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In recent years, the conservation of tropical forests has received worldwide publicity whereas effective forest management, particularly for timber extraction, has attracted little attention and gained some notoriety. The overall aim of the present paper was to examine how environmental micro-variation in the Chiquibul Forest Reserve of Belize can influence species distribution and thereby inform management strategy. The paper deals first with the background to forest management in Belize, then considers the methodology used in the present study and fin~~ly assesses the preliminary results. The specific objectives are: (1) to assess the effects of changing scale on the variability of selected individual soil properties in forest plots within the same vegetation class; and (2) to examine the variation in soil properties and tree species distribution, and to integrate environmental and ecological data over a range of scales. BACKGROUND Whereas the global and regional distribution of tropical forests is broadly governed by climatic and altitudinal variation, individual forest tracts need to consider a range of other, locally important factors to explain species distribution and change. With very high species diversity, tropical forests present a major challenge in the attempt to unravel controlling factors in distribution and growth (Swaine et aI. 1987). Research that attempts to explain diversity has looked at species distribution according to a range of factors, with a general recognition that soil fertility plays a significant if ill defined role (Swaine 1996).
Remote sensing has undergone profound changes over the past two decades as GPS, GIS, and sensor advances have significantly expanded the user community and availability of images. New tools, such as automation, cloud-based services, drones, and artificial intelligence, continue to expand and enhance the discipline. Along with comprehensive coverage and clarity, Sabins and Ellis establish a solid foundation for the insightful use of remote sensing with an emphasis on principles and a focus on sensor technology and image acquisition.

The Fourth Edition presents a valuable discussion of the growing and permeating use of technologies such as drones and manned aircraft imaging, DEMs, and lidar. The authors explain the scientific and societal impacts of remote sensing, review digital image processing and GIS, provide case histories from areas around the globe, and describe practical applications of remote sensing to the environment, renewable and nonrenewable resources, land use/land cover, natural hazards, and climate change.

Remote Sensing Digital Database includes 27 examples of satellite and airborne imagery that can be used to jumpstart labs and class projects. The database includes descriptions, georeferenced images, DEMs, maps, and metadata. Users can display, process, and interpret images with open-source and commercial image processing and GIS software.

• Flexible, revealing, and instructive, the Digital Image Processing Lab Manual provides 12 step-by-step exercises on the following topics: an introduction to ENVI, Landsat multispectral processing, image processing, band ratios and principal components, georeferencing, DEMs and lidar, IHS and image sharpening, unsupervised classification, supervised classification, hyperspectral, and change detection and radar.

Introductory and instructional videos describe and guide users on ways to access and utilize the Remote Sensing Digital Database and the Digital Image Processing Lab Manual.

Answer Keys are available for instructors for questions in the text as well as the Digital Image Processing Lab Manual.

When you hear Apple TV you immediately think it is an actual TV that you are purchasing. But this is not the case. The Apple TV is actually a device that you will use to stream something a little similar to Amazon's Fire or Roku. It is a little black box that is about an inch and a half tall, just a little bit less than four inches, and it runs on a very similar platform to the iPad and the popular iPhones. You can download a list of apps and also games beyond the standard streaming video that you could get from Hulu, Netflix, Amazon, just to name a few. The Apple TV has been centered on various apps, and it is still able to stream multiple TV shows, movies straight to your HDTV, but this is just the tip of the iceberg on the features this box has been packed with. The box allows you to watch and stream podcasts, play your favorite game, stream your workout playlist, and much more. But what is important to note, to enjoy all these benefits this box is ready to provide it will all depend on the apps that you have installed. Some of the apps you will use are free, and some will cost. Think of it this way; the Apple TV is able to turn your TV into a Smart TV. You can either rent your favorite movies or merely stream your collection from your iTunes account. You could also stream movie shows from apps like Hulu Plus or Netflix; stream your music from the Pandora or Apple Music apps. I mean the list is endless on what the Apple TV can actually do for you. The Apple TV 4K has been designed with some of the fastest processors you could find, the same that powers the iPad Pro. The Apple TV box has been made to be as powerful as most laptops we use. It also has a fast graphics processor that has been designed with enough power that could turn the black box into a game console. Nothing sounds better than this. Apple has genuinely revamped the new generation, but this does not mean you have to throw away your older model, just the same thing they have been doing with iPhone. The third generation is still available in the market for you to purchase.


People and the Environment: Approaches for Linking Household and Community Surveys to Remote Sensing and GIS appeals to a wide range of natural, social, and spatial scientists with interests in conducting population and environment research and thereby characterizing (a) land use and land cover dynamics through remote sensing, (b) demographic and socio-economic variables through household and community surveys, and (c) local site and situation through resource endowments, geographical accessibility, and connections of people to place through GIS. Case studies are used to examine theories and practices useful in linking people and the environment. We also describe land use and land cover dynamics and the associated social, biophysical, and geographical drivers of change articulated through human-environment interactions.
People and the Environment: Approaches for Linking Household and Community Surveys to Remote Sensing and GIS addresses a need for a comprehensive and rigorous treatment of linking across thematic domains (e.g., social, biophysical, and geographical) and across space and time scales for research and study within the context of human-environment interactions. The human dimensions research community, LULCC program, and human and landscape ecology communities are collectively viewing the landscape within a spatially-explicit perspective, where people are viewed as agents of landscape change that shape and are shaped by the landscape, and where landscape form and function are assessed within a space-time context. Current researchers and those following this early group of integrative scientists face challenges in conducting this type of research, but the potential rewards for insight are substantial.
The alpine treeline ecotone (ATE) is an area of transition high on mountains where closed canopy forests from lower elevations give way to the open alpine tundra and rocky expanses above. Alpine tundra is an island biome and its ecotone with forest is subject to change, and like oceanic islands, alpine tundra is subject to invasion – or the upward advance of treeline. The invasion of tundra by trees will have consequences for the tundra biome as invasion does for other island flora and fauna. To examine the invasibility of tundra we take a plant’s-eye-view, wherein the local conditions become extremely important. Among these local conditions, we find geomorphology to be exceptionally important. We concentrate on aspects of microtopography (and microgeomorphology) and microclimate because these are the factors that matter: from the plant’s-eye-view, but we pay attention to multiple scales. At coarse scales, snow avalanches and debris flows are widespread and create “disturbance treelines whose elevation is well below those controlled by climate. At medium scales, turf-banked terraces create tread-and-riser topography that is a difficult landscape for a tree seedling to survive upon because of exposure to wind, dryness, and impenetrable surfaces. At fine scales, turf exfoliation of the fronts of turf-banked risers, and boulders, offer microsites where tree seedlings may find shelter and are able to gain a foothold in the alpine tundra; conversely, however, surfaces of needle-ice pans and frost heaving associated with miniature patterned ground production are associated with sites inimical to seedling establishment or survival. We explicitly consider how local scale processes propagate across scales into landscape patterns.

The objective of this book is to examine the controls on change at alpine treeline. All the papers are focused on work done in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. Although any one place is limiting, we are able to examine the alpine treeline here in some detail – and an advantage is that the treeline ecotone in Glacier National Park is quite variable in itself due to the underlying variability in geomorphology at multiple scales.

This book will provide insights into an important ecological phenomenon with a distinctly geomorphic perspective. The editors collectively have over 100 years of experience in working in geomorphology, biogeography, and ecology. They also have each worked on research in Glacier National Park for several decades. The book will be a reference for a variety of professionals and students, both graduate and undergraduate, with interests in Physical Geography, Geomorphology, Ecology, and Environmental Science. Because of the importance of the alpine treeline ecotone for recreation and aesthetic interests in mountain environments, wildland and park managers will also use this book.

* Subject matter: geomorphology at alpine treeline
* Expertise of contributors: each editor brings over 25 years of experience in studies of ecotones and geomorphology, and collectively over 100 years of experience in Glacier National Park
* Changing alpine treeline examines climate change
Numerous publications exist which examine elements of the security discipline. Few address these elements as a continuum of interrelated functions. None examine the structure of Offensive vice Defensive security in anything other than the domain of international security . This text has been written to fill this gap and to support a course in Offensive-Defensive Security, developed by Henley-Putnam University, which briefly reviews the history of the field of strategic security and its three component parts protection, intelligence, and counterterrorism as well as its two distinguishing characteristics: offensive tactics and operations combined with technological innovation. The course then moves to an in-depth assessment of related security areas that focus on defensive tactics and operations: homeland security, criminal justice, conflict and peace studies, and emergency management. While these fields may appear at first to be part of strategic security, this course and the associated text explores the critical differences and the fact that they are also critical elements of industrial, governmental, and military security. Emphasis will be placed at an introductory level both academic and professional distinctions and discuss the structures associated within these domains. The text is divided into the following key sections: Section 1: The Basics Section 2: The Environment Section 3: Security Planning and Management Section 1 provides an orientation for the reader to a common frame of reference through information provided in the following chapters. It is not intended to be a single source of all relevant information. Additionally, this text is not intended to be the exhaustive single source for all conditions. Rather, it provides a roadmap of considerations on how to reach a specific goal in an efficient and informed manner. Section 2 examines the world the security professional must inhabit, again, in a generalized manner and, likely, in a way never before considered. Elements of neurology, biology, physics, philosophy, logic, analytics, and finance are presented in a manner unique to the changing paradigm of Offensive-Defensive Security philosophy. The various chapters are labeled as terrains as the best representation of the environmental information to be discussed. Each will approach the topics in as clear a manner possible of current thinking and science within each as critical to the understanding of the total security environment; the how, why, and in what ways they will affect the world of this security paradigm. Finally, Section 3 incorporates the information of the first two sections and applies the knowledge gained to the planning and management of an integrated security plan. The objective of this section is to utilize the concepts and processes developed via international agencies such as the Project Management Institute to demonstrate how to create an integrated and manageable enterprise structure and not a one-size fits all template. As the knowledge consolidates, integration begins, that of incorporating the security entity into the enterprise as a whole be that enterprise be a business, government entity, or military operation. The only difference is the scale. This is a vital step in that the act of protection cannot interfere with the process of performing the enterprise function. In fact, it must enhance the enterprise function and assist in ensuring its success. Key Learning Points The approach and purpose of this text has been outlined. The following are the key reasons or learning points in summary. a. Define the key elements and environments within which the security plan and operational management activities must occur b. Familiarize the student with cultural, biological, financial, informational, and legal aspects necessary for the understanding of how these domains influence human behavior; the primary aspect of security planning and operations c. Familiarize the
Winner of the 2013 DeGroot Prize.

A state-of-the-art presentation of spatio-temporal processes,
bridging classic ideas with modern hierarchical statistical modeling concepts and the latest computational methods

Noel Cressie and Christopher K. Wikle, are also winners of the 2011 PROSE Award in the Mathematics category, for the book “Statistics for Spatio-Temporal Data” (2011), published by John Wiley and Sons. (The PROSE awards, for Professional and Scholarly Excellence, are given by the Association of American Publishers, the national trade association of the US book publishing industry.)

Statistics for Spatio-Temporal Data has now been reprinted with small corrections to the text and the bibliography. The overall content and pagination of the new printing remains the same; the difference comes in the form of corrections to typographical errors, editing of incomplete and missing references, and some updated spatio-temporal interpretations.

From understanding environmental processes and climate trends to developing new technologies for mapping public-health data and the spread of invasive-species, there is a high demand for statistical analyses of data that take spatial, temporal, and spatio-temporal information into account. Statistics for Spatio-Temporal Data presents a systematic approach to key quantitative techniques that incorporate the latest advances in statistical computing as well as hierarchical, particularly Bayesian, statistical modeling, with an emphasis on dynamical spatio-temporal models.

Cressie and Wikle supply a unique presentation that incorporates ideas from the areas of time series and spatial statistics as well as stochastic processes. Beginning with separate treatments of temporal data and spatial data, the book combines these concepts to discuss spatio-temporal statistical methods for understanding complex processes.

Topics of coverage include:

  • Exploratory methods for spatio-temporal data, including visualization, spectral analysis, empirical orthogonal function analysis, and LISAs
  • Spatio-temporal covariance functions, spatio-temporal kriging, and time series of spatial processes
  • Development of hierarchical dynamical spatio-temporal models (DSTMs), with discussion of linear and nonlinear DSTMs and computational algorithms for their implementation
  • Quantifying and exploring spatio-temporal variability in scientific applications, including case studies based on real-world environmental data

Throughout the book, interesting applications demonstrate the relevance of the presented concepts. Vivid, full-color graphics emphasize the visual nature of the topic, and a related FTP site contains supplementary material. Statistics for Spatio-Temporal Data is an excellent book for a graduate-level course on spatio-temporal statistics. It is also a valuable reference for researchers and practitioners in the fields of applied mathematics, engineering, and the environmental and health sciences.

Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is critical for remote sensing. It works day and night, in good weather or bad. Bistatic SAR is a new kind of SAR system, where the transmitter and receiver are placed on two separate platforms. Bistatic SAR is one of the most important trends in SAR development, as the technology renders SAR more flexible and safer when used in military environments. Imaging is one of the most difficult and important aspects of bistatic SAR data processing. Although traditional SAR signal processing is fully developed, bistatic SAR has a more complex system structure, so signal processing is more challenging. Focusing on imaging aspects of bistatic SAR signal processing, this book covers resolution analysis, echo generation methods, imaging algorithms, imaging parameter estimation, and motion compensation methods.

The book is ideal for researchers and engineers in SAR signal and data processing, as well as those working in bistatic and multistatic radar imaging, and in the radar sciences. Graduate students with a background in radar who are interested in bistatic and multistatic radar will find this book a helpful reference.

  • Gives a general and updated framework for image formation using signal processing aspects
  • Starts with an introduction to traditional SAR before moving on to more advanced topics
  • Offers readers a range of exhaustive tools to process signals and form images
  • Provides a solid reference for the imaging of other complicated SAR
  • Sample image synthesis exercises are available from the book's companion site
This book provides a step-by-step guide on how to use various publicly available remotely sensed time series data sources for environmental monitoring and assessment. Readers will learn how to extract valuable information on global changes from a 20-year collection of ready-to-use remotely sensed data through the free open statistical software R and its geographic data analysis and modeling tools. The case studies are from the Mediterranean region—a designated hot spot regarding climate change effects. Each chapter is dedicated to specific remote sensing products chosen for their spatial resolution. The methods used are adapted from large-scale to smaller-scale problems for different land cover areas.


  • Includes real-world applications of environmental remotely sensed data
  • Analyzes the advantages and restrictions of each data source
  • Focuses on a wide spectrum of applications, such as hydrology, vegetation changes, land surface temperature, fire detection, and impacts
  • Includes R computer codes with explanatory comments and all applications use only freely available remotely sensed data
  • Presents a step-by-step processing through open source GIS and statistical analysis software
  • Advanced Environmental Monitoring with Remote Sensing Time Series Data and R

    describes and provides details on recent advances concerning publicly available remotely sensed time series data in environmental monitoring and assessment. This book is a must-have practical guide for environmental researchers, professionals, and students.
    Land is important to all aspects of human life and has a key role in the economic well-being of society therefore, land tenure, land ownership, and real property law is a critical part of any developed nation. Together, the processes of how land parcels are held; how they are defined, measured, and described to allow economic transactions; how they are marked to allow their use and defense; and how they are legally protected have allowed for the orderly possession and use of land. In doing so, these processes have also provided the basis for the advanced economy of most developed nations. Very often, these processes—land tenure, boundary surveying, and cadastral systems—are considered separately. They are very much interrelated, and none of these processes may be completely understood without an understanding of the others.

    Land Tenure, Boundary Surveys, and Cadastral Systems

    provides an introduction to land tenure, cadastral systems, and boundary surveying, including an understanding of the interrelationship of these areas and their role in land tenure and real property law. This is especially true considering the advent of georeferenced cadastral maps reflecting the location of land parcels relative to many other components of the physical and legal infrastructure. Although intended as a basic text for college-level surveying courses, this book should also be of significant value to cadastral mappers, real property attorneys, land title professionals, and others involved with land transactions.
    In the five years since the publication of the first edition of Spatial Analysis: Statistics, Visualization, and Computational Methods, many new developments have taken shape regarding the implementation of new tools and methods for spatial analysis with R. The use and growth of artificial intelligence, machine learning and deep learning algorithms with a spatial perspective, and the interdisciplinary use of spatial analysis are all covered in this second edition along with traditional statistical methods and algorithms to provide a concept-based problem-solving learning approach to mastering practical spatial analysis. Spatial Analysis with R: Statistics, Visualization, and Computational Methods, Second Edition provides a balance between concepts and practicums of spatial statistics with a comprehensive coverage of the most important approaches to understand spatial data, analyze spatial relationships and patterns, and predict spatial processes.

    New in the Second Edition:

    • Includes new practical exercises and worked-out examples using R
    • Presents a wide range of hands-on spatial analysis worktables and lab exercises
    • All chapters are revised and include new illustrations of different concepts using data from environmental and social sciences
    • Expanded material on spatiotemporal methods, visual analytics methods, data science, and computational methods
    • Explains big data, data management, and data mining

    This second edition of an established textbook, with new datasets, insights, excellent illustrations, and numerous examples with R, is perfect for senior undergraduate and first-year graduate students in geography and the geosciences.

    Now in its second edition, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for Disaster Management has been completely updated to take account of new developments in the field.

    Using a hands-on approach grounded in relevant GIS and disaster management theory and practice, this textbook continues the tradition of the benchmark first edition, providing coverage of GIS fundamentals applied to disaster management. Real-life case studies demonstrate GIS concepts and their applicability to the full disaster management cycle. The learning-by-example approach helps readers see how GIS for disaster management operates at local, state, national, and international scales through government, the private sector, non‐governmental organizations, and volunteer groups.

    New in the second edition:

    • a chapter on allied technologies that includes remote sensing, Global Positioning Systems (GPS), indoor navigation, and Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS);
    • thirteen new technical exercises that supplement theoretical and practical chapter discussions and fully reinforce concepts learned;
    • enhanced boxed text and other pedagogical features to give readers even more practical advice;
    • examination of new forms of world‐wide disaster faced by society;
    • discussion of new commercial and open-source GIS technology and techniques such as machine learning and the Internet of Things;
    • new interviews with subject-matter and industry experts on GIS for disaster management in the US and abroad;
    • new career advice on getting a first job in the industry.

    Learned yet accessible, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for Disaster Management continues to be a valuable teaching tool for undergraduate and graduate instructors in the disaster management and GIS fields, as well as disaster management and humanitarian professionals.

    Please visit to view supplemental material such as slides and hands-on exercise video walkthroughs. This companion website offers valuable hands-on experience applying concepts to practice.

    This newly revised and greatly expanded edition of the popular Artech House book Principles of GNSS, Inertial, and Multisensor Integrated Navigation Systems offers you a current and comprehensive understanding of satellite navigation, inertial navigation, terrestrial radio navigation, dead reckoning, and environmental feature matching . It provides both an introduction to navigation systems and an in-depth treatment of INS/GNSS and multisensor integration. The second edition offers a wealth of added and updated material, including a brand new chapter on the principles of radio positioning and a chapter devoted to important applications in the field. Other updates include expanded treatments of map matching, image-based navigation, attitude determination, acoustic positioning, pedestrian navigation, advanced GNSS techniques, and several terrestrial and short-range radio positioning technologies ..

    The book shows you how satellite, inertial, and other navigation technologies work, and focuses on processing chains and error sources. In addition, you get a clear introduction to coordinate frames, multi-frame kinematics, Earth models, gravity, Kalman filtering, and nonlinear filtering. Providing solutions to common integration problems, the book describes and compares different integration architectures, and explains how to model different error sources. You get a broad and penetrating overview of current technology and are brought up to speed with the latest developments in the field, including context-dependent and cooperative positioning.

    This book is about applications of remote sensing techniques in the studies on soils. In pursuance of the objective, the book initially provides an introduction to various elements and concepts of remote sensing, and associated technologies , namely Geographic Information System (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS) in chapter-1. An overview of the sensors used to collect remote sensing data and important Earth observation missions is provided in chapter-2. The processing of satellite digital data (geometric and radiometric corrections, feature reduction, digital data fusion, image enhancements and analysis) is dealt with in Chapter-3. In the chapter to follow the interpretation of remote sensing data , very important and crucial step in deriving information on natural resources including soils resources, is discussed. An introduction to soils as a natural body with respect to their formation, physical and chemical properties used during inventory of soils, and soil classification is given in Chapter-5.The spectral response patterns of soils including hyperspectral characteristics -fundamental to deriving information on soils from spectral measurements, and the techniques of soil resources mapping are discussed in chapter-6 and -7,respectively. Furthermore, the creation of digital soil resources database and the development of soil information systems, a very important aspect of storage and dissemination of digital soil data to the end users are discussed in ch.apter-8. Lastly, the applications of remote sensing techniques in soil moisture estimation and soil fertility evaluation are covered in chapter-9 and -10, respectively.

    A systematic, in-depth introduction to theories and principles of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology is long overdue, as it is the most important geospatial data acquisition technology to be introduced in recent years. An advanced discussion, this text fills the void.

    Professionals in fields ranging from geology, geography and geoinformatics to physics, transportation, and law enforcement will benefit from this comprehensive discussion of topographic LiDAR principles, systems, data acquisition, and data processing techniques. The book covers ranging and scanning fundamentals, and broad, contemporary analysis of airborne LiDAR systems, as well as those situated on land and in space. The authors present data collection at the signal level in terms of waveforms and their properties; at the system level with regard to calibration and georeferencing; and at the data level to discuss error budget, quality control, and data organization. They devote the bulk of the book to LiDAR data processing and information extraction and elaborate on recent developments in building extraction and reconstruction, highlighting quality and performance evaluations. There is also extensive discussion of the state-of-the-art technological developments used in: filtering algorithms for digital terrain model generation; strip adjustment of data for registration; co-registration of LiDAR data with imagery; forestry inventory; and surveying.

    Readers get insight into why LiDAR is the effective tool of choice to collect massive volumes of explicit 3-D data with unprecedented accuracy and simplicity. Compiled by leading experts talking about much of their own pioneering work, this book will give researchers, professionals, and senior students novel ideas to supplement their own experience and practices.

    This book is Volume I of the series DSP for MATLAB(TM) and LabVIEW(TM). The entire series consists of four volumes that collectively cover basic digital signal processing in a practical and accessible manner, but which nonetheless include all essential foundation mathematics. As the series title implies, the scripts (of which there are more than 200) described in the text and supplied in code form (available at will run on both MATLAB and LabVIEW. Volume I consists of four chapters. The first chapter gives a brief overview of the field of digital signal processing. This is followed by a chapter detailing many useful signals and concepts, including convolution, recursion, difference equations, LTI systems, etc. The third chapter covers conversion from the continuous to discrete domain and back (i.e., analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion), aliasing, the Nyquist rate, normalized frequency, conversion from one sample rate to another, waveform generation at various sample rates from stored wave data, and Mu-law compression. The fourth and final chapter of the present volume introduces the reader to many important principles of signal processing, including correlation, the correlation sequence, the Real DFT, correlation by convolution, matched filtering, simple FIR filters, and simple IIR filters. Chapter 4, in particular, provides an intuitive or "first principle" understanding of how digital filtering and frequency transforms work, preparing the reader for Volumes II and III, which provide, respectively, detailed coverage of discrete frequency transforms (including the Discrete Time Fourier Transform, the Discrete Fourier Transform, and the z-Transform) and digital filter design (FIR design using Windowing, Frequency Sampling, and Optimum Equiripple techniques, and Classical IIR design). Volume IV, the culmination of the series, is an introductory treatment of LMS Adaptive Filtering and applications. The text for all volumes contains many examples, and many useful computational scripts, augmented by demonstration scripts and LabVIEW Virtual Instruments (VIs) that can be run to illustrate various signal processing concepts graphically on the user's computer screen.

    Table of Contents: An Overview of DSP / Discrete Signals and Concepts / Sampling and Binary Representation / Transform and Filtering Principles

    A ground-up approach to explaining dynamic spatial modelling for an interdisciplinary audience.

    Across broad areas of the environmental and social sciences, simulation models are an important way to study systems inaccessible to scientific experimental and observational methods, and also an essential complement to those more conventional approaches. The contemporary research literature is teeming with abstract simulation models whose presentation is mathematically demanding and requires a high level of knowledge of quantitative and computational methods and approaches. Furthermore, simulation models designed to represent specific systems and phenomena are often complicated, and, as a result, difficult to reconstruct from their descriptions in the literature. This book aims to provide a practical and accessible account of dynamic spatial modelling, while also equipping readers with a sound conceptual foundation in the subject, and a useful introduction to the wide-ranging literature.

    Spatial Simulation: Exploring Pattern and Process is organised around the idea that a small number of spatial processes underlie the wide variety of dynamic spatial models. Its central focus on three ‘building-blocks’ of dynamic spatial models – forces of attraction and segregation, individual mobile entities, and processes of spread – guides the reader to an understanding of the basis of many of the complicated models found in the research literature. The three building block models are presented in their simplest form and are progressively elaborated and related to real world process that can be represented using them. Introductory chapters cover essential background topics, particularly the relationships between pattern, process and spatiotemporal scale. Additional chapters consider how time and space can be represented in more complicated models, and methods for the analysis and evaluation of models. Finally, the three building block models are woven together in a more elaborate example to show how a complicated model can be assembled from relatively simple components.

    To aid understanding, more than 50 specific models described in the book are available online at for exploration in the freely available Netlogo platform. This book encourages readers to develop intuition for the abstract types of model that are likely to be appropriate for application in any specific context. Spatial Simulation: Exploring Pattern and Process will be of interest to undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in environmental, social, ecological and geographical disciplines. Researchers and professionals who require a non-specialist introduction will also find this book an invaluable guide to dynamic spatial simulation.

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