Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician. He is known as one of the founders of modern criminology and penology. In his lifetime he was made chair of law and economy at Palatine College, became a member of the supreme economic council and was elected to the board for the reform of the judicial code all in Milan.
Graeme Newman is distinguished teaching professor in the School of Criminal Justice at the State University of New York-Albany, and was a consult for the Criminal Justice and Crime Prevention Division of the United Nations. He is the author or editor of many books, including Super Highway Robbery, The Global Report on Crime and Justice, and Rational Choice and Situational Crime Prevention.
Pietro Marongiu is associate professor of criminology in the School of Medicine, University of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy. He is the author of Theory and History of Social Banditry in Sardinia.
This volume offers a new English translation of On Crimes and Punishment alongside writings by a number of Beccaria’s contemporaries. Of particular interest is Voltaire’s commentary on the text, which is included in its entirety. The supplementary materials testify not only to the power and significance of Beccaria’s ideas, but to the controversial reception of his book. At the same time that philosophes proclaimed that it contained principles of enduring importance to any society grappling with matters of political and criminal justice, allies of the ancien régime roundly denounced it, fearing that the book’s attack on feudal privileges and its call to separate law from religion (and thus crime from sin) would undermine their longstanding privileges and powers.
Long appreciated as a foundational text in criminology, Beccaria’s arguments have become central in debates over capital punishment. This new edition presents Beccaria’s On Crimes and Punishments as an important and influential work of Enlightenment political theory.