Forest Inventory

Managing Forest Ecosystems

Book 10
Springer Science & Business Media
1
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This book has been developed as a forest inventory textbook for students and could also serve as a handbook for practical foresters. We have set out to keep the mathematics in the book at a fairly non-technical level, and therefore, although we deal with many issues that include highly sophisticated methodology, we try to present first and foremost the ideas behind them. For foresters who need more details, references are given to more advanced scientific papers and books in the fields of statistics and biometrics. Forest inventory books deal mostly with sampling and measurement issues, as found here in section I, but since forest inventories in many countries involve much more than this, we have also included material on forestry applications. Most applications nowadays involve remote sensing technology of some sort, so that section II deals mostly with the use of remote sensing material for this purpose. Section III deals with national inventories carried out in different parts of world, and section IV is an attempt to outline some future possibilities of forest inventory methodologies. The editors, Annika Kangas Professor of Forest Mensuration and Management, Department of Forest Resource Management, University of Helsinki. Matti Maltamo Professor of Forest Mensuration, Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Feb 19, 2006
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Pages
362
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ISBN
9781402043819
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Mathematics / Probability & Statistics / General
Medical / Biostatistics
Science / Life Sciences / Horticulture
Technology & Engineering / Agriculture / Forestry
Technology & Engineering / Remote Sensing & Geographic Information Systems
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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From time immemorial, firewood has been a very important source of energy for mankind. Later in history, wood for energy decreased its importance because of other more convenient and cheaper sources, mainly fossil fuels. Today, focus is again on use of forests as a producer of energy with main drivers being climate change, shortage and increasing prices of fossil fuel sources, and safety in energy supplies. However, intensive use of forest biomass is qu- tioned since fundamental ecological processes may be influenced negatively thus making up a trade-off with the benefits of using an otherwise sustainable source of energy. In this book, selected aspects of intensive use of forest b- mass for energy is treated with main focus on ecological aspects like maintenance of soil fertility, recycling of the combustion ash, inf- ence on biodiversity and pests, and economical aspects both at forest owners level and for society. Another focus point is the implemen- tion of this knowledge into decision support, recommendations and guidelines. The geographical scope is mainly the Nordic and Baltic region. The EU-financed project “Wood for Energy, - a contribution to the development of sustainable forest Management” (WOOD-EN- 1 MAN) , make up the frame for the book. Seven partners participated in the project: Forest & Landscape Denmark, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Latvian State Forestry Research Institute, and Estonian University of Life Sciences with Forest & Landscape Denmark as coordinator.
Figure 1-1. Post-World War II US assessment history. 1973)weremotivatedbytheemergingcon?ictsinthepost-WorldWar II period between rapidly increasing softwood harvests and declining timber growth. These are called the Outlook Studies. The last six studies (1980, 1985, 1989, 1993, 2000, 2005) have been conducted to meet the requirements of the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act (RPA) of 1974. These are called the RPA Timber Assessments. 6 The Challenge of Developing Models 1. 2 SHAPING THE ASSESSMENT SYSTEM This initial chapter describes the development and speci?c structure of the Assessment System. We consider past policy analysis needs and federal legislative requirements, antecedent modeling and projection approaches, characteristics of the US forest sector, and recent trends in public and private resource management. At the federal level, and in some states and regions, the USA has a lengthy history of using resource and market models to explore policy issues and to examine the e?ects of alternative policy actions. Many of these studies have been undertaken on an irregular basis as issues emerged and resource conditions changed. The RPA legislation mandated a regular cycle of nationwide assessments by the Forest Service, examining trends and conditionsinanarrayofresourceusesandservices(climate,minerals, range,recreation,timber,andwater). ThestructureoftheAssessment System re?ects both the requirements of the RPA legislation and the unique characteristics of the US forest sector, which it is designed to simulate. IntheyearssinceenactmentoftheRPAlegislation,mana- ment directions, and objectives on both public and private lands in the USA have continued to evolve. The structure of the Assessment System has been adapted to re?ect these trends.
While the natural resources of the earth continue to diminish, “Green Landscapes” arebeingcalleduponto produceanincreasingrangeofgoodsandservices.A Green Landscape is a rural expanse of scenery that may comprise a variety of visible f- tures. This book focuses on forested landscapes, although much of the theory and most of the practical applications are valid for any area of land. In many regions of the world, people depend on forests for their livelihood and well-being. Forests provide multiple services, – bene ts generated for society by the existence of c- tain forest ecosystems and their attributes. The value of these bene ts is often only recognised when they are lost after removal of the trees, resulting in ooding, loss of income and declining species diversity. Forests provide multiple services. However, the amount and quality, and the p- ticular mix of these services depend on the condition of the resource. Landscape design is a proven way to ensure that certain desired bene ts will be available in space and time. It provides the foundation and an essential starting point for s- tainable management. This volume, which forms part of Springer’s book series Managing Forest Ecosystems,presentsstate-of-the-artresearchresults,visionsandtheories,aswell as speci c methodsfor designing Green Landscapes, as a basis for sustainable ecos- tem management. The book contains a wealth of information which may be useful to companymanagement,the legal and policy environmentand forestry administ- tors. The volume is subdivided into four sections.
The book that helped make Michael Pollan, the New York Times bestselling author of Cooked and The Omnivore’s Dilemma, one of the most trusted food experts in America

In 1637, one Dutchman paid as much for a single tulip bulb as the going price of a town house in Amsterdam. Three and a half centuries later, Amsterdam is once again the mecca for people who care passionately about one particular plant—though this time the obsessions revolves around the intoxicating effects of marijuana rather than the visual beauty of the tulip. How could flowers, of all things, become such objects of desire that they can drive men to financial ruin?

In The Botany of Desire, Michael Pollan argues that the answer lies at the heart of the intimately reciprocal relationship between people and plants. In telling the stories of four familiar plant species that are deeply woven into the fabric of our lives, Pollan illustrates how they evolved to satisfy humankinds’s most basic yearnings—and by doing so made themselves indispensable. For, just as we’ve benefited from these plants, the plants, in the grand co-evolutionary scheme that Pollan evokes so brilliantly, have done well by us. The sweetness of apples, for example, induced the early Americans to spread the species, giving the tree a whole new continent in which to blossom. So who is really domesticating whom?

Weaving fascinating anecdotes and accessible science into gorgeous prose, Pollan takes us on an absorbing journey that will change the way we think about our place in nature.


From the Hardcover edition.
From time immemorial, firewood has been a very important source of energy for mankind. Later in history, wood for energy decreased its importance because of other more convenient and cheaper sources, mainly fossil fuels. Today, focus is again on use of forests as a producer of energy with main drivers being climate change, shortage and increasing prices of fossil fuel sources, and safety in energy supplies. However, intensive use of forest biomass is qu- tioned since fundamental ecological processes may be influenced negatively thus making up a trade-off with the benefits of using an otherwise sustainable source of energy. In this book, selected aspects of intensive use of forest b- mass for energy is treated with main focus on ecological aspects like maintenance of soil fertility, recycling of the combustion ash, inf- ence on biodiversity and pests, and economical aspects both at forest owners level and for society. Another focus point is the implemen- tion of this knowledge into decision support, recommendations and guidelines. The geographical scope is mainly the Nordic and Baltic region. The EU-financed project “Wood for Energy, - a contribution to the development of sustainable forest Management” (WOOD-EN- 1 MAN) , make up the frame for the book. Seven partners participated in the project: Forest & Landscape Denmark, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Latvian State Forestry Research Institute, and Estonian University of Life Sciences with Forest & Landscape Denmark as coordinator.
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