This paper was published first in The Rationalist Annual (1938): 3–8, which appeared in November 1937. The editors of The Basic Writings of Bertrand Russell (1961) selected it for inclusion in that volume, and it was reprinted again in Bertrand Russell on God and Religion (1986), edited by Al Seckel. Since Russell was not involved in seeing the earlier of these books through the press, its text has no authority. Russell had a long association with the Rationalist Press Association, as did his older brother, Frank, the second Earl Russell. Both lent their names, from 1928 until their deaths, as Honorary Associates, to the Association’s masthead, and both contributed a number of articles to the RPA’s various publications.