徐志摩詩集賞析: 近代文學大師大賞

谷月社
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徐志摩新詩主要描寫個人的感情,想像豐富,比喻生動,重視意境的創造,講究語言的音樂美,濃艷華美而嫵媚,具有一種溫柔清新的風格。他受西方世紀末唯美主義、印象主義思潮較多浸染,因而有些詩寫得晦澀、神秘,情緒感傷,語言過於雕琢,詩作呈現比較複雜的面貌。他的新詩受英美詩歌影響,著重格律的建設,西方詩人中,學習雪萊和哈代;出色作品有《再別康橋》、《偶然》、《沙揚娜拉一首》等。
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About the author

 徐志摩(1897年1月15日-1931年11月19日),原名章垿,字槱森,後改字志摩,浙江海寧人,中國著名新月派現代詩人,散文家,亦是著名武俠小說作家金庸的表兄。徐志摩出生於富裕家庭,並曾留學英國。一生追求「愛」、「自由」與「美」(胡適語),這為他帶來了不少創作靈感,亦斷送了他的一生。徐志摩倡導新詩格律,對中國新詩的發展做出了重要的貢獻。
徐志摩出生於浙江海寧一個富裕家庭,父親徐申如擁有一座發電廠、一個梅醬廠、一間絲綢莊,在上海還有一家小錢莊,又是硤石商會會長,人稱「硤石鉅子」。徐志摩18歲時由父母安排,與15歲的張幼儀結婚,隨後遠赴西方求學。對徐志摩來說,這段婚姻並不美滿。張幼儀遠渡重洋到了英國後,才發現徐志摩在旅英期間邂逅了林長民的女兒林徽因(原名林徽音)。後來張幼儀與徐志摩離婚。但最後,林徽因卻選擇了梁啟超之子梁思成。
1923年梁啟超(號任公)寫了長信很懇切地勸他:「萬不可以他人之痛苦,易自己之快樂。弟之此舉其於弟將來之快樂能得與否,始茫如捕風,然先已予多數人以無量之苦痛。」「戀愛神聖為今之少年所樂道。……茲事蓋可遇而不可求。……況多情多感之人,其幻象起落鶻突,而得滿足得寧帖也極難。所夢想之神聖境界恐不可得,徒以煩惱終其身已耳。」任公又說:「嗚呼!志摩!天下豈有圓滿之宇宙?……當知吾儕以不求圓滿為生活態度,斯可以領略生活的妙味矣。……若沉迷於不可必得之夢境,挫折數次,生氣盡矣。鬱邑佗傺以死,死為無名。死猶可也,最可畏者,不死不生而墮落至不復能自拔。嗚呼!志摩!可無懼耶!可無懼耶!」
志摩答覆任公的信,不承認他是把他人的苦痛來換自己的快樂。他回信說:「我之甘冒世之不韙,竭全力以鬥者,非特求免凶慘之苦痛,實求良心之安頓,求人格之確立,求靈魂之救度耳。人誰不求庸德?人誰不安現成?人誰不畏艱險?然且有突圍而出者,夫豈得已而然哉?我將於茫茫人海之中訪我唯一靈魂之伴侶。得之,我幸;不得,我命。如此而已。」「嗟夫吾師!我嘗奮我靈魂之精髓,以凝成一理想之明珠,涵之以熱滿之心血,明照我深奧之靈府。而庸俗忌之嫉之,輒欲麻木其靈魂,搗碎其理想,殺滅其希望,污毀其純潔!我之不流入墮落,流入庸懦,流入卑污,其幾亦微矣!」
徐志摩留學後回到北平,常與朋友王賡相聚。王賡的妻子陸小曼,對徐志摩影響甚大。陸小曼聰慧活潑,是獨生女,父親陸寶曾是日本名相伊藤博文的得意門生,回國後任賦稅司。徐志摩和陸小曼在北平交際場相識相愛,並談及婚嫁。徐父執意請梁啟超證婚,徐志摩求助於胡適,胡適果然把梁任公請了出來,梁任公在大庭廣眾之下罵徐志摩:「徐志摩,你這個人性情浮躁,所以在學問方面沒有成就,你這個人用情不專,以致離婚再娶……以後務要痛改前非,重作新人。」盛典舉罷,徐志摩與陸小曼南下定居上海。

由於徐志摩離婚再娶,觸怒了父親,中斷了對他的經濟援助,而陸小曼生活揮霍無度,住的是3層樓的豪華住所,每月100銀洋的租金,家裡傭人眾多,有司機、廚師、男僕,還有貼身丫鬟,這些巨額花費使徐志摩入不敷支。應胡適的邀請,徐志摩兼教於北京大學,為了貼補家用,常在上海、南京、北京間往返,同時在光華大學、東吳大學法學院、大夏大學三所大學講課,課餘還得趕寫詩文,以賺取稿費。沉溺於跳舞、打牌、票戲等夜生活的陸小曼每天天亮才上床,睡到下午兩點才起身。
1931年11月19日,因林徽音要在北平協和禮堂為外國使節演講「中國建築藝術」,徐志摩欲前去捧場,於早上八時搭乘中國航空公司「濟南號」郵政飛機由南京北上,然而,飛機在大霧中誤觸濟南開山墜落,徐志摩罹難,死時34歲。

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Publisher
谷月社
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Published on
Jul 9, 2015
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Pages
116
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Language
Chinese
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Genres
Literary Collections / Asian / Chinese
Literary Collections / General
Poetry / Asian / Chinese
Poetry / General
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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