Hydrogeology

This volume represents an effort to bring together communities of land-based hydrogeology and marine hydrogeology. The issues of submarine groundwater discharge and its opposite phenomenon of seawater invasion are discussed in this book from the geophysical, geochemical, biological, and engineering perspectives. This is where land hydrogeology and marine hydrogeology overlap. Submarine groundwater discharge is a rapidly developing research field. The SCOR and LOICZ of the IGBP have recently established a working group for this research. IASPO and IAHS under IUGG also recently formed a new joint committee "Seawater/Groundwater Interactions" to collaborate with oceanographers and hydrologists.



The other articles introduce frontier research topics in more typical land and marine environments, such as fluid flow in karst aquifers, the biological aspects of fluids in sedimentary basins and submarine sedimentary formations, respectively, and vigorous fluid flow in subsea formations and their significance in global tectonics. Geochemical characteristics of hydrothermal activities at a number of active continental margins are also reviewed, and multidisciplinary geophysical constraints of the permeability of young igneous oceanic crust are summarized. A variety of driving mechanisms for fluid flow is discussed in land and subsea formations; terrestrial hydraulic gradient, buoyancy driven free convection, tidally induced flow, flow induced by tectonic strain, flow due to sediment compaction.


Dramatically Improve Your Hydrogeology Field Skills and Master New Advances in Groundwater Science

The Second Edition of Hydrogeology Field Manual provides the latest information on applied applications in groundwater sampling and water-quality assessment, aquifer characterization, contamination issues, karst applications, and more. The book includes actual procedures, real-world decisions, and many examples and case studies to help you understand the occurrence and movement of groundwater in a variety of geologic settings.

Filled with tips, tricks-of-the-trade, and anecdotes from seasoned field hydrogeologists, the book explains how to gain instant expertise in most field methodologies and expand your abilities for data interpretation ...and other essential skills. The Second Edition of Hydrogeology Field Manual features:

  • Sage advice on how to collect hydrogeologic field data
  • Guidance on drilling methods, safety, and work with drilling contractors
  • A practical description of slug testing
  • Effective site characterization methods
  • Expert advice on monitoring-well design
  • Over 250 skills-building illustrations and photos
  • Two new chapters on karst hydrogeology, including characterization and performing dye tracer tests
  • All chapters have new material, including more examples and worked problems

If you are still in college, a recent graduate, or a working professional needing a ready reference to assist you with field-related matters, this is your book. Experienced hydrogeologists and those in related fields will also welcome the practical time-saving and trouble-avoidance tips.

Capitalize on Cutting-Edge Techniques of Field Hydrogeology

• Field Hydrogeology • The Geology of Hydrogeology • Aquifer Properties • Basic Geophysics of the Shallow Subsurface • Groundwater Flow • Groundwater/Surface Water Interaction • Water Chemistry Sampling and Results • Drilling and Well Completion • Pumping Tests • Aquifer Hydraulics • Slug Testing • Vadose Zone • Karst Hydrogeology • Tracer Tests • Dye Trace Testing
Hydrogeology: Principles and Practice provides a comprehensive introduction to the study of hydrogeology to enable the reader to appreciate the significance of groundwater in meeting current and future water resource challenges. This new edition has been thoroughly updated to reflect advances in the field since 2004.

The book presents a systematic approach to understanding groundwater. Earlier chapters explain the fundamental physical and chemical principles of hydrogeology, and later chapters feature groundwater investigation techniques in the context of catchment processes, as well as chapters on groundwater quality and contaminant hydrogeology. Unique features of the book are chapters on the applications of environmental isotopes and noble gases in the interpretation of aquifer evolution, and on regional characteristics such as topography, compaction and variable fluid density in the explanation of geological processes affecting past, present and future groundwater flow regimes. The last chapter discusses groundwater resources and environmental management, and examines the role of groundwater in integrated river basin management, including an assessment of possible adaptation responses to the impacts of climate change.

Throughout the text, boxes and a set of colour plates drawn from the authors’ teaching and research experience are used to explain special topics and to illustrate international case studies ranging from transboundary aquifers and submarine groundwater discharge to the over-pressuring of groundwater in sedimentary basins. The appendices provide conversion tables and useful reference material, and include review questions and exercises, with answers, to help develop the reader’s knowledge and problem-solving skills in hydrogeology.

This accessible textbook is essential reading for undergraduate and graduate students primarily in earth sciences, environmental sciences and physical geography with an interest in hydrogeology or groundwater science. The book will also find use among practitioners in hydrogeology, soil science, civil engineering and planning who are involved in environmental and resource protection issues requiring an understanding of groundwater.

Additional resources can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/hiscock/hydrogeology
Applications in Hydrogeology for Geoscientists presents the most recent scientific developments in the field that are accessible yet rigorous enough for industry professionals and academic researchers alike.

A multi-contributed reference that features the knowledge and experience of the field’s experts, the book’s chapters span the full scope of hydrogeology, introducing new approaches and progress in conceptualization, simulation of groundwater flow and transport, and progressive hydro-geophysical methods. Each chapter includes examples of recent developments in hydrogeology, groundwater, and hydrology that are underscored with perspectives regarding the challenges that are facing industry professionals, researchers, and academia.

Several sub-themes—including theoretical advances in conceptualization and modeling of hydro-geologic challenges—connect the chapters and weave the topics together holistically. Advances in research are aided by insights arising from observations from both field and laboratory work.

  • Introduces new approaches and progress in hydrogeology, including conceptualization, simulated groundwater flow and transport, and cutting edge hydro-geophysical methods
  • Features more than 100 figures, diagrams, and illustrations to highlight major themes and aid in the retention of key concepts
  • Presents a holistic approach to advances in hydrogeology, from the most recent developments in reservoirs and hydraulics to analytic modeling of transient multi-layer flow and aquifer flow theory
  • Integrates real life data, examples and processes, making the content practical and immediately implementable
Numerical calculations are inevitably required in the field of hydrogeology and play a significant role in dealing with its various aspects. As often as not, students are seen struggling while solving numerical problems based on hydrogeology, as they find difficulty in identifying the correct concept behind the problem and the formula that can be applied to it. Also, there is a dearth of books, which help the readers in solving numerical problems of varied difficulty level and enable them to have a firm grounding in the subject of hydrogeology. The book Hydrogeology: Problems with Solutions fills this void in the finest way, and as desired, chiefly focuses on the sequential steps involved in solving the problems based on hydrogeology. It concisely covers the fundamental concepts, advanced principles and applications of hydrogeological tasks rather than overemphasising the theoretical aspects.

The text comprises sixty solved hydrogeological problems, which are logically organised into ten chapters, including hydrological cycle, morphometric analysis, hydrological properties, groundwater flow, well hydraulics, well design and construction, groundwater management, seawater intrusion, groundwater exploration and groundwater quality. The practice of pedagogy of hydrogeology in yesteryears was a two-tier approach of theoretical principles with toy problems and in-situ case studies for research start-up. This book bridges the gap between routine problem-solving and state-of-the-practice for future.



The book is primarily intended for the undergraduate and postgraduate students of Earth Sciences, Civil Engineering, Water Resources Engineering, Hydrogeology and Hydrology. It also serves as an excellent handy reference for all professionals.KEY FEATURES
• Key Concept succinctly explores the models, methods and theoretical concepts related to each problem.
• Necessary equations and formulae are specified.
• Appendices and Glossary are included, leaving no scope to refer any other book.
• Bibliography broadens the scope of the book.
The chemical interaction of water and rock is one of the most fascinating an d multifaceted process in geology. The composition of surface water and groundwater is largely controlled by the reaction of water with rocks and minerals. At elevated temperature, hydrothermal features, hydrothermal 0 re deposits and geothermal fields are associated with chemical effects of water-rock interaction. Surface outcrops of rocks from deeper levels in the crust, including exposures of lower crustal and mantle rocks, often display structures that formed by interaction of the rocks with a supercritical aqueous fluid at very high pT conditions. Understanding water-rock interaction is also of great importance to applied geology and geochemistry, particularly in areas such as geothermal energy, nuclear waste repositories and applied hydrogeology. The extremely wide-ranging research efforts on the universal water-rock interaction process is reflected in the wide diversity of themes presented at the regular International Symposia on Water-Rock Interaction (WRI). Because of the large and widespread interest in water-rock interaction, the European Union of Geosciences organized a special symposium on "water-rock interaction" at EUGI0, the biannual meeting in Strasbourg 1999 convened by the editors of this volume. In contrast to the regular WRI symposia addressed to the specialists, the EUG 10 "water-rock interaction" symposium brought the subject to a general platform This very successful symposium showed the way to the future of water-rock reaction research.
Groundwater Science, Second Edition — winner of a 2014 Textbook Excellence Award (Texty) from The Text and Academic Authors Association — covers groundwater's role in the hydrologic cycle and in water supply, contamination, and construction issues. It is a valuable resource for students and instructors in the geosciences (with focuses in hydrology, hydrogeology, and environmental science), and as a reference work for professional researchers. This interdisciplinary text weaves important methods and applications from the disciplines of physics, chemistry, mathematics, geology, biology, and environmental science, introducing you to the mathematical modeling and contaminant flow of groundwater.

New to the Second Edition:

  • New chapter on subsurface heat flow and geothermal systems
  • Expanded content on well construction and design, surface water hydrology, groundwater/ surface water interaction, slug tests, pumping tests, and mounding analysis.
  • Updated discussions of groundwater modeling, calibration, parameter estimation, and uncertainty
  • Free software tools for slug test analysis, pumping test analysis, and aquifer modeling
  • Lists of key terms and chapter contents at the start of each chapter
  • Expanded end-of-chapter problems, including more conceptual questions
  • Winner of a 2014 Texty Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association
  • Features two-color figures
  • Includes homework problems at the end of each chapter and worked examples throughout
  • Provides a companion website with videos of field exploration and contaminant migration experiments, PDF files of USGS reports, and data files for homework problems
  • Offers PowerPoint slides and solution manual for adopting faculty
The most cogent textbook ever produced on the topic, this revised and expanded edition will be welcomed by students and professionals alike.

Among the many diverse aspects of environmental science, none is more critical to the future of society and nature than water. Understanding the role of water on Earth and making good decisions regarding water conservation and hydrological hazards depends on learning the fundamentals of physical hydrology. This textbook, now in an expanded second edition, provides the clearest opportunity for students to absorb those fundamentals. Written at an introductory level, Elements of Physical Hydrology covers virtually every aspect of this subject, including:

• The hydrological cycle
• Water budgets at catchment to global scales
• Spatial and temporal aspects of precipitation
• Evapotranspiration
• Fluid dynamics and the Bernoulli equation
• Laminar and turbulent flows
• Open channel flow
• Flood movement through reservoirs and channels
• Flood frequency analysis
• Groundwater flow
• Aquifer characterization
• Land subsidence
• Soil moisture dynamics
• Flow in the unsaturated zone
• Hydrologic controls on vegetation
• Biotic controls on hydrological processes
• Runoff generation from surface and subsurface sources
• Catchment models
• The water-food-energy nexus
• The globalization of water
• Impacts of changing climate

Layering one topic upon the next, Elements of Physical Hydrology succeeds in moving from simple, easy-to-grasp explanations through equations and models in a manner that will leave students new to the topic eager to apply their knowledge. Professionals in related disciplines will also find this book ideal for self-study. Thoughtfully illustrated, carefully written, and covering a broad spectrum of topics, this classic text clarifies a subject that is often misunderstood and oversimplified.

Increasing demand for water, higher standards of living, depletion of resources of acceptable quality, and excessive water pollution due to urban, agricultural, and industrial expansions have caused intense environmental, social, economic, and political predicaments. More frequent and severe floods and droughts have changed the ability and resiliency of water infrastructure systems to operate and provide services to the public. These concerns and issues have also changed the way we plan and manage our surface and groundwater resources. Groundwater Hydrology: Engineering, Planning, and Management presents a compilation of the state-of-the-art subjects and techniques in the education and practice of groundwater and describes them in a systematic and integrated fashion useful for undergraduate and graduate students and practitioners.

The book develops a system view of groundwater fundamentals and model-making techniques through the application of science, engineering, planning, and management principles. It discusses the classical issues in groundwater hydrology and hydraulics followed by coverage of water quality issues. The authors delineate the process of analyzing data, identification, and parameter estimation; tools and model-building techniques and the conjunctive use of surface and groundwater techniques; aquifer restoration, remediation, and monitoring techniques; and analysis of risk. They touch on groundwater risk and disaster management and then explore the impact of climate change on groundwater and discuss the tools needed for analyzing future data realization and downscaling large-scale low-resolution data to local watershed and aquifer scales for impact studies.

The combined coverage of engineering and planning tools and techniques as well as specific challenges for restoration and remediation of polluted aquifers sets this book apart. It also introduces basic tools and techniques for making decisions about and planning for future groundwater development activities, taking into account regional sustainability issues. An examination of the interface between groundwater challenges, the book demonstrates how to apply systems analysis techniques to groundwater engineering, planning, and management.

The fundamentals of methods in nuclear geophysics and their practical applications in engineering geology, hydrology, hydrogeology, agriculture and environmental science are discussed in this book. The methods and apparatus based on absorption and scattering of gamma and neutron radiation for determination of density and soil moisture in natural conditions are presented in Chapters 2, 3, and 4. The theoretical fundamentals and installations of the penetration logging techniques where gamma, gamma-gamma and neutron logging in combination with static penetration form common complexes for engineering geology and hydrogeology exploration without boring holes are described. The developed constructions and practical use penetration logging installations for applications on land and marine shelves are described in Chapters 5, 6, 7, and 8. The physical fundamentals for the use of the natural stable and radioactive isotopes for study of the global hydrological cycle are provided. The experimental data, origin and distribution of cosmogenic and radiogenic isotopes in the oceans, atmospheric moisture, surface and underground waters are presented in Chapters 9, 10, and 11. The sources and conditions of the radioactive contamination of the natural waters are discussed in Chapters 12 and 13.

This book will be of interest to scientists and researchers who use nuclear geophysics methods in engineering geology, hydrology, hydrogeology and hydrogeoecology. Lecturers, students, and postgraduates in these subjects will also find it useful.

To understand hydrochemistry and to analyze natural as well as man-made impacts on aquatic systems, hydrogeochemical models have been used since the 1960’s and more frequently in recent times. Numerical groundwater flow, transport, and geochemical models are important tools besides classical deterministic and analytical approaches. Solving complex linear or non-linear systems of equations, commonly with hundreds of unknown parameters, is a routine task for a PC. Modeling hydrogeochemical processes requires a detailed and accurate water analysis, as well as thermodynamic and kinetic data as input. Thermodynamic data, such as complex formation constants and solubility-products, are often provided as databases within the respective programs. However, the description of surface-controlled reactions (sorption, cation exchange, surface complexation) and kinetically controlled reactions requires additional input data. Unlike groundwater flow and transport models, thermodynamic models, in principal, do not need any calibration. However, considering surface-controlled or kinetically controlled reaction models might be subject to calibration. Typical problems for the application of geochemical models are: • speciation • determination of saturation indices • adjustment of equilibria/disequilibria for minerals or gases • mixing of different waters • modeling the effects of temperature • stoichiometric reactions (e.g. titration) • reactions with solids, fluids, and gaseous phases (in open and closed systems) • sorption (cation exchange, surface complexation) • inverse modeling • kinetically controlled reactions • reactive transport Hydrogeochemical models depend on the quality of the chemical analysis, the boundary conditions presumed by the program, theoretical concepts (e.g.
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