Fundamentals of Digital Computing


 Complete Book For Sem1 Bsc Students


Unit – I
Data and Information: 

Features of Digital Systems, Number Systems:
Decimal, Binary, Octal, Hexadecimal & their inter conversions,
Representation of Data: Signed Magnitude, one’s complement & two’s
complement, Binary Arithmetic, Fixed point representation and Floating
point representation of numbers.

Codes : 

BCD, XS-3, Gray code, hamming code, alphanumeric codes
(ASCII, EBCDIC, UNICODE), Error detecting and error correcting codes.

Unit- II
Boolean Algebra: 

Basic gates (AND, OR, NOT gates), Universal gates
(NAND and NOR gates), other gates (XOR, XNOR gates). Boolean identities,
De Morgan Laws.

Karnaugh maps: 

SOP and POS forms, Quine McClusky method.

Unit -III
Combinational Circuits:

Half adder, full adder, code converters, combinational circuit design, Multiplexers and demultiplexers, encoders, decoders, Combinational design using mux and demux.

Unit - IV
Sequential Circuit Design:

Flip flops (RS, Clocked RS, D, JK, JK Master Slave, T, Counters, Shift registers and their types, Counters: Synchronous and Asynchronous counters.

Unit- V

Basic Organization, Memory: ROM, RAM, PROM, EPROM, EEPROM, Secondary Memory: Hard Disk & optical Disk, Cache Memory, I/O devices

Unit -VI
Operating Systems:

Types (real Time, Single User / Single Tasking, Single user / Multi
tasking, Multi user / Multi tasking, GUI based OS. Overview of desktop
operating systems-Windows and LINUX.

Text Books:
Modern Digital Electronics by R. P. Jain, 3rd Edition, McGraw Hill

Digital Design and Computer Organisation by Dr. N. S. Gill and J. B. Dixit, University Science Press

Linux Commands by Bryan Pfaffaenberger BPB Publications

UNIX by Sumitabha Das, TMH
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 Unit – I
Internet and WWW :

What is Internet?, Introduction to internet and its applications, E-mail, telnet, FTP, e-commerce, video conferencing, ebusiness. Internet service providers, domain name server, internet address World Wide Web (WWW) : World Wide Web and its evolution, uniform resource locator (URL), browsers – internet explorer, netscape navigator, opera, firefox, chrome, mozilla. search engine, web saver – apache, IIS, proxy server, HTTP protocol

Unit- II
HTML and Graphics :

HTML Tag Reference, Global Attributes, Event Handlers, Document Structure Tags, Formatting Tags, Text Level formatting, Block Level formatting, List Tags, Hyperlink tags, Image and Image maps, Table tags, Form Tags, Frame Tags, Executable content tags

Imagemaps :

What are Imagemaps?, Client-side Imagemaps, Serverside Imagemaps, Using Server-side and Client-side Imagemaps together, Alternative text for Imagemaps.

Tables :

Introduction to HTML tables and their structure, The table tags, Alignment, Aligning Entire Table, Alignment within a row, Alignment within a cell, Attributes, Content Summary, Background Color, Adding a Caption, Setting the width, Adding a border, Spacing within a cell, Spacing between the cells, Spanning multiple rows or columns, Elements that can be placed in a table, Table Sections and column properties, Tables as a design tool.

Frames :

Introduction to Frames, Applications, Frames document, The <FRAMESET> tag, Nesting<FRAMESET> tag, Placing content in frames with the <FRAME> tag, Targeting named frames, Creating floating frames, Using Hidden frames

Forms :

Creating Forms, The <FORM> tag, Named Input fields, The <INPUT> tag, Multiple lines text windows, Drop down and list boxes, Hidden, Text, Text Area, Password, File Upload, Button, Submit, Reset, Radio, Checkbox, Select, Option, Forms and Scripting, Action Buttons, Labelling input files, Grouping related fields, Disabled and read-only fields, Form field event handlers, Passing form data

Style Sheets :

What are style sheets?, Why are style sheets valuable?,Different approaches to style sheets, Using Multiple approaches, Linking to style information in s separate file, ,Setting up style information, Using the <LINK> tag, Embedded style information, Using <STYLE> tag, Inline style information

Unit- III
Java Script :

Introduction, Client-Side JavaScript, Server-Side JavaScript, JavaScript Objects, JavaScript Security

Operators :

Assignment Operators, Comparison Operators, Arithmetic Operators, % (Modulus), ++(Increment), --(Decrement), -(Unary Negation), Logical Operators, Short-Circuit Evaluation, String Operators, Special Operators, ?: (Conditional operator),' ,' (Comma operator), delete, new, this, void.

Statements :

Break, comment, continue, delete, do...while, export, for,, function, if...else, import, labelled, return, switch, var, while, with.

Core JavaScript (Properties and Methods of Each) :

Array, Boolean, Date, Function, Math, Number, Object, String, regExp

Document and its associated objects :

document, Link, Area, Anchor, Image, Applet, Layer

Events and Event Handlers :

General Information about Events, Defining Event Handlers, event, onAbort, onBlur, onChange, onClick, onDblClick, onDragDrop, onError, onFocus, onKeyDown, onKeyPress, onKeyUp, onLoad, onMouseDown, onMouseMove, onMouseOut, onMouseOver, onMouseUp, onMove, onReset, onResize, onSelect,
onSubmit, onUnload

Unit – IV

Introduction to XML, Anatomy of an XML document, Creating XML Documents, Creating XML DTDs, XML Schemas, XSL

Unit – V

Why PHP and MySQL?, Server-side web scripting, Installing PHP, Adding PHP to HTML, Syntax and Variables, Passing information between pages, Strings, Arrays and Array Functions, Numbers, Basic PHP errors/problems.

Unit – VI
Advanced PHP and MySQL :

PHP/MySQL Functions, Displaying queries in tables, Building Forms from queries, String and Regular Expressions, Sessions, Cookies and HTTP, Type and Type Conversions, E-Mail

References :
1. Web Design The Complete Reference, Thomas Powell, Tata McGrawHill

2. HTML and XHTML The Complete Reference, Thomas Powell, Tata McGrawHill

3. JavaScript 2.0: The Complete Reference, Second Edition by Thomas Powell and Fritz Schneider

4. PHP: The Complete Reference By Steven Holzner, Tata McGrawHill
 Unit – I
Concept of Conductor, Semiconductor, Insulator. Semiconductor Diode, Forward bias, Reverse Bias, Application of Diode as Rectifier, Zener diode and its applications, Introduction to Transistor (BJT, FET), PNP, NPN Transistors their Characteristic. Application of Transistor as amplifier and as a Switch.

Unit- II
Concept of amplification, amplifier notations, Av, Ai, Ap Zi, Zo), Application of BJT as single stage Amplifier, Frequency response of single stage Amplifier. 

Multistage Amplifiers:- (Basics concepts) RC coupled, cascade, Darlington pair, DC amplifiers.

Concept of Feedback:- Negative Feedback and its advantage in Amplification

Positive Feedback :- Oscillators, RC Phase Shift Oscillator, LC Oscillator. Switching Circuits 

Multivibrators : - Monostable using IC 555 and Astable using IC 555 (including problems)

Unit- IV
Introduction:- Need for modulation system, Concept of Modulation.

AM :- Definition of AM, Modulation index, Power relation in AM, Generation and Demodulation of AM. 

SSB:- Power requirement in comparison with AM, Advantages of SSB over AM, Concept of Balanced Modulator, Generation of SSB, Pilot Carrier System, Independent Side System, Vestigial Sideband Transmission.

Unit- V
FM: - Definition of FM, Bandwidth, Noise triangle, Per-emphasis and De- emphasis. 

PM: - Definition of PM. Difference between AM and FM. Radio receivers. 

Pulse Modulation:- Sampling Theorem, PAM, PTM, PWM, PPM, pulse code modulation, Quantization noise, companding, PCM system, differential PCM, Delta modulation.

Multiplexing: - FDM/TDM. Television:- Scanning, Composite Video signal, Television Transmitter, television receiver.

Introduction to Digital Communication: PSK, ASK, FSK.

Introduction to fibre optics system:- Propagation of light in optical fibre; ray model . 

Types of fibre : Single mode, steps index. Graded index. 

Signal distortion: attenuation, dispersion. Optical sources: LED, LASERS. Optical Detectors and optics links. Link Budget.
 Unit–ILogic Devices:

Tristate devices, buffers, encoder, decoder, latches. Types of memories, memory organization, concept of control lines such as read/write, chip enable.

Unit-IIIntroduction to 8085 microprocessor: -

Organization of Microprocessor based system, 8085 μp Architecture, Concept of Address line and Memory interfacing, Address Decoding and Memory Interfacing

Unit-III8085 Programming Model, Instruction Classification, Instruction Format, 8085 Instruction Set

Unit-IVIntroduction to Modern day Computer Systems: -

Organization and Architecture, Structure and function.

System Buses: -

Computer Components, Computer function, PCI: - Features of PCI bus, Why PCI bus is needed? Concept of PCI Arbitration.

Internal Memory: - 

Concept of Cache Memory, Methods of Cache Mapping, Concept and need for Cache coherency. 

External Memory: - 


Unit-VThe 8051 Microcontroller:

Introduction and overview of 8051 family, 8051 Assembly Language Programming, Jumps, Loops and call instructions.

Unit-VI8051 I/O port programming, Addressing Modes, Arithmetic and Logical instructions.

William Stallings, “Computer Organisation and Architecture” ( 4th Edition ) - PHI, 1998.

Andrew C. Tanenbaum, “Structured Computer Organisation” (3rd Edition) -, PHI.

Computer System Architecture - M. Morris Memo, PHI, 1998.

John P Hayes, “Computer Architecture and Organisation” - McGraw Hill, 1998.

Digital Computer Fundamentals, Malvino

Microprocessor Architecture and Programming and Applications with the 8085, R.S. Gaonkar, PRI (3rd Edition)

Digital Computer Fundamentals, Thomas C Bartee, TMG

The 8051 Microcontroller and Embedded systems by M. A. Mazidi, J. G. Mazidi and R. D.
McKinlay, Pearson Education.
 Unit–IComplex Numbers:

Cartesian, Polar & Exponential form, De-Moivre's theorem, Hyperbolic functions, Logarithms of Complex numbers

Unit-IIComplex Variables : 

Cauchy Riemann Equations, , Conformal Mapping and Bilinear Mapping, concept of Line Integral, Riemann Integral, Singularities –Poles, Evaluation of Residues theorem.Unit–IIILaplace Transform: 

Introduction, Definition, Properties of Laplace Transform, Laplace Transform of standard function.

Inverse Laplace Transform:

Inverse Laplace Transform , Methods of obtaining Inverse Laplace transform, Laplace transform of Periodic Functions, Heavyside Unit-step Function, Dirac-delta function (Unit Impulse Function), Application of Inverse Laplace transform to solve differential equations.

Unit–IVDifferentiation under Integral sign, Beta and Gamma Functions, Properties and Duplication Formula, Error Functions

Unit –VFourier Series:

Fourier Series, Change of Interval, Even and odd functions, Half range

Fourier Transform and Inverse Fourier Transform:

Fourier transform of Even and Odd functions, Fourier Transform of sine and cosine functions

Unit–VIIntegral Calculus: 

Double Integral, Area, Triple Integral, Volume

Differential Calculus by Shanti Narayan.

B. S. Grewal, “Higher Engineering Mathematics.

Advanced Engineering Mathematics: R.K.Jain, S.R.K. Iyengar, Narosa Publishing House.

Engineering Mathematics : T Veerajan, Tata McGraw-Hill

Integral Transforms: A. R. Vasishta, Dr. R.K. Gupta, Krishna Prakashan Mandir.
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