Osip Emilyevich Mandelstam was born on January 15, 1891. He was a Russian poet who lived in Russia during its revolution and the rise of the Soviet Union. He was one of the foremost members of the Acmeist school of poets. He was arrested by Joseph Stalin's government during the repression of the 1930s and sent into internal exile. He was later given a reprieve and moved to Voronezh in southwestern Russia. Mandelstam's poetry, acutely populist in spirit after the first Russian revolution in 1905, became closely associated with symbolist imagery. In 1911, he and several other young Russian poets formed the "Poets' Guild". The nucleus of this group became known as Acmeists. Mandelstam wrote the manifesto for the new movement: The Morning Of Acmeism. In 1913 he published his first collection of poems, The Stone. In 1922, Mandelstam moved to Moscow. At this time, his second book of poems, Tristia, was published in Berlin. Soon thereafter, he began to comcentrate on essays, literary criticism, memoirs like The Noise Of Time in 1925. He opposed the increasingly totalitarian government under Joseph Stalin and demonstrated it in the poem Stalin Epigram. Osip Mandelstam died in 1938 shortly after being arrested again and sentenced to a camp in Siberia.