Central Asia Atlas of Natural Resources

Asian Development Bank
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This atlas brings together a wealth of information related to living and nonliving natural resources in the five countries of Central Asia---Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. It contains an array of maps based on geographic information systems and remote sensing images, numerous photographs, tabulations of important data, and extensive descriptive text that together illustrate and describe the region's bountiful natural resources, its diversity of peoples, and their progress toward sustainable development. Highlights include geographic and climatic features; environmental, economic, and social profiles; energy, minerals, and water resources; ecoregions and ecosystems; major fauna and flora; agriculture and fisheries; peoples and cultural traditions; and economic and social statistics.
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About the author

About the Asian Development Bank ADB’s vision is an Asia and Pacific region free of poverty. Its mission is to help its developing member countries reduce poverty and improve the quality of life of their people. Despite the region’s many successes, it remains home to approximately two-thirds of the world’s poor: 1.6 billion people who live on less than $2 a day, with 733 million struggling on less than $1.25 a day. ADB is committed to reducing poverty through inclusive economic growth, environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration. Based in Manila, ADB is owned by 67 members, including 48 from the region. Its main instruments for helping its developing member countries are policy dialogue, loans, equity investments, guarantees, grants, and technical assistance.

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Additional Information

Asian Development Bank
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Published on
Apr 1, 2010
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Business & Economics / Development / Sustainable Development
Nature / Natural Resources
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This content is DRM protected.
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Asian Development Bank
The Government of Bangladesh has made it a priority to expand access by the poor to maternal, neonatal, and child health (MNCH) services. Central to its strategy is the provision of healthcare services at free or nearly free prices through Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) facilities. However, poor families make less use of MOHFW services than the non-poor, and many patients are reported to incur significant costs at MOHFW facilities. The Patient Exit Survey (PES) 2011 carried out exit interviews of over 5,000 inpatients and outpatients at a representative sample of MOHFW facilities in order to find out why patients incur out-of-pocket expenses at MOHFW facilities, to quantify their size, and to assess the impact of demand-side financing (DSF) pilot schemes on patient out-of-pocket costs and utilization of MNCH services. Almost all outpatients and inpatients report out-of-pocket expenses associated with their healthcare visits. These fall into four categories: (i) travel costs to reach the healthcare institution, (ii) official fees charged by MOHFW facilities, (iii) informal or unofficial fees paid to persons inside the facility to obtain services or other benefits, and (iv) the costs of purchasing medicines recommended by the medical staff that which are not available at the health facility. The major out-of-pocket expense reported is purchasing medicines and supplies that are recommended by medical staff but are not available at the facility. About 50% of outpatients and over 90% of inpatients report such costs, which average Tk301 per outpatient and Tk980 per inpatient. Travel costs to the facility average Tk27 for outpatients and Tk131 for inpatients, however, travel costs for expectant mothers are much higher and average Tk220. About 50% of outpatients and 75% of inpatients report having to pay official fees, with inpatient women who had delivered, reporting higher-than-average fees. The incidence of informal payments is much lower than anticipated, with most outpatients reporting no such expenses. There have been large increases since 2006 in facility childbirths at facilities enrolled in the DSF schemes, with the greatest impact seen in those enrolled in the universal DSF schemes. However, findings show that the DSF actual out-of-pocket costs incurred at the time of treatment are no lower at DSF enrolled facilities, and that equity of utilization does not seem to have been improved.
Jim Collins
"This is not a book about charismatic visionary leaders. It is not about visionary product concepts or visionary products or visionary market insights. Nor is it about just having a corporate vision. This is a book about something far more important, enduring, and substantial. This is a book about visionary companies." So write Jim Collins and Jerry Porras in this groundbreaking book that shatters myths, provides new insights, and gives practical guidance to those who would like to build landmark companies that stand the test of time.

Drawing upon a six-year research project at the Stanford University Graduate School of Business, Collins and Porras took eighteen truly exceptional and long-lasting companies -- they have an average age of nearly one hundred years and have outperformed the general stock market by a factor of fifteen since 1926 -- and studied each company in direct comparison to one of its top competitors. They examined the companies from their very beginnings to the present day -- as start-ups, as midsize companies, and as large corporations. Throughout, the authors asked: "What makes the truly exceptional companies different from other companies?"

What separates General Electric, 3M, Merck, Wal-Mart, Hewlett-Packard, Walt Disney, and Philip Morris from their rivals? How, for example, did Procter & Gamble, which began life substantially behind rival Colgate, eventually prevail as the premier institution in its industry? How was Motorola able to move from a humble battery repair business into integrated circuits and cellular communications, while Zenith never became dominant in anything other than TVs? How did Boeing unseat McDonnell Douglas as the world's best commercial aircraft company -- what did Boeing have that McDonnell Douglas lacked?

By answering such questions, Collins and Porras go beyond the incessant barrage of management buzzwords and fads of the day to discover timeless qualities that have consistently distinguished out-standing companies. They also provide inspiration to all executives and entrepreneurs by destroying the false but widely accepted idea that only charismatic visionary leaders can build visionary companies.

Filled with hundreds of specific examples and organized into a coherent framework of practical concepts that can be applied by managers and entrepreneurs at all levels, Built to Last provides a master blueprint for building organizations that will prosper long into the twenty-first century and beyond.

Jacque Fresco & Roxanne Meadows
FEW TECHNOLOGICAL ACHIEVEMENTS are as impressive as the ability to see our own planet from outer space. The beautiful sphere suspended against the black void of space makes plain the bond that the billions of us on Earth have in common.

This global consciousness inspires space travellers who then provide emotional and spiritual observations. Their views from outer space awaken them to a grand realization that all who share our planet make up a single community. They think this viewpoint will help unite the nations of the world in order to build a peaceful future for the present generation and the ones that follow.

Many poets, philosophers, and writers have criticized the artificial borders that separate people preoccupied with the notion of nationhood. Despite the visions and hopes of astronauts, poets, writers, and visionaries, the reality is that nations are continuously at war with one another, and poverty and hunger prevail in many places throughout the world, including the United States.

So far, no astronaut arriving back on Earth with this new social consciousness has pro- posed to transcend the world's limitations with a world where no national boundaries exist. Each remains loyal to his/her particular nation-state, and doesn’t venture beyond patriotism - "my country, right or wrong" – because doing so may risk their positions.

Most problems we face in the world today are of our own making. We must accept that the future depends upon us. Interventions by mythical or divine characters in white robes descending from the clouds, or by visitors from other worlds, are illusions that cannot solve the problems of our modern world. The future of the world is our responsibility and depends upon decisions we make today. We are our own salvation or damnation. The shape and solutions of the future depend totally on the collective effort of all people working together.

Asian Development Bank
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