The authors are eminently qualified to write about the problems associated with the global crisis and consider the causes behind humanity's conflict with its environment. V. Danilov-Danilian, Associate of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Russia's former Minister of the Environment, and K. Losev, professor at Moscow State university, are leading Russian ecologists and I. Reyf is a journalist who specializes in ecology and global development. Dr. Danilov-Danilian works on the economics of nature management, economic and mathematical model building, sustainable development theory and ecology. Dr Losev is the chief researcher and head of the division of the VINITI. All the authors have published numerous papers, articles and books on such subjects as glaciology, hydrology, environment studies, global change and sustainable development.
Arthur J. Cracknell: In the mid 1970s Prof. Cracknell started to become involved in remote sensing (Earth Observation) work, a field that was then in its infancy. The idea that led him to start remote sensing work in the former Physics Department at Dundee University was to provide a link between the generators of satellite data and the environmental scientists and engineers who would like to use the data. This work on the processing and interpretation of remote sensing data developed by Prof. Cracknell expanded enormously over a period of about 25 years and led to the publication by him and his co-authors of over 200 research papers and about 20 or so books on the subject. The books range from an introductory textbook on the subject, which is about to go into its second edition, to monographs and edited conference and summer school proceedings.
Prof. Vladimir F. Krapivin published numerous papers and a number of books relevant to environmental and global changes studies. Among the latter are:"Ecoinformatics Methods" (with I.I. Potapov), 2002, Moscow (in Russian)."Modelling the Global Carbon Cycle" (with K.Ya. Kondratyev), 2004, Moscow (in Russian)."Global Change of the Environment: Ecoinformatics" (with K.Ya. Kondratyev), St. Petersburg (in Russian)."Perspectives of Civilization Development: Multidimensional Analysis" (with K.Ya. Kondratyev and V.P. Savinikh), 2003, Moscow (in Russian)."Global Environmental Change: Modelling and Monitoring" (with K.Ya. Kondratyev and G.W. Phillips), Springer, 2002, Germany;"Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change" (with K.Ya. Kondratyev and C.A. Varotsos), Springer/Praxis, 2003, U.K.;"Global Ecodynamics: a Multidimensional Analysis" (with K.Ya. Kondratyev, V.P. Savinikh, and C.A. Varotsos), 2004, Springer/Praxis, U.K."Natural Disasters as Interactive Components of Global Ecodynamics" (with K.Ya. Kondratyev and C.A. Varotsos);"Atmospheric Aerosol Properties: Formation, Processes and Impacts" (with K.Ya. Kondratyev, L.S. Ivlev and C.A. Varotsos).
The uniqueness and difference in the Mediterranean are to be expected given some special dynamical, chemical, biological, and land characteristics of the region. The Mediterranean region is often exposed to multiple stresses, such as a simultaneous water shortage and air pollution. This is a consequence of its unique location and emissions. One of the common stresses in North Africa is water shortage and distribution amongst the seasons. Air pollution can often add to the water stress. Air pollution occurs due to emissions in the region as well as from those transported from other areas and can occur when there is low water availability. Multiple stresses are likely to grow in the future when human induced stress is likely to increase due to the rapid industrialization of the region.
This NATO workshop was set up to discuss these issues in general, and the influence of chemical emissions and transformation in particular. This workshop was "special" because it involved a very large number of scientists (>75%) from the region, either from North Africa or the Mediterranean Europe. Many key issues, some of which are specific to this region, were identified. Details of the finding and suggestions are presented in the articles in this volume. The workshop was held in Marrakech, Morocco, from 23rd to 26th November 2006.