Immunological Aspects of the Liver and Gastrointestinal Tract

Springer Science & Business Media
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We have been privileged to start our academic careers at the begin ning of the decade in which the immunological roles and hypersensitivity diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and liver have been defined. In the early 1960s IgA was reported to be the main secretory immunoglobulin, immunoblasts were shown to home to the intestinal mucosa and certain serum autoantibodies were described in patients with chronic liver disease. Shortly thereafter IgE and Australia antigen were discovered. Parallel advances in clinical investigation, in particular closed biopsy techniques, facilitated correlation of morphological changes with im munological mechanisms in disease of the gastrointestinal tract and liver. Only 10 years later, the concepts of immunity and hypersensitivity are regularly applied to the pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and prog nosis of many chronic diseases in these organs. In designing this book we have attempted to integrate theorectical and clinical immunology as they pertain in 1975; our ultimate aim is aptly described by Brachet as quoted by Professor Paronetto (page 319). We would like to think that this review provides a basis for the next major advances in the fields of gastrointestinal and hepatic immunology. As we see it, the outstanding problem in both sites is how to produce protective immunity without hypersensitivity.
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Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Dec 6, 2012
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Pages
404
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ISBN
9789401161503
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Medical / Clinical Medicine
Medical / Gastroenterology
Medical / Hepatology
Medical / Immunology
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This content is DRM protected.
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 「懲罰的力量使人靜默,但不能駁倒……它永遠無法促成真理的認識。」

──塞謬爾.約翰遜 Samuel Johnson


「刻意的殘酷是不可原諒的。」

──田納西.威廉斯Tennessee Williams


我們已經成為一個懲罪者的國度,忽略了人的尊嚴,甚至忘了懲罰的目的。


「為惡者必將付出代價」,但我們能夠接受一個恐怖不輸集中營的監獄?


你無時無刻不在害怕,你只有一個人,到處是敵人,沒有可以信賴的政府,你唯一的武器就是你自己。你在哪裡?不是戰場,不是異鄉,而是美國監獄。


你做了什麼淪落到此?可能是哈了太多草,或者不小心把一些藥賣給錯的人。你可能從來沒使用過暴力,但這會兒周圍全是暴力的人。要活著逃出這裡,得靠智慧,還有運氣。


弗格森博士寫作這本書的靈感來自課堂上。在哥倫比亞法學院上課時,他會提出案件讓同學討論,結果即便是同樣的罪名,七十個學生常常會陷入嚴重的量刑分歧。刑罰從六個月的在家拘役,到入獄二十年。這一群未來的律師,每個人的論述都很有道理。


然而,為什麼一群知識份子面對同樣的事實,會得出如何不同的見解?這就是本書試著要回答的。即便是受過教育的美國人,當他們想要做出懲罰時,他們常常不知道自己在做什麼,儘管他們對懲罰這件事充滿理想與激情。這樣的矛盾很重要,因為相較於其他現代化民主國家,美國社會更常對犯罪者科以刑罰,且刑責偏重。判刑入獄率(incarceration rate),在歐洲國家大約是1:1000,在美國是1:143,刑期較長且監禁條件較差。


之所以如此可能是因為害怕犯罪、種族對立、幫派活動、對政府的不信任。作者無意爭論這些問題,但提出不同的思考:懲罰的哪些面向令人感到困惑?更深入分析懲罰這件事能告訴我們什麼?為什麼一般美國公民不關心美國的監獄體系和環境比所有極權主義國家還要糟糕?我們所知道的刑罰到底達成了什麼目的?


截至二○一○年,美國監獄裡關了兩百二十六萬人,有九分之一的州政府員工是在監獄工作,花在監獄的費用比花在教育還要多。懲教機構愈來愈失能。法律人在學校的學習著重在如何懲罰,而非懲罰本身的意義。法律強調的是,「為惡必將付出代價」。公義的社會期望透過這樣的法律等式來恢復秩序。但是懲罰還要考量到犯罪者所面臨的其他狀況。


弗格森博士認為,當一個懲罰體系變得太過嚴苛,重新檢視與評估是所有人的責任。一個文化的形成,是透過政治、經濟、法律、歷史、心理、甚至宗教與哲學,而我們必須了解這些意涵,才能知道我們在做些什麼。


【名家推薦】

「這本書充滿熱烈的道德觀點。弗格森問道:為什麼我們會成為一個懲罰者的國度,不再看到被懲罰者的人性尊嚴……弗格森是我們的但丁,作為我們穿越扭曲的美國地獄的指引。任何讀了這本書的人都會覺得自己是這個國家罪惡的同謀,然而前路雖然艱辛仍有一絲希望,它還沒完全封閉。」

──保羅.卡恩Paul W. Kahn(耶魯大學法學院)


「針對那些有時令人遺憾但被視為理所當然和忽略的事,本書是充滿激情與痛苦的呼籲。弗格森要讀者嚴肅看待並持續努力改革美國的監獄現況。無其他書可比擬。」

──洛依德.溫瑞柏Lloyd Weinreb(哈佛大學法學院)


「弗格森成功激起我們對於美國犯罪懲罰的反思……問題不在懲罰的需求,而是它的嚴厲性,弗格森再一次迫使讀者深入思考這個問題。」

──出版人週刊書評Publishers Weekly


「對於一個逐漸成為全球人權醜聞的危機,本書是一記警鐘。」

──科克斯書評Kirkus Reviews


「探本溯源且發人深思……這本書巧妙地穿梭在哲學、法律、犯罪學之間,但它的心和靈魂卻是文學,一本很棒的書。」

──約書亞.都柏利Joshua Dubler(高等教育紀事報Chronicle of Higher Education)


出版社 商周出版(城邦)

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