Knowledge, Skill and Artificial Intelligence

Springer Science & Business Media
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Issues raised by the Theory of Knowledge, a central theme in the development of Artificial Intelligence, are the main topic of this book. The major questions are: How is the expert's knowledge to be elicited, what are the limits and possibilities? How can skill be developed and maintained in a more and more computerized and abstract working life? This last question is also closely related to the discussion on programs for education and training in society and working life. Long term effects on skill formation in working life in relation to new technology are a very important area of research. Case studies form the basis for philosophical reflections with the main concept of tacit knowledge as the central issue of skill and new technology. To a great extent the discussion is based on current case studies of professional groups with experience in advanced computer technology. The contributions of this book demonstrate the complicated nature of human knowledge. They introduce different theoretical perspectives on the issue of knowledge acquisition and elicitation.
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Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Dec 6, 2012
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Pages
193
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ISBN
9781447116325
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Language
English
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Genres
Computers / Information Technology
Computers / Intelligence (AI) & Semantics
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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63 3. 2 Function Level Adaptation 64 3. 3 Parameter Level Adaptation. 67 3. 4 Structure Level Adaptation 70 3. 4. 1 Neuron Generation . 70 3. 4. 2 Neuron Annihilation 72 3. 5 Implementation . . . . . 74 3. 6 An Illustrative Example 77 3. 7 Summary . . . . . . . . 79 4 Competitive Signal Clustering Networks 93 4. 1 Introduction. . 93 4. 2 Basic Structure 94 4. 3 Function Level Adaptation 96 4. 4 Parameter Level Adaptation . 101 4. 5 Structure Level Adaptation 104 4. 5. 1 Neuron Generation Process 107 4. 5. 2 Neuron Annihilation and Coalition Process 114 4. 5. 3 Structural Relation Adjustment. 116 4. 6 Implementation . . 119 4. 7 Simulation Results 122 4. 8 Summary . . . . . 134 5 Application Example: An Adaptive Neural Network Source Coder 135 5. 1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . 135 5. 2 Vector Quantization Problem 136 5. 3 VQ Using Neural Network Paradigms 139 Vlll 5. 3. 1 Basic Properties . 140 5. 3. 2 Fast Codebook Search Procedure 141 5. 3. 3 Path Coding Method. . . . . . . 143 5. 3. 4 Performance Comparison . . . . 144 5. 3. 5 Adaptive SPAN Coder/Decoder 147 5. 4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 6 Conclusions 155 6. 1 Contributions 155 6. 2 Recommendations 157 A Mathematical Background 159 A. 1 Kolmogorov's Theorem . 160 A. 2 Networks with One Hidden Layer are Sufficient 161 B Fluctuated Distortion Measure 163 B. 1 Measure Construction . 163 B. 2 The Relation Between Fluctuation and Error 166 C SPAN Convergence Theory 171 C. 1 Asymptotic Value of Wi 172 C. 2 Energy Function . .
The human brain has some capabilities that the brains of other animals lack. It is to these distinctive capabilities that our species owes its dominant position. Other animals have stronger muscles or sharper claws, but we have cleverer brains. If machine brains one day come to surpass human brains in general intelligence, then this new superintelligence could become very powerful. As the fate of the gorillas now depends more on us humans than on the gorillas themselves, so the fate of our species then would come to depend on the actions of the machine superintelligence. But we have one advantage: we get to make the first move. Will it be possible to construct a seed AI or otherwise to engineer initial conditions so as to make an intelligence explosion survivable? How could one achieve a controlled detonation? To get closer to an answer to this question, we must make our way through a fascinating landscape of topics and considerations. Read the book and learn about oracles, genies, singletons; about boxing methods, tripwires, and mind crime; about humanity's cosmic endowment and differential technological development; indirect normativity, instrumental convergence, whole brain emulation and technology couplings; Malthusian economics and dystopian evolution; artificial intelligence, and biological cognitive enhancement, and collective intelligence. This profoundly ambitious and original book picks its way carefully through a vast tract of forbiddingly difficult intellectual terrain. Yet the writing is so lucid that it somehow makes it all seem easy. After an utterly engrossing journey that takes us to the frontiers of thinking about the human condition and the future of intelligent life, we find in Nick Bostrom's work nothing less than a reconceptualization of the essential task of our time.
The intention of this book is not to add another technical work to the series of publications already available on matters connected with the relations between natural and artificial intelligence, nor to repeat the positions already well expressed in, for example, the debate between John Searle, Daniel Dennet and Hubert Dreyfus. It is an attempt to encourage philosophical reflection on dimensions of the subject that have hitherto been somewhat neglected. This book, which explores a number of case studies, is the fifth in the series, the previous four books being: (i) Knowledge, Skill and Artificial Intelligence (Bo Goranzon and Ingela Josefson (Eds. ), Springer-Verlag, London, 1988) (ii) Artificial Intelligence, Culture and Language: On Education and Work (Bo Goranzon and Magnus Florin (Eds. ), Springer Verlag, London, 1990) (iii) Dialogue and Technology: Art and Knowledge (Bo Goranzon and Magnus Florin (Eds. ), Springer-Verlag, London, 1991) (iv) Skill and Education: Reflection and Experience (Bo Goranzon and Magnus Florin (Eds. ), Springer-Verlag, London, 1992) An important connection between these four books is the conference on Culture, Language and Artificial Intelligence held in Stockholm in May-June, 1988. The conference was attended by more than 300 researchers and practitioners, from over 15 countries, in the fields of technology, philosophy, the history of ideas, literature and linguistics. Contributions to the books were solicited from among those who attended the conference and from researchers involved in work related to its aim.
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