The book contains the following volumes:
• The Brain and Modern Computers
• Intelligence, Intuition and Creativity
• Memory, Language and other Brain Abilities
• Willpower and Artificial Intelligence
The origin of this understanding of cognition was initially included in the book of the General Theory of the Conditional Evolution of Life. Both essays address the central theme of cognitive functions in the brain, their origin, and their evolution from various perspectives.
Finally, possible effects on personal psychology and science education are discussed.
José Tiberius is the author of all the Molwick publisher books. With over 40 million visitors and two million books in PDF format, he is surely one of the most widely read authors in Spanish of scientific essays in the current millennium.
There are more than 20000 quotes to Jose's scientific and literary works, where his 15 books on theoretical physics, theory of evolution, quantitative genetics, cognitive theory, the philosophy of science, metaphysics and children's stories have been translated into English, French, Italian and Portuguese. Many of these quotes - to all these different fields - come from universities, projects done by university students and blogs created by teaching professionals and educational specialists.
When a witch proposes theories that involve a paradigm shift, she should be judged neither by the Inquisition nor by her specific academic education, no matter How Big it might be, but for the logical consistency and empirical testing of the new ideas. Otherwise, we will be lead into the classic ad wominen, hominen or whominen fallacy.
The field of memory research is subdivided into many separate and non-overlapping topic areas that often employ specialized tools and models. This book offers an accessible synthesis of memory research that explores how memory works, how it is organized, and how it changes dynamically. Written by an expert in the field, it can be used by undergraduate and graduate students of psychology and as a reference by researchers who want to fill in gaps in their knowledge. The book focuses on three general topics that cover a vast amount of research in the field: how a memory representation is created, how the cognitive processes of storage and retrieval can be studied and measured, and the process of encoding information and its varying degrees of effectiveness.
Specific subjects addressed include habituation and sensitization, and the neurobiological changes that underlie them; evidence for a cognitive component underlying Pavlovian conditioning; biological constraints on a cognitive model of memory; an information-processing framework for memory; misconceptions about memory, including the static memory myth and the permanent memory myth; model-based measurement of storage and retrieval processes; a critique of the concept of memory strength; the distinction between implicit and explicit memory; and learning and repetition.
Although the writing is accessible to the nonspecialist, the density of information is high. The text avoids jargon, and a glossary defines key terms. The notes expand on technical details and point to interesting related ideas.
Why are we surprised when smart people act foolishly? Smart people do foolish things all the time. Misjudgments and bad decisions by highly educated bankers and money managers, for example, brought us the financial crisis of 2008. Smart people do foolish things because intelligence is not the same as the capacity for rational thinking. The Rationality Quotient explains that these two traits, often (and incorrectly) thought of as one, refer to different cognitive functions. The standard IQ test, the authors argue, doesn't measure any of the broad components of rationality—adaptive responding, good judgment, and good decision making.
The authors show that rational thinking, like intelligence, is a measurable cognitive competence. Drawing on theoretical work and empirical research from the last two decades, they present the first prototype for an assessment of rational thinking analogous to the IQ test: the CART (Comprehensive Assessment of Rational Thinking).
The authors describe the theoretical underpinnings of the CART, distinguishing the algorithmic mind from the reflective mind. They discuss the logic of the tasks used to measure cognitive biases, and they develop a unique typology of thinking errors. The Rationality Quotient explains the components of rational thought assessed by the CART, including probabilistic and scientific reasoning; the avoidance of “miserly” information processing; and the knowledge structures needed for rational thinking. Finally, the authors discuss studies of the CART and the social and practical implications of such a test. An appendix offers sample items from the test.
Also, the following definitions and common usages of the word intelligence are studied: general intelligence, factor g, intelligence quotients (IQ), multiple intelligences, emotional, and human intelligence types - male and female.
Other important aspects of this essay are:
• Characteristics of logic, intuition and language
• Creativity as a set of complex brain functions
• Gifted children and Mendelian genetics
• Influence of heredity and environment, or nature vs. nurture
• Experimental research with twins and families
Finally, a metaphor is presented as a comparison between possible concepts and indicators of intelligence and cars. To mention a few: power, speed, cargo, passengers, safety, autonomy, skill of the driver.
“One of the most important books I’ve ever read—an indispensable guide to thinking clearly about the world.” – Bill Gates
“Hans Rosling tells the story of ‘the secret silent miracle of human progress’ as only he can. But Factfulness does much more than that. It also explains why progress is so often secret and silent and teaches readers how to see it clearly.” —Melinda Gates
"Factfulness by Hans Rosling, an outstanding international public health expert, is a hopeful book about the potential for human progress when we work off facts rather than our inherent biases." - Former U.S. President Barack Obama
Factfulness: The stress-reducing habit of only carrying opinions for which you have strong supporting facts.
When asked simple questions about global trends—what percentage of the world’s population live in poverty; why the world’s population is increasing; how many girls finish school—we systematically get the answers wrong. So wrong that a chimpanzee choosing answers at random will consistently outguess teachers, journalists, Nobel laureates, and investment bankers.
In Factfulness, Professor of International Health and global TED phenomenon Hans Rosling, together with his two long-time collaborators, Anna and Ola, offers a radical new explanation of why this happens. They reveal the ten instincts that distort our perspective—from our tendency to divide the world into two camps (usually some version of us and them) to the way we consume media (where fear rules) to how we perceive progress (believing that most things are getting worse).
Our problem is that we don’t know what we don’t know, and even our guesses are informed by unconscious and predictable biases.
It turns out that the world, for all its imperfections, is in a much better state than we might think. That doesn’t mean there aren’t real concerns. But when we worry about everything all the time instead of embracing a worldview based on facts, we can lose our ability to focus on the things that threaten us most.
Inspiring and revelatory, filled with lively anecdotes and moving stories, Factfulness is an urgent and essential book that will change the way you see the world and empower you to respond to the crises and opportunities of the future.
“This book is my last battle in my life-long mission to fight devastating ignorance...Previously I armed myself with huge data sets, eye-opening software, an energetic learning style and a Swedish bayonet for sword-swallowing. It wasn’t enough. But I hope this book will be.” Hans Rosling, February 2017.
The common characteristics of intelligence and memory are examined in title II.
Other common aspects discussed are: the necessity that both have for physiological support, the complementariness of both functions and the constant optimization that the system of human intellect is subject to due to its complexity and flexibility.
In title III a series of practical implications or considerations are mentioned about on certain topics of evolutionary psychology and neuroscience regarding people, education, and the evolution of life.
All our lives are constrained by limited space and time, limits that give rise to a particular set of problems. What should we do, or leave undone, in a day or a lifetime? How much messiness should we accept? What balance of new activities and familiar favorites is the most fulfilling? These may seem like uniquely human quandaries, but they are not: computers, too, face the same constraints, so computer scientists have been grappling with their version of such problems for decades. And the solutions they've found have much to teach us.
In a dazzlingly interdisciplinary work, acclaimed author Brian Christian (who holds degrees in computer science, philosophy, and poetry, and works at the intersection of all three) and Tom Griffiths (a UC Berkeley professor of cognitive science and psychology) show how the simple, precise algorithms used by computers can also untangle very human questions. They explain how to have better hunches and when to leave things to chance, how to deal with overwhelming choices and how best to connect with others. From finding a spouse to finding a parking spot, from organizing one's inbox to understanding the workings of human memory, Algorithms to Live By transforms the wisdom of computer science into strategies for human living.
The purpose of this quantitative research on cognitive psychology is to validate the model regarding the hereditary nature of relational intelligence, which has been developed to prove the General Theory of Conditional Evolution of Life (GTCEL) through the detection of the existence of the genetic information verification method.
We performed a sensitivity analysis of the goodness of statistical adjustment for changes in the parameters of evolution of intelligence from one generation to the next.
The results of the study have been completely satisfactory:
• It shows the hereditary nature of IQ measurements
• It seems that the main functions – or those with faster evolution – of human intelligence are quite concentrated in a single chromosome, possibly the sexual chromosome.
• The significant chromosome is the one with lowest power, in line with GTCEL previsions.
These facts would imply the existence of a teleological or finalist evolution and, consequently, that theories of random mutations and natural selection would no longer represent the main components of evolution.
The EDI Study has validated an additional hypothesis of the GTCEL on sexual differentiation, reinforcing the model's overall coherence.