The role of the media in the United States and the media's influence on aggression, violence, crime and the individual

GRIN Verlag
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Seminar paper from the year 2003 in the subject American Studies - Culture and Applied Geography, grade: 2+ (B), Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald (Institute for American Studies), course: HS Criminal Justice in the USA, 12 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Today the media is often seen as the “fourth estate” of the American system, which already marks its special position in society. This term-paper will show both how that position historically developed and which role the media plays currently. In order to underline the specific conditions and political and social circumstances that existed in the colonies and later in the United States, e.g. the British Kingdom’s influence and its predominance, the media’s gradual development will be traced back carefully. Furthermore, it shall be given an answer to the question if and in what respect the media influenced and influences social and personal life. This will be analyzed with regard to the media’s functions and its reputation as being responsible for high violence and crime rates in the USA. Moreover, an insight into common views and prejudices of the media will be given and compared to reality. To answer the question if the media is really responsible for crimes, violence and aggression, its status in our lives must be examined. That means it will be considered of what importance the media can be for the individual and which positive and negative consequences might arise from the media’s existence and significance. Moreover, it shall be shown that media violence has certain potential effects on the individual and is able to affect everybody. On the one hand, this term-paper will point out that the media’s impact on political, social and personal life is underestimated, respectively often not even acknowledged. On the other hand, it shall be presented that the media serves also as scapegoat and can not be blamed for everything, in particular it can not be held responsible for crime, violence and aggression all alone. To prove that, an individual’s personal determinants will be analyzed in order to underline the various aspects that must come together to create violence and aggression. Finally, actions of state and society with the purpose of reducing violence on TV are portrayed and further suggestions are made on that topic. Within the analysis, special attention is turned to television as the medium of the 21st century. Due to its characteristics (stimulating the recipient audio-visually, having the greatest potential of manipulation and fascination, being seen as the most important, most credible and easiest accessible source of information and depicting violence and aggression most effectively) it is the medium which the examination must base on.
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Publisher
GRIN Verlag
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Published on
Nov 20, 2003
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Pages
24
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ISBN
9783638231107
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Language
English
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Genres
Language Arts & Disciplines / Linguistics / General
Literary Collections / American / General
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This content is DRM protected.
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Eligible for Family Library

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Adriana Zühlke
Seminar paper from the year 2003 in the subject American Studies - Literature, grade: 1 (A), Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald (Institute for Anglistics/ American Studies), course: HS Writing the Line, Dividing the Land: The Mason-Dixon Line in History and Fiction, 7 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: [...] Morrison’s novel Beloved, which is discussed in this term paper, is full of emotions and feelings. It balances fear, hatred, tension, passion and also love, which appears in various forms such as motherly love, physical love or the abstract love of freedom. The analysis of this important and interesting theme focuses on questions like, e.g. How are feelings (especially love) presented and described? What significance do exemplarily selected relationships in the book have? How far are psychological aspects involved? Likewise, it is shed light on the political aspects in the book . Morrison questions the American maxim, which is stated in the Declaration of Independence, that “all men are created equal” by showing how slaves worked, fought and even died for “natural” human rights like freedom, the pursuit of happiness or, even more fundamental, the merely recognition as human beings. The multi-perspective view on the slaves’ every-day live before, during and after the escape into freedom is both a fascinating and upsetting description of how slavery really was and, furthermore, an accusation of injustice and inhumanity throughout the time of slavery and today. In 2.0, the facets of slavery and its consequences are centred. It shall be shown how this dark part of the American history influenced, respectively manipulated, human beings and their actions and feelings. The analysis in 3.0 concentrates on the memory of the individual, i.e. it is examined whether and how it is possible for Sethe and other characters to overcome their horrible past. In addition, the issue of a collective memory is regarded. Moreover, the thesis that working through the past and overcoming it is closely connected with the supernatural, especially with the ghost of Beloved, is debated. Here, attention is turned in particular to Morrison’s roots of African traditions and the question how (much) they inspired the book and in what respect they are interwoven in the plot. Throughout the whole analysis, such important aspects as the physical and psychological effects of slavery, the special situation of women and narrative and stylistic features are considered, the latter is surveyed more detailed in 4.0. In the conclusion it should be summed up what was found out and it is shortly reflected on the author’s intention and message. At the end, a brief personal comment will be given on Beloved.
Adriana Zühlke
Thesis (M.A.) from the year 2005 in the subject American Studies - Literature, grade: 2.3, Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, 30 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The paper is concerned with the depiction of black women’s subjugation and resistance in fiction. It examines the quality of black women’s suffering through racism and sexism, especially within the system of slavery in America from the 17th to the 19th century. Moreover, the paper contrasts black women’s status in and after slavery. This is done, on the one hand, in order to illustrate and underline slavery’s inhuman conditions black women suffered from and, on the other hand, to show the continuation of racism and sexism after slavery. It will be revealed that the assumed changes of conditions for black women nowadays are rather superficial and that discrimination and inequality, compared to men and white people, have been persisting. The study is based on the novels Beloved and Sula by Toni Morrison and on Maryse Condé’s novel I, Tituba, Black Witch of Salem. These three novels are selected as basis for the analysis because they depict black people’s oppression in several forms, intensities and times and focus especially on women’s particular situation. It will be discussed how Blacks were capable at all to endure and survive the physical and mental tortures of captivity in slavery or of discrimination and inequality after slavery. Connected with this question the role of the African culture is debated. Here, attention is turned to the authors’ African roots and the question how (much) these roots inspired the elements of the actions and in what respect African tradition and beliefs are interwoven in the books. Being further backing aspects for the novels’ women, human interpersonal relationships and collectivity are examined connected with a consideration of the novels’ investigation and analysis of human nature, psyche and emotions. Here, the analysis focuses on questions that are essential for an entire comprehension of the books, for example: How are feelings (especially love) presented and which special functions do they fulfill in the works? What significance do the various interpersonal relationships have? To what extent are they cores of resistance? What causes the significance of female friendships? What differentiates female suffering from male? This paper claims to elucidate the profound meaning Morrison’s and Condé’s insights into black women’s present and past provide and their works’ potential to be far more than just entertaining pieces of magic realism.
Adriana Zühlke
Seminar paper from the year 2004 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 2.0, Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, 9 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: This paper deals with the question how women are depicted in English Renaissance drama, exemplified by the women inThe Revenger’s Tragedyand in Shakespeare’sHamletandMacbeth.It shall be examined which functions women in the drama fulfill and which conclusion their status allows. Of particular interest will be the concept of the ‘unruly woman’, who unites characteristics like mysteriousness, seductiveness and inexplicability. The analysis will show that none of the examined characters Gertrude, Ophelia, Lady Macbeth, Lady Macduff, Gratiana, Gloriana, Castiza, Antonio’s wife and the Duchess are shaped plainly but ambivalently. Therefore, no explicitly good or evil female character can be identified. With regard to the widespread misogynistic view on women in the 17thcentury, this speaks for the dramas’ authors. However, various negative human features that are presented as typically female, will be taken into consideration and questioned as the basis for discussing the issue whether the dramatists can be rather regarded as feminists or sexists. Moreover, a short insight into the potential origins of the (male) perception of the Renaissance woman is presented and shall clarify and explain the circumstances, in which rather ‘modern’ matters like woman’s selfperception, ambition and emancipation, self-determination and reputation. The paper’s aim is to expose what the general way of women’s depiction actually is and to investigate if the dichotomy between men and woman can be portrayed in the simplified way of depicting female weakness versus male strength. Furthermore, it shall be focused on the strikingly depicted male superiority and dominance in the plays, its nature, consequences, the connected illusions and, maybe, underlying weaknesses. Additionally, the analysis will focus on questions suggesting themselves such as the discussion of woman’s habitual death in Renaissance drama, the identification of the different angles of depiction and, above all, the inquiry of the thesis if women are really depicted as morally and socially inferior to men and, if yes, whether this can be justified.
Adriana Zühlke
Seminar paper from the year 2004 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 1 (A), University of Szczecin (Institute for English Studies), 23 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Jane Austen’s novel “Pride and Prejudice” was initially titled “First Impressions”, which already indicates the book’s reference to the weight of appearance and its impact on the development of relationships, opinions and even a person’s whole life. In fact, the book’s main action, which focuses on the destiny of Elizabeth Bennet and Mr. Darcy, is based on first impressions, namely those the characters get at the Meryton assembly. When Darcy enters the room he is commonly regarded as fine, handsome and in possession of a noble mien1 – a positive assessment which the party even improves after learning that Darcy is a wealthy man: “The gentlemen pronounce him to be a fine figure of a man, the ladies declared he was much handsomer than Mr. Bingley, and he was looked at with great admiration (...)”2. Nevertheless, soon a certain aversion towards Mr. Darcy develops since he is discovered to be “the proudest and most disagreeable man in the world”3. Here, Austen provides a typical example of how the people of her time judged and how “first impressions” can be influenced by social and economic status. Therefore, the people’s opinions and perspectives were not likely to be objective but rather collectively biased and ignorant – one of Austen’s main points of criticism in her comedy of manners. As a consequence, Elizabeth’s and Darcy’s (re-)actions are influenced by the common etiquette as well, for the y are both respected members of society and take part in social life with all its rules and customs. 1 Compare: Austen, Jane: Pride and Prejudice, London: Penguin Popular Classics, 1994, 10 2 Ibid. 3 Austen, 11
Adriana Zühlke
Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 2 (B), Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald (Institute for Anglistics/American Studies), course: The English Novel, 6 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Virginia Woolf′s novel To the lighthouse is seen as one of her most experimental works and some critics call it a "tour de force"; a masterpiece. In fact, it is a very special piece of fictional prose concerning narrative techniques, plot, symbolism or language, as this paper will show. Furthermore, it will be analyzed, which effects these means and techniques have on the reader and on the novel as a whole. The first part of the analysis will concentrate on the questions how the novel is structured and why it is structured that way. Moreover, the problem of the plot will be discussed. In the second part called ′Narrative techniques′ it shall be focused on the different methods that are used to tell the novel, especially the stream of conscious- technique, because it offers particular possibilities, which have an effect on the characters′ portrayal and the novel′s style. This paper′s last item examines symbolism and language and the connection between them. Especially the matter of symbolism is interesting, because it passes through the whole novel and has therefore certain importance and meaning, which is contemplated here. Virginia Woolf′s work differs from traditional novels in many points. Some of these points I chose as topics for my term paper, because I would like to show that they are part of the novel′s uniqueness.
Adriana Zühlke
Seminar paper from the year 2003 in the subject American Studies - Literature, grade: 1 (A), Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald (Institute for Anglistics/ American Studies), course: HS Writing the Line, Dividing the Land: The Mason-Dixon Line in History and Fiction, 7 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: [...] Morrison’s novel Beloved, which is discussed in this term paper, is full of emotions and feelings. It balances fear, hatred, tension, passion and also love, which appears in various forms such as motherly love, physical love or the abstract love of freedom. The analysis of this important and interesting theme focuses on questions like, e.g. How are feelings (especially love) presented and described? What significance do exemplarily selected relationships in the book have? How far are psychological aspects involved? Likewise, it is shed light on the political aspects in the book . Morrison questions the American maxim, which is stated in the Declaration of Independence, that “all men are created equal” by showing how slaves worked, fought and even died for “natural” human rights like freedom, the pursuit of happiness or, even more fundamental, the merely recognition as human beings. The multi-perspective view on the slaves’ every-day live before, during and after the escape into freedom is both a fascinating and upsetting description of how slavery really was and, furthermore, an accusation of injustice and inhumanity throughout the time of slavery and today. In 2.0, the facets of slavery and its consequences are centred. It shall be shown how this dark part of the American history influenced, respectively manipulated, human beings and their actions and feelings. The analysis in 3.0 concentrates on the memory of the individual, i.e. it is examined whether and how it is possible for Sethe and other characters to overcome their horrible past. In addition, the issue of a collective memory is regarded. Moreover, the thesis that working through the past and overcoming it is closely connected with the supernatural, especially with the ghost of Beloved, is debated. Here, attention is turned in particular to Morrison’s roots of African traditions and the question how (much) they inspired the book and in what respect they are interwoven in the plot. Throughout the whole analysis, such important aspects as the physical and psychological effects of slavery, the special situation of women and narrative and stylistic features are considered, the latter is surveyed more detailed in 4.0. In the conclusion it should be summed up what was found out and it is shortly reflected on the author’s intention and message. At the end, a brief personal comment will be given on Beloved.
Adriana Zühlke
Thesis (M.A.) from the year 2005 in the subject American Studies - Literature, grade: 2.3, Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, 30 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: The paper is concerned with the depiction of black women’s subjugation and resistance in fiction. It examines the quality of black women’s suffering through racism and sexism, especially within the system of slavery in America from the 17th to the 19th century. Moreover, the paper contrasts black women’s status in and after slavery. This is done, on the one hand, in order to illustrate and underline slavery’s inhuman conditions black women suffered from and, on the other hand, to show the continuation of racism and sexism after slavery. It will be revealed that the assumed changes of conditions for black women nowadays are rather superficial and that discrimination and inequality, compared to men and white people, have been persisting. The study is based on the novels Beloved and Sula by Toni Morrison and on Maryse Condé’s novel I, Tituba, Black Witch of Salem. These three novels are selected as basis for the analysis because they depict black people’s oppression in several forms, intensities and times and focus especially on women’s particular situation. It will be discussed how Blacks were capable at all to endure and survive the physical and mental tortures of captivity in slavery or of discrimination and inequality after slavery. Connected with this question the role of the African culture is debated. Here, attention is turned to the authors’ African roots and the question how (much) these roots inspired the elements of the actions and in what respect African tradition and beliefs are interwoven in the books. Being further backing aspects for the novels’ women, human interpersonal relationships and collectivity are examined connected with a consideration of the novels’ investigation and analysis of human nature, psyche and emotions. Here, the analysis focuses on questions that are essential for an entire comprehension of the books, for example: How are feelings (especially love) presented and which special functions do they fulfill in the works? What significance do the various interpersonal relationships have? To what extent are they cores of resistance? What causes the significance of female friendships? What differentiates female suffering from male? This paper claims to elucidate the profound meaning Morrison’s and Condé’s insights into black women’s present and past provide and their works’ potential to be far more than just entertaining pieces of magic realism.
Adriana Zühlke
Seminar paper from the year 2004 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 1 (A), University of Szczecin (Institute for English Studies), 23 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Jane Austen’s novel “Pride and Prejudice” was initially titled “First Impressions”, which already indicates the book’s reference to the weight of appearance and its impact on the development of relationships, opinions and even a person’s whole life. In fact, the book’s main action, which focuses on the destiny of Elizabeth Bennet and Mr. Darcy, is based on first impressions, namely those the characters get at the Meryton assembly. When Darcy enters the room he is commonly regarded as fine, handsome and in possession of a noble mien1 – a positive assessment which the party even improves after learning that Darcy is a wealthy man: “The gentlemen pronounce him to be a fine figure of a man, the ladies declared he was much handsomer than Mr. Bingley, and he was looked at with great admiration (...)”2. Nevertheless, soon a certain aversion towards Mr. Darcy develops since he is discovered to be “the proudest and most disagreeable man in the world”3. Here, Austen provides a typical example of how the people of her time judged and how “first impressions” can be influenced by social and economic status. Therefore, the people’s opinions and perspectives were not likely to be objective but rather collectively biased and ignorant – one of Austen’s main points of criticism in her comedy of manners. As a consequence, Elizabeth’s and Darcy’s (re-)actions are influenced by the common etiquette as well, for the y are both respected members of society and take part in social life with all its rules and customs. 1 Compare: Austen, Jane: Pride and Prejudice, London: Penguin Popular Classics, 1994, 10 2 Ibid. 3 Austen, 11
Adriana Zühlke
Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 2 (B), Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald (Institute for Anglistics/American Studies), course: The English Novel, 6 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Virginia Woolf′s novel To the lighthouse is seen as one of her most experimental works and some critics call it a "tour de force"; a masterpiece. In fact, it is a very special piece of fictional prose concerning narrative techniques, plot, symbolism or language, as this paper will show. Furthermore, it will be analyzed, which effects these means and techniques have on the reader and on the novel as a whole. The first part of the analysis will concentrate on the questions how the novel is structured and why it is structured that way. Moreover, the problem of the plot will be discussed. In the second part called ′Narrative techniques′ it shall be focused on the different methods that are used to tell the novel, especially the stream of conscious- technique, because it offers particular possibilities, which have an effect on the characters′ portrayal and the novel′s style. This paper′s last item examines symbolism and language and the connection between them. Especially the matter of symbolism is interesting, because it passes through the whole novel and has therefore certain importance and meaning, which is contemplated here. Virginia Woolf′s work differs from traditional novels in many points. Some of these points I chose as topics for my term paper, because I would like to show that they are part of the novel′s uniqueness.
Adriana Zühlke
Seminar paper from the year 2004 in the subject English Language and Literature Studies - Literature, grade: 2.0, Ernst Moritz Arndt University of Greifswald, 9 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: This paper deals with the question how women are depicted in English Renaissance drama, exemplified by the women inThe Revenger’s Tragedyand in Shakespeare’sHamletandMacbeth.It shall be examined which functions women in the drama fulfill and which conclusion their status allows. Of particular interest will be the concept of the ‘unruly woman’, who unites characteristics like mysteriousness, seductiveness and inexplicability. The analysis will show that none of the examined characters Gertrude, Ophelia, Lady Macbeth, Lady Macduff, Gratiana, Gloriana, Castiza, Antonio’s wife and the Duchess are shaped plainly but ambivalently. Therefore, no explicitly good or evil female character can be identified. With regard to the widespread misogynistic view on women in the 17thcentury, this speaks for the dramas’ authors. However, various negative human features that are presented as typically female, will be taken into consideration and questioned as the basis for discussing the issue whether the dramatists can be rather regarded as feminists or sexists. Moreover, a short insight into the potential origins of the (male) perception of the Renaissance woman is presented and shall clarify and explain the circumstances, in which rather ‘modern’ matters like woman’s selfperception, ambition and emancipation, self-determination and reputation. The paper’s aim is to expose what the general way of women’s depiction actually is and to investigate if the dichotomy between men and woman can be portrayed in the simplified way of depicting female weakness versus male strength. Furthermore, it shall be focused on the strikingly depicted male superiority and dominance in the plays, its nature, consequences, the connected illusions and, maybe, underlying weaknesses. Additionally, the analysis will focus on questions suggesting themselves such as the discussion of woman’s habitual death in Renaissance drama, the identification of the different angles of depiction and, above all, the inquiry of the thesis if women are really depicted as morally and socially inferior to men and, if yes, whether this can be justified.
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