The text discusses the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning optical microscope or optical interference microscope, and the applications of these microscopes to phase imaging, biological imaging, and semiconductor inspection and metrology.A comprehensive theoretical discussion of the depth and transverse resolution is given with emphasis placed on the practical results of the theoretical calculations and how these can be used to help understand the operation of these microscopes.Provides a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning optical microscopy for scientists and engineersExplains many practical applications of scanning optical and interference microscopy in such diverse fields as biology and semiconductor metrologyDiscusses in theoretical terms the origin of the improved depth and transverse resolution of scanning optical and interference microscopes with emphasis on the practical results of the theoretical calculationsConsiders the practical aspects of building a confocal scanning or interference microscope and explores some of the design tradeoffs made for microscopes used in various applicationsDiscusses the theory and design of near-field optical microscopesExplains phase imaging in the scanning optical and interference microscopes
This book offers a number of new results from well-known authors who are engaged in aspects of the development of novel physical principles, new methods, or implementation of modern technological solutions into current imaging devices and new applications of high-resolution imaging systems. The ultimate purpose of this book is to encourage more research and development in the field to realize the great potential of high resolution acoustic imaging and its various industrial and biomedical applications.
The opening chapters on the physics of light are complemented by chapters on refractive and diffractive optical elements. The internationally renowned authors present different methods of lithographic and nonlithographic fabrication of microoptics and introduce the characterization and testing of microoptics.
The second part of the book is dedicated to optical microsystems and MEMS, optical waveguide structures and optical nanostructures, including photonic crystals and metamaterials.
Each chapter includes exercises illustrating a sample approach to new and complex topics, making the textbook suitable for lectures on optics as part of a physics or electrical engineering course.
Key features:Comprehensively covers all of the important applications of acoustical imaging. Introduces the gauge invariance property of acoustic equation of motion, with applications in the elastic constants of isotropic solids, time reversal acoustics, negative refraction, double negative acoustical metamaterial and acoustical cloaking. Contains up to date treatments on latest theories of sound propagation in random media, including statistical treatment and chaos theory. Includes a chapter devoted to new acoustics based on metamaterials, a field founded by the author, including a new theory of elasticity and new theory of sound propagation in solids and fluids and tremendous potential in several novel applications.
Covers the hot topics on acoustical imaging including time reversal acoustics, negative refraction and acoustical cloaking.
Acoustical Imaging: Techniques and Applications for Engineers is a comprehensive reference on acoustical imaging and forms a valuable resource for engineers, researchers, senior undergraduate and graduate students.