The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection: Or, The Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life

D. Appleton
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Publisher
D. Appleton
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Published on
Dec 31, 1872
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Pages
447
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Language
English
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Book 8
INTRODUCTION.
PART I. THE DESCENT OR ORIGIN OF MAN.
CHAPTER I.
THE EVIDENCE OF THE DESCENT OF MAN FROM SOME LOWER FORM.
THE BODILY STRUCTURE OF MAN.
EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
RUDIMENTS.
CHAPTER II.
ON THE MANNER OF DEVELOPMENT OF MAN FROM SOME LOWER FORM.
THE DIRECT AND DEFINITE ACTION OF CHANGED CONDITIONS.
EFFECTS OF THE INCREASED USE AND DISUSE OF PARTS.
ARRESTS OF DEVELOPMENT.
REVERSION.
CORRELATED VARIATION.
RATE OF INCREASE.
NATURAL SELECTION.
CONCLUSION.
CHAPTER III.
COMPARISON OF THE MENTAL POWERS OF MAN AND THE LOWER ANIMALS.
ABSTRACTION, GENERAL CONCEPTIONS, SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS, MENTAL INDIVIDUALITY.
LANGUAGE.
SENSE OF BEAUTY.
BELIEF IN GOD—RELIGION.
CHAPTER IV.
MAN A SOCIAL ANIMAL.
THE MORE ENDURING SOCIAL INSTINCTS CONQUER THE LESS PERSISTENT INSTINCTS.
THE STRICTLY SOCIAL VIRTUES AT FIRST ALONE REGARDED.
CONCLUDING REMARKS.
SUMMARY OF THE LAST TWO CHAPTERS.
CHAPTER V.
ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE INTELLECTUAL AND MORAL FACULTIES DURING PRIMEVAL AND CIVILISED TIMES.
NATURAL SELECTION AS AFFECTING CIVILISED NATIONS.
ON THE EVIDENCE THAT ALL CIVILISED NATIONS WERE ONCE BARBAROUS.
CHAPTER VI.
ON THE AFFINITIES AND GENEALOGY OF MAN.
ON THE BIRTHPLACE AND ANTIQUITY OF MAN.
LOWER STAGES IN THE GENEALOGY OF MAN.
CONCLUSION.
CHAPTER VII.
ON THE RACES OF MAN.
ON THE EXTINCTION OF THE RACES OF MAN.
ON THE FORMATION OF THE RACES OF MAN.
NOTE ON THE RESEMBLANCES AND DIFFERENCES IN THE STRUCTURE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BRAIN IN MAN AND APES BY PROFESSOR HUXLEY, F.R.S.
PART II. SEXUAL SELECTION.
CHAPTER VIII.
PRINCIPLES OF SEXUAL SELECTION.
NUMERICAL PROPORTION OF THE TWO SEXES.
POLYGAMY.
THE MALE GENERALLY MORE MODIFIED THAN THE FEMALE.
LAWS OF INHERITANCE.
INHERITANCE AT CORRESPONDING PERIODS OF LIFE.
INHERITANCE AT CORRESPONDING SEASONS OF THE YEAR.
INHERITANCE AS LIMITED BY SEX.
ON THE RELATION BETWEEN THE PERIOD OF DEVELOPMENT OF A CHARACTER AND ITS TRANSMISSION TO ONE SEX OR TO BOTH SEXES.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUDING REMARKS.
SUPPLEMENT ON THE PROPORTIONAL NUMBERS OF THE TWO SEXES IN ANIMALS BELONGING TO VARIOUS CLASSES.
MAN.
HORSES.
DOGS.
SHEEP.
FISH.
INSECTS.
CHAPTER IX.
SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS IN THE LOWER CLASSES OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.
THE SUB-KINGDOM OF THE MOLLUSCA.
SUB-KINGDOM OF THE VERMES: CLASS, ANNELIDA (OR SEA-WORMS).
SUB-KINGDOM OF THE ARTHROPODA: CLASS, CRUSTACEA.
CLASS, ARACHNIDA (SPIDERS).
CLASS, MYRIAPODA.
CHAPTER X.
SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS OF INSECTS.
DIFFERENCE IN SIZE BETWEEN THE SEXES.
ORDER, THYSANURA.
ORDER, DIPTERA (FLIES).
ORDER, HEMIPTERA (FIELD-BUGS).
ORDER: HOMOPTERA.
ORDER, ORTHOPTERA (CRICKETS AND GRASSHOPPERS).
ORDER, NEUROPTERA.
ORDER, HYMENOPTERA.
ORDER, COLEOPTERA (BEETLES).
LAW OF BATTLE.
STRIDULATING ORGANS.
CHAPTER XI.
ORDER LEPIDOPTERA. (BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS.)
DISPLAY.
MIMICRY.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUDING REMARKS ON INSECTS.
CHAPTER XII.
SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS OF FISHES, AMPHIBIANS, AND REPTILES.
AMPHIBIANS.
URODELA.
ANURA OR BATRACHIA.
REPTILES.
CHELONIA.
CROCODILIA.
OPHIDIA.
LACERTILIA.
CHAPTER XIII.
SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS OF BIRDS.
LAW OF BATTLE.
VOCAL AND INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC.
LOVE ANTICS AND DANCES.
DECORATION.
DISPLAY BY MALE BIRDS OF THEIR PLUMAGE.
CHAPTER XIV.
LENGTH OF COURTSHIP.
UNPAIRED BIRDS.
MENTAL QUALITIES OF BIRDS, AND THEIR TASTE FOR THE BEAUTIFUL.
PREFERENCE FOR PARTICULAR MALES BY THE FEMALES.
VARIABILITY OF BIRDS, AND ESPECIALLY OF THEIR SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS.
FORMATION AND VARIABILITY OF THE OCELLI OR EYE-LIKE SPOTS ON THE PLUMAGE OF BIRDS.
GRADATION OF SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS.
ARGUS PHEASANT.
CHAPTER XV.
CHAPTER XVI.
RULES OR CLASSES OF CASES.
CLASS I.
CLASS II.
WHEN THE ADULT FEMALE IS MORE CONSPICUOUS THAN THE ADULT MALE, THE YOUNG OF BOTH SEXES IN THEIR FIRST PLUMAGE RESEMBLE THE ADULT MALE.
CLASS III.
WHEN THE ADULT MALE RESEMBLES THE ADULT FEMALE, THE YOUNG OF BOTH SEXES HAVE A PECULIAR FIRST PLUMAGE OF THEIR OWN.
CLASS IV.
WHEN THE ADULT MALE RESEMBLES THE ADULT FEMALE, THE YOUNG OF BOTH SEXES IN THEIR FIRST PLUMAGE RESEMBLE THE ADULTS.
CLASS V.
WHEN THE ADULTS OF BOTH SEXES HAVE A DISTINCT WINTER AND SUMMER PLUMAGE, WHETHER OR NOT THE MALE DIFFERS FROM THE FEMALE, THE YOUNG RESEMBLE THE ADULTS OF BOTH SEXES IN THEIR WINTER DRESS, OR MUCH MORE RARELY IN THEIR SUMMER DRESS, OR THEY RESEMBLE THE FEMALES ALONE. OR THE YOUNG MAY HAVE AN INTERMEDIATE CHARACTER; OR, AGAIN, THEY MAY DIFFER GREATLY FROM THE ADULTS IN BOTH THEIR SEASONAL PLUMAGES.
CLASS VI.
THE YOUNG IN THEIR FIRST PLUMAGE DIFFER FROM EACH OTHER ACCORDING TO SEX; THE YOUNG MALES RESEMBLING MORE OR LESS CLOSELY THE ADULT MALES, AND THE YOUNG FEMALES MORE OR LESS CLOSELY THE ADULT FEMALES.
ON THE COLOUR OF THE PLUMAGE IN RELATION TO PROTECTION.
SUMMARY OF THE FOUR CHAPTERS ON BIRDS.
CHAPTER XVII.
SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS OF MAMMALS.
CHOICE IN PAIRING BY EITHER SEX OF QUADRUPEDS.
CHAPTER XVIII.
ODOUR.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE HAIR.
COLOUR OF THE HAIR AND OF THE NAKED SKIN.
EQUAL TRANSMISSION OF ORNAMENTAL CHARACTERS TO BOTH SEXES.
QUADRUMANA.
SUMMARY.
PART III.
SEXUAL SELECTION IN RELATION TO MAN, AND CONCLUSION.
CHAPTER XIX.
SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERS OF MAN.
LAW OF BATTLE.
DIFFERENCE IN THE MENTAL POWERS OF THE TWO SEXES.
VOICE AND MUSICAL POWERS.
THE INFLUENCE OF BEAUTY IN DETERMINING THE MARRIAGES OF MANKIND.
CHAPTER XX.
THE CAUSES WHICH PREVENT OR CHECK THE ACTION OF SEXUAL SELECTION WITH SAVAGES.
INFANTICIDE.
EARLY BETROTHALS AND SLAVERY OF WOMEN.
THE MANNER OF ACTION OF SEXUAL SELECTION WITH MANKIND.
ABSENCE OF HAIR ON THE BODY, AND ITS DEVELOPMENT ON THE FACE AND HEAD.
COLOUR OF THE SKIN.
SUMMARY.
CHAPTER XXI.
GENERAL SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION.
SUPPLEMENTAL NOTE.
ON SEXUAL SELECTION IN RELATION TO MONKEYS.
Charles Darwin
On the Origin of Species, published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology. Its full title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. For the sixth edition of 1872, the short title was changed to The Origin of Species. Darwin's book introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. It presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution. Darwin included evidence that he had gathered on the Beagle expedition in the 1830s and his subsequent findings from research, correspondence, and experimentation.

Various evolutionary ideas had already been proposed to explain new findings in biology. There was growing support for such ideas among dissident anatomists and the general public, but during the first half of the 19th century the English scientific establishment was closely tied to the Church of England, while science was part of natural theology. Ideas about the transmutation of species were controversial as they conflicted with the beliefs that species were unchanging parts of a designed hierarchy and that humans were unique, unrelated to other animals. The political and theological implications were intensely debated, but transmutation was not accepted by the scientific mainstream.


The book was written for non-specialist readers and attracted widespread interest upon its publication. As Darwin was an eminent scientist, his findings were taken seriously and the evidence he presented generated scientific, philosophical, and religious discussion. The debate over the book contributed to the campaign by T. H. Huxley and his fellow members of the X Club to secularise science by promoting scientific naturalism. Within two decades there was widespread scientific agreement that evolution, with a branching pattern of common descent, had occurred, but scientists were slow to give natural selection the significance that Darwin thought appropriate. During the "eclipse of Darwinism" from the 1880s to the 1930s, various other mechanisms of evolution were given more credit. With the development of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s, Darwin's concept of evolutionary adaptation through natural selection became central to modern evolutionary theory, and it has now become the unifying concept of the life sciences.


Summary of Darwin's theory:


Darwin's theory of evolution is based on key facts and the inferences drawn from them, which biologist Ernst Mayr summarised as follows:
• Every species is fertile enough that if all offspring survived to reproduce the population would grow (fact).
• Despite periodic fluctuations, populations remain roughly the same size (fact).
• Resources such as food are limited and are relatively stable over time (fact).
• A struggle for survival ensues (inference).
• Individuals in a population vary significantly from one another (fact).
• Much of this variation is inheritable (fact).
• Individuals less suited to the environment are less likely to survive and less likely to reproduce; individuals more suited to the environment are more likely to survive and more likely to reproduce and leave their inheritable traits to future generations, which produces the process of natural selection (inference).
• This slowly effected process results in populations changing to adapt to their environments, and ultimately, these variations accumulate over time to form new species (inference).

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