De l'origine des espèces

Ligaran

Extrait : "Quand on compare les individus appartenant à une même variété ou à une même sous-variété de nos plantes cultivées depuis le plus longtemps et de nos animaux domestiques les plus anciens, on remarque tout d'abord qu'ils diffèrent ordinairement plus les uns des autres que les individus appartenant à une espèce ou à une variété quelconque à l'état de nature."
Read more
Loading...

Additional Information

Publisher
Ligaran
Read more
Published on
Jan 26, 2015
Read more
Pages
708
Read more
ISBN
9782335028065
Read more
Language
French
Read more
Genres
Literary Collections / European / English, Irish, Scottish, Welsh
Literary Collections / General
Science / Earth Sciences / General
Science / Life Sciences / Biology
Science / Life Sciences / Evolution
Science / Life Sciences / General
Read more
Content Protection
This content is DRM free.
Read more
Read Aloud
Available on Android devices
Read more

Reading information

Smartphones and Tablets

Install the Google Play Books app for Android and iPad/iPhone. It syncs automatically with your account and allows you to read online or offline wherever you are.

Laptops and Computers

You can read books purchased on Google Play using your computer's web browser.

eReaders and other devices

To read on e-ink devices like the Sony eReader or Barnes & Noble Nook, you'll need to download a file and transfer it to your device. Please follow the detailed Help center instructions to transfer the files to supported eReaders.
INTRODUCTION.

When on board H.M.S. 'Beagle,' as naturalist, I was much struck with certain facts in the distribution of the inhabitants of South America, and in the geological relations of the present to the past inhabitants of that continent. These facts seemed to me to throw some light on the origin of species—that mystery of mysteries, as it has been called by one of our greatest philosophers. On my return home, it occurred to me, in 1837, that something might perhaps be made out on this question by patiently accumulating and reflecting on all sorts of facts which could possibly have any bearing on it. After five years' work I allowed myself to speculate on the subject, and drew up some short notes; these I enlarged in 1844 into a sketch of the conclusions, which then seemed to me probable: from that period to the present day I have steadily pursued the same object. I hope that I may be excused for entering on these personal details, as I give them to show that I have not been hasty in coming to a decision.

My work is now nearly finished; but as it will take me two or three more years to complete it, and as my health is far from strong, I have been urged to publish this Abstract. I have more especially been induced to do this, as Mr. Wallace, who is now studying the natural history of the Malay archipelago, has arrived at almost exactly the same general conclusions that I have on the origin of species. Last year he sent to me a memoir on this subject, with a request that I would forward it to Sir Charles Lyell, who sent it to the Linnean Society, and it is published in the third volume of the Journal of that Society. Sir C. Lyell and Dr. Hooker, who both knew of my work—the latter having read my sketch of 1844—honoured me by thinking it advisable to publish, with Mr. Wallace's excellent memoir, some brief extracts from my manuscripts.

I much regret that want of space prevents my having the satisfaction of acknowledging the generous assistance which I have received from very many naturalists, some of them personally unknown to me. I cannot, however, let this opportunity pass without expressing my deep obligations to Dr. Hooker, who for the last fifteen years has aided me in every possible way by his large stores of knowledge and his excellent judgment.

In considering the Origin of Species, it is quite conceivable that a naturalist, reflecting on the mutual affinities of organic beings, on their embryological relations, their geographical distribution, geological succession, and other such facts, might come to the conclusion that each species had not been independently created, but had descended, like varieties, from other species. Nevertheless, such a conclusion, even if well founded, would be unsatisfactory, until it could be shown how the innumerable species inhabiting this world have been modified, so as to acquire that perfection of structure and coadaptation which most justly excites our admiration. Naturalists continually refer to external conditions, such as climate, food, etc., as the only possible cause of variation. In one very limited sense, as we shall hereafter see, this may be true; but it is preposterous to attribute to mere external conditions, the structure, for instance, of the woodpecker, with its feet, tail, beak, and tongue, so admirably adapted to catch insects under the bark of trees. In the case of the misseltoe, which draws its nourishment from certain trees, which has seeds that must be transported by certain birds, and which has flowers with separate sexes absolutely requiring the agency of certain insects to bring pollen from one flower to the other, it is equally preposterous to account for the structure of this parasite, with its relations to several distinct organic beings, by the effects of external conditions, or of habit, or of the volition of the plant itself.

The author of the 'Vestiges of Creation' would, I presume, say that, after a certain unknown number of generations, some bird had given birth to a woodpecker, and some plant to the misseltoe, and that these had been produced perfect as we now see them; but this assumption seems to me to be no explanation, for it leaves the case of the coadaptations of organic beings to each other and to their physical conditions of life, untouched and unexplained.

VOLUME I
PREFACE
LIFE AND LETTERS OF CHARLES DARWIN.
VOLUME I.
CHAPTER 1.I. — THE DARWIN FAMILY.
CHAPTER 1.II. — AUTOBIOGRAPHY.
CHAPTER 1.III. — REMINISCENCES OF MY FATHER'S EVERYDAY LIFE.
CHAPTER 1.IV. — CAMBRIDGE LIFE.
CHAPTER 1.V. — THE APPOINTMENT TO THE 'BEAGLE.'
CHAPTER 1.VI. — THE VOYAGE.
CHAPTER 1.VII. — LONDON AND CAMBRIDGE.
1836-1842.
CHAPTER 1.VIII. — RELIGION.
CHAPTER 1.IX. — LIFE AT DOWN.
1842-1854.
CHAPTER 1.X. — THE GROWTH OF THE 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES.'
Chapter I. "On the kind of intermediateness necessary, and the number
Chapter II. "The gradual appearance and disappearance of organic
Chapter III. "Geographical Distribution." Corresponds to Chapters XI.
Chapter IV. "Affinities and Classification of Organic beings."
Chapter V. "Unity of Type," Morphology, Embryology.
Chapter VI. Rudimentary Organs.
These three chapters correspond to Chapter XII. of the 'Origin.'
Chapter VII. Recapitulation and Conclusion. The final sentence of the
CHAPTER 1.XI. — THE GROWTH OF THE 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES.'
LETTERS, 1843-1856.
CHAPTER 1.XII. — THE UNFINISHED BOOK.
MAY 1856 TO JUNE 1858.
CHAPTER 1. XIII. — THE WRITING OF THE 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES.'
JUNE 18, 1858, TO NOVEMBER, 1859.
CHAPTER 1.XIV. — BY PROFESSOR HUXLEY.
ON THE RECEPTION OF THE 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES.'
VOLUME II.
CHAPTER 2.I. — THE PUBLICATION OF THE 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES.'
OCTOBER 3, 1859, TO DECEMBER 31, 1859.
CHAPTER 2.II. — THE 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES' (continued).
1860.
CHAPTER 2.III. — SPREAD OF EVOLUTION.
1861-1862.
CHAPTER 2.IV. — THE SPREAD OF EVOLUTION.
'VARIATION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS'
CHAPTER 2.V. — THE PUBLICATION OF THE 'VARIATION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS UNDER DOMESTICATION.'
JANUARY 1867, TO JUNE 1868.
CHAPTER 2.VI. — WORK ON 'MAN.'
1864-1870.
CHAPTER 2.VII. — PUBLICATION OF THE 'DESCENT OF MAN.'
WORK ON 'EXPRESSION.'
CHAPTER 2.VIII. — MISCELLANEA
CHAPTER 2.IX. — MISCELLANEA (continued)
CHAPTER 2.X. — FERTILISATION OF FLOWERS.
CHAPTER 2.XI. — THE 'EFFECTS OF CROSS- AND SELF-FERTILISATION
IN THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM.'
CHAPTER 2.XII. — 'DIFFERENT FORMS OF FLOWERS ON PLANTS OF THE SAME SPECIES.'
1877.
CHAPTER 2.XIII. — CLIMBING AND INSECTIVOROUS PLANTS.
CHAPTER 2.XIV. — THE 'POWER OF MOVEMENT IN PLANTS.'
1880.
CHAPTER 2.XV. — MISCELLANEOUS BOTANICAL LETTERS.
1873-1882.
CHAPTER 2.XVI. — CONCLUSION.

©2018 GoogleSite Terms of ServicePrivacyDevelopersArtistsAbout Google|Location: United StatesLanguage: English (United States)
By purchasing this item, you are transacting with Google Payments and agreeing to the Google Payments Terms of Service and Privacy Notice.