls' twenty-first year, as the first world war escalated overseas, a fateful choice changed their lives forever.

It began when Victoria's life was about to become a public scandal. It led to a painful decision, and brought handsome lawyer Charles Dawson into the Henderson's life and family. Hand-picked by the twins' father to save his daughter's reputation, Charles was still mourning his wife's death aboard the Titanic, struggling to raise his nine year-old son alone, determined never to lose his heart again. Charles wanted to believe that, for the sake of his son, he could make an unwanted marriage work. But in an act of deception that only Olivia and Victoria could manage, the twins took an irrevocable step, which changed both their lives forever; and took one of the twins to the battlefields of France, the other into a marriage she longed for but could not have.

From Manhattan society to the trenches of war-ravaged France, Mirror Image moves elegantly and dramatically through a rich and troubled era. With startling insight, Danielle Steel explores women's choices: between home and adventure, between the love for family and the passion for a cause, between sacrifice and desire. But at the heart of Mirror Image is a fascinating, realistic portrait of identical twins, two vastly different sisters who lead their lives and follow their destinies against a vivid backdrop of a world at war.
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