Religion: a Dialogue, and Other Essays

S. Sonnenschein & Company, limited
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Publisher
S. Sonnenschein & Company, limited
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Published on
Dec 31, 1910
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Pages
140
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Language
English
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This content is DRM free.
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 The German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer is best known for his 1818 work ‘The World as Will and Idea’, which characterises the phenomenal world as the product of a blind and insatiable metaphysical will.  Proceeding from the transcendental idealism of Kant, Schopenhauer developed an atheistic metaphysical and ethical system that is viewed by many as an exemplary manifestation of philosophical pessimism. His works on aesthetics, morality and psychology would exert a major influence on existential philosophy and Freudian thinking. This comprehensive eBook presents Schopenhauer’s collected works, with numerous illustrations, rare texts, informative introductions and the usual Delphi bonus material. (Version 1)


* Beautifully illustrated with images relating to Schopenhauer’s life and works

* Concise introductions to the major treatises

* The complete essays, translated by T. Bailey Saunders in seven volumes, with individual contents tables

* Major works include their original hyperlinked footnotes – ideal for students

* Excellent formatting of the texts

* ‘The World as Will and Idea’ translated by R. B. Haldane and J. Kemp, in the much expanded sixth edition of 1909

* Special Essays alphabetical contents list – find the essay you want to read easily

* Features three biographies - explore Schopenhauer’s intriguing life

* Scholarly ordering of texts into chronological order


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CONTENTS:


The Books

ON THE FOURFOLD ROOT OF THE PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON

THE WORLD AS WILL AND IDEA

THE ART OF BEING RIGHT

ON THE WILL IN NATURE

ON THE BASIS OF MORALITY

WISDOM OF LIFE

COUNSELS AND MAXIMS

RELIGION: A DIALOGUE

THE ART OF LITERATURE

STUDIES IN PESSIMISM

ON HUMAN NATURE

THE ART OF CONTROVERSY


The Essays

LIST OF ESSAYS IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER


The Biographies

SCHOPENHAUER by Thomas Whittaker

SCHOPENHAUER by Elbert Hubbard

ARTHUR SCHOPENHAUER by William Wallace


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If the intellect were not of a subordinate nature, as the two preceding chapters show, then everything which takes place without it, i.e., without intervention of the idea, such as reproduction, the development and maintenance of the organism, the healing of wounds, the restoration or vicarious supplementing of mutilated parts, the salutary crisis in diseases, the works of the mechanical skill of animals, and the performances of instinct would not be done so infinitely better and more perfectly than what takes place with the assistance of intellect, all conscious and intentional achievements of men, which compared with the former are mere bungling. In general nature signifies that which operates, acts, performs without the assistance of the intellect. Now, that this is really identical with what we find in ourselves as will is the general theme of this second book, and also of the essay, “Ueber den Willen in der Natur.” The possibility of this fundamental knowledge depends upon the fact that in us the will is directly lighted by the intellect, which here appears as self-consciousness; otherwise we could just as little arrive at a fuller knowledge of it within us as without us, and must for ever stop at inscrutable forces of nature. We have to ] abstract from the assistance of the intellect if we wish to comprehend the nature of the will in itself, and thereby, as far as is possible, penetrate to the inner being of nature.

On this account, it may be remarked in passing, my direct antipode among philosophers is Anaxagoras; for he assumed arbitrarily as that which is first and original, from which everything proceeds, a νους, an intelligence, a subject of ideas, and he is regarded as the first who promulgated such a view. According to him the world existed earlier in the mere idea than in itself; while according to me it is the unconscious will which constitutes the reality of things, and its development must have advanced very far before it finally attains, in the animal consciousness, to the idea and intelligence; so that, according to me, thought appears as the very last. However, according to the testimony of Aristotle (Metaph., i. 4), Anaxagoras himself did not know how to begin much with his νους, but merely set it up, and then left it standing like a painted saint at the entrance, without making use of it in his development of nature, except in cases of need, when he did not know how else to help himself. All physico-theology is a carrying out of the error opposed to the truth expressed at the beginning of this chapter—the error that the most perfect form of the origin of things is that which is brought about by means of an intellect. Therefore it draws a bolt against all deep exploration of nature.

 

In boundless space countless shining spheres, about each of which, and illuminated by its light, there revolve a dozen or so of smaller ones, hot at the core and covered with a hard, cold crust, upon whose surface there have been generated from a mouldy film beings which live and know—this is what presents itself to us in experience as the truth, the real, the world. Yet for a thinking being it is a precarious position to stand upon one of those numberless spheres moving freely in boundless space without knowing whence or whither, and to be only one of innumerable similar beings who throng and press and toil, ceaselessly and quickly arising and passing away in time, which has no beginning and no end; moreover, nothing permanent but matter alone and the recurrence of the same varied organised forms, by means of certain ways and channels which are there once for all. All that empirical science can teach is only the more exact nature and law of these events. But now at last modern philosophy especially through Berkeley and Kant, has called ] to mind that all this is first of all merely a phenomenon of the brain, and is affected with such great, so many, and such different subjective conditions that its supposed absolute reality vanishes away, and leaves room for an entirely different scheme of the world, which consists of what lies at the foundation of that phenomenon, i.e., what is related to it as the thing in itself is related to its mere manifestation.

“The world is my idea” is, like the axioms of Euclid, a proposition which every one must recognise as true as soon as he understands it; although it is not a proposition which every one understands as soon as he hears it. To have brought this proposition to clear consciousness, and in it the problem of the relation of the ideal and the real, i.e., of the world in the head to the world outside the head, together with the problem of moral freedom, is the distinctive feature of modern philosophy. For it was only after men had spent their labour for thousands of years upon a mere philosophy of the object that they discovered that among the many things that make the world so obscure and doubtful the first and chiefest is this, that however immeasurable and massive it may be, its existence yet hangs by a single thread; and this is the actual consciousness in which it exists. This condition, to which the existence of the world is irrevocably subject, marks it, in spite of all empirical reality, with the stamp of ideality, and therefore of mere ...

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