This case study documents HIV prevention work on the Longbai Expressway in Guangxi in the People's Republic of China. It describes how to build HIV prevention into existing processes in road construction projects. It also highlights opportunities and constraints for HIV prevention work in the transport context. Finally it brings examples to show that the basic model can be adapted and replicated.
Infrastructure development brings immediate and obvious benefits to communities. What isn't as immediately obvious is that such development can also open the way for negative changes---such as the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. This report examines the impact on the local people of an important infrastructure project in northwest Lao People's Democratic Republic---the upgrade of Route 3, which forms part of the Northern Economic Corridor linking Thailand with the People's Republic of China. The report also outlines the implications for future HIV mitigation programs, and recommends ways to ensure that future programs maximize the good that infrastructure development brings and minimize negative impacts.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is committed to mainstream gender equality approaches in all sectors of its operations. This publication assesses the nexus between gender inequalities, HIV spread, and infrastructure development. A desk review and comparative analysis of existing infrastructure sector policies, legal and regulatory frameworks related to HIV prevention in Cambodia, the People's Republic of China, India, Papua New Guinea, and Tajikistan identifies factors which may contribute to promote an effective response to the epidemic. The assessment of and field visits in selected ADB transport project sites identified promising practices for a more sustainable and gender-inclusive response to the epidemic.
The ADB Cooperation Fund for Fighting HIV/AIDS in Asia and the Pacific benefitted from a $19.2 million grant from the Government of Sweden with the goal of assisting ADB's developing member countries meet their commitment to Millennium Development Goal 6, target 6A: to have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV. The objective of the fund was to support these countries to develop a comprehensive AIDS response; enable them to partner with ADB in areas that play to the bank's strategic value and advantages; and particularly to benefit subregions, countries and communities that are most vulnerable to HIV.This report summarizes the experiences and lessons learned of the Cooperation Fund.
The Greater Mekong Subregion Human Resource Development Strategic Framework and Action Plan (2013–2017) reflects changing circumstances, including the development of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) economic corridors as an important GMS priority. The goal of the human resource development strategy is to foster sustainable subregional human resource development, thereby contributing to increased subregional competitiveness, connectivity, and community. This document outlines the GMS human resource development strategy that will be implemented through the following---developing capacity in the economic corridors; cooperating in technical and vocational education and training; cooperating in higher education and research; addressing regional health issues; facilitating safe cross-border labor migration; mitigating social costs in the economic corridors; and strengthening institutions and mechanisms for GMS human resource development cooperation.
This tool kit assists staff and consultants of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and partner governments in conceptualizing and designing gender-responsive programs and projects in transport sector operations. It aims to help users identify gender equality issues and to develop practical design elements into transport operations. It guides users on key questions to be asked and data to be collected during project preparation, and provides a menu of entry points for designing gender-inclusive transport projects. The tool kit presents the rationale for why gender equality issues are important in transport sector operations and provides guidance and suggestions for integrating gender in key transport subsectors. Case studies from ADB projects have been included to illustrate good practices in mainstreaming gender concerns in transport sector operations.
The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) includes Cambodia, the People's Republic of China (specifically Yunnan Province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region), the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam. In 1992, with assistance from the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and building on their shared histories and cultures, the six countries launched a program of subregional economic cooperation---the GMS Program. Over the past 20 years, the GMS Program has achieved substantial success in improving regional connectivity through investments of $15 billion as well as more than 180 technical assistance projects. With support of ADB and other development partners, the program is helping the participating countries achieve the Millennium Development Goals and balanced growth through increased connectivity, improved competitiveness, and a greater sense of community.
The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) Economic Cooperation Program will begin its third decade in 2012. Since its inception, the program has achieved noteworthy successes in fostering cooperation in a region that, at the commencement of the program, was emerging from a period of prolonged conflict. The program has built a reputation as a flexible, results-oriented, project-delivering vehicle for promoting regional cooperation and contributing to economic growth and poverty reduction as well as to the provision of regional public goods. Increased recognition of the benefits of regional cooperation is manifested in the evolution of regionalism both in Asia and more broadly. New institutions have emerged while others have become more vigorous. Within this context of evolving regionalism, the GMS Program remains highly relevant. The start of a new decade is an opportune time for the GMS Program to assess its achievements and develop this new strategic framework for 2012–2022. The new strategic framework builds on the substantial progress the program has made and the likely global and regional trends. It also builds on the commitment that member countries have made in their national development plans to the promotion of regional integration, and will guide the efforts of member countries to steer the program during the new decade to the next level in terms of results.
The Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction (JFPR) Annual Report 2014 is the 14th such report and covers the period 1 January–31 December 2014. It presents JFPR’s background and rationale, implementation progress, and achievements. Established in May 2000, JFPR provides direct grant assistance to the poorest and most vulnerable groups in developing members of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) while fostering long-term social and economic development. The grants target poverty reduction initiatives with the direct participation of nongovernment organizations, community groups, and civil society. In 2009, the Government of Japan and ADB expanded the scope of JFPR to include provision of support to developing members through capacity development, policy and advisory, research and development, and project preparatory technical assistance.
Rapid gender assessments of 12 projects in four countries were undertaken as part of the Asian Development Bank’s commitment to improving aid effectiveness. The assessment of three loans in Mongolia found that positive gender equality results were achieved due to the implementation of a gender action plan in one project and a gender mainstreaming approach in another. Comparing approaches between the three projects demonstrated that paying attention to gender differences during design and implementation produced better results for women, enhanced the quality of project implementation, and contributed directly to achieving loan outcomes and improved project effectiveness. This report discusses the gender equality results achieved for each project, summarizes factors that enhanced the quality of project design and implementation, and makes recommendations to maximize gender equity as a driver of change.
ASEAN+3 Bond Market Guide is a comprehensive explanation of the region's bond markets. It provides various information such as the history, legal and regulatory framework, specific characteristics of the market, trading and transaction, and other relevant information. The Hong Kong, China Bond Market Guide is an outcome of the strong support and kind contributions of ASEAN+3 Bond Market Forum members and experts, particularly from Hong Kong, China. The report should be recognized as a collective good to support bond market development among ASEAN+3 members.
This report points to the growing number of labor migrants in Asia and examines the policy question of how to best safeguard their rights. Governments and stakeholders in both origin and destination countries have largely recognized their mutual interest in safeguarding labor migrants. Multilateral frameworks have also put this in focus, with safe and orderly migration seen as important. This report examines some of the key policy questions in protecting migrant workers, including how to promote fair recruitment of less skilled workers, and how to address vulnerable groups such as irregular migrants and domestic workers. The four chapters in this report draw on issues raised and discussed during the Sixth Roundtable on Labor Migration in Asia: Safeguarding Labor Migrants from Home to Workplace that was held in Tokyo from 3 to 5 February 2016. The event brought together regional experts and policy makers and was co-organized by the Asian Development Bank Institute, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, and the International Labour Organization. The report’s introductory chapter reviews recent regional migration trends. Two statistical annexes provide an overview of migration flows within Asia and between Asia and other regions.
Women's economic empowerment is essential for more inclusive growth in Cambodia. This study takes stock of major gender issues in the Cambodian economy seen through the lens of women's participation, benefit, and agency---the three prerequisites for a fairer distribution of growth benefits. It examines labor market trends and obstacles to women's economic empowerment---particularly in agriculture, business development, and wage employment. Labor migration and vulnerability to shocks are highlighted as special themes. The study makes a series of policy recommendations, identifies areas for further research, and highlights how Asian Development Bank investments can promote women's economic empowerment.
ASEAN+3 Bond Market Guide is a comprehensive explanation of the region’s bond markets. It provides various information such as the history, legal and regulatory framework, specific characteristics of the market, trading and transaction including settlement systems, and other relevant information. Bond Market Guide 2016 for Japan is an outcome of the strong support and kind contributions of ASEAN+3 Bond Market Forum members and experts, particularly from Japan. The report should be recognized as a collective good to support bond market development among ASEAN+3 members.
This publication presents a gender equality diagnostic of education, energy, transport, and water and sanitation in Sri Lanka—four sectors which are the major areas of cooperation between ADB and the Government of Sri Lanka. The sector-focused chapters provide insights into the gender equality issues and considerations relevant to sector planning, related government policies and legal frameworks and commitments, and institutional structures for promoting gender equality actions. Each chapter concludes with gender issues and opportunities to consider in designing sector-related interventions for possible use by and discussion with government, civil society, and development partners.
The Maldives has propelled itself to middle-income status despite its geographic constraints and the risks it faces as a small island economy. The Maldivesí relatively strong economic growth has brought about a dramatic reduction in poverty and improvement in the welfare of the Maldivian people. However, the growth, which is primarily driven by the tourism sector, has been highly cyclical and vulnerable to external shocks, and unable to create adequate jobs for the growing young population. Moving forward, the Maldives needs to shift to a more broad-based, sustainable, and inclusive growth strategy given its resource endowments and small population. Transport infrastructure is critical, and improved transport will help address the countryís connectivity issue and reduce the cost of doing business. An educated and skilled workforce can improve productivity and help find additional economic niche markets for the country. As with all countries, the government must remain aware of the importance of maintaining fiscal stability and an adequately functioning system of financial intermediation to enable and support both public and private investments needed in the growth process. This report provides support to the Maldivian government in formulating its high-priority policies by identifying the critical constraints to achieving inclusive growth. The report also provides policy recommendations aimed at helping the government to overcome the constraints to achieving a process of growth that is both sustained and inclusive.
This publication summarizes the strengths, challenges, opportunities, and risks characterizing the prospects for integrated water resources management in Indonesia. Integrated water resources management planning is essential for sustainable growth. Indonesia’s rapid economic growth, increasing populations, and trends in developing and urbanizing environments are leading to potential conflicts as more users claim the same water resources. Understanding these conditions may provide decision makers with more insight to optimize the country’s water resources potential using available and state-of-the-art methodologies and tools for river basin planning. The report discusses all aspects of basin planning based on experiences from one of Indonesia’s most complex and strategic river basins.
Many developing member countries (DMCs) of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) suffer from a shortage of qualified workers. Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) and skills development often provide a slow, inflexible, inadequate, and inefficient response to the needs of labor markets. This good practice guide supports ADB's education sector staff and other planners in their dialogue with governments and other stakeholders of education in the DMCs aimed at analyzing the TVET sector and its directions. The publication highlights strategic questions and presents investment design issues, including the strengths and weaknesses of different forms of training and financing. It discusses the lessons learned from ADB's experiences in the sector and their implications for future TVET projects. Checklists provide a practical tool for evaluating proposed investments.
This publication reviews recent developments in East Asian local currency bond markets along with the outlook, risks, and policy options. It covers the 10 members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations plus the People’s Republic of China; Hong Kong, China; and the Republic of Korea.
This project study was initiated by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) as part of the Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy. Its objective is to identify areas for improvement in the administration and application of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) regulations, procedures, and standards in the CAREC region. It recommends a set of concerted, coordinated measures designed to improve and reduce delays in handling perishable goods in transit (and particularly at border crossing points), ensure that food is safe for consumers, and prevent the spread of pests and diseases among animals and plants. The study is based on an examination of SPS measures as applied in the People's Republic of China, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Uzbekistan. The study involved a wide-ranging assessment of current procedures for animal and plant quarantine, veterinary inspection, food safety inspection, and risk analysis and assessment, assessing conformity with internationally accepted standards.