The volume also includes parts of Darwin's less well-knownworks. Although it was published last chronologically,The Autobiography is an ideal beginning to thevolume. A new introduction by the noted anthropologistLionel Tiger underlines the continuing importance ofDarwin's thinking, and explains why it still infl uencescontemporary scholarship in many fi elds.
These selections have not been rewritten--they arepure Darwin. The dull and the unessential have beeneliminated. What remains is material that best illustratesDarwin's most important and interesting ideas. Th e selectionmanages as well to retain his most readable prose,while presenting the fundamentals of Darwin's revolutionarythought. Collectively, the volume paints a picture of animmensely curious and indefatigable mind. This volumealso includes a critical bibliography that will prove valuableto those interested in further reading.
Marston Bates (1906-1974) was an Americanzoologist. His studies on mosquitoesled to the understanding of the causes ofyellow fever in South America. He is theauthor of numerous science books includingThe Land and Wildlife of South Americaand The Nature of Natural History.
Philip S. Humphrey is Curator Emeritusand former Director of the Natural HistoryMuseum at the University of Kansas.
Lionel Tiger is Charles Darwin Professor of Anthropology atRutgers University. He is the author of The Decline of Males, Optimism,The Pursuit of Pleasure, China's Food, The Manufactureof Evil, Men in Groups, and with Robin Fox, The Imperial Animal.He directs the anthropology publishing eff ort at TransactionPublishers.
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Various evolutionary ideas had already been proposed to explain new findings in biology. There was growing support for such ideas among dissident anatomists and the general public, but during the first half of the 19th century the English scientific establishment was closely tied to the Church of England, while science was part of natural theology. Ideas about the transmutation of species were controversial as they conflicted with the beliefs that species were unchanging parts of a designed hierarchy and that humans were unique, unrelated to other animals. The political and theological implications were intensely debated, but transmutation was not accepted by the scientific mainstream.
The book was written for non-specialist readers and attracted widespread interest upon its publication. As Darwin was an eminent scientist, his findings were taken seriously and the evidence he presented generated scientific, philosophical, and religious discussion. The debate over the book contributed to the campaign by T. H. Huxley and his fellow members of the X Club to secularise science by promoting scientific naturalism. Within two decades there was widespread scientific agreement that evolution, with a branching pattern of common descent, had occurred, but scientists were slow to give natural selection the significance that Darwin thought appropriate. During the "eclipse of Darwinism" from the 1880s to the 1930s, various other mechanisms of evolution were given more credit. With the development of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s, Darwin's concept of evolutionary adaptation through natural selection became central to modern evolutionary theory, and it has now become the unifying concept of the life sciences.
Summary of Darwin's theory:
Darwin's theory of evolution is based on key facts and the inferences drawn from them, which biologist Ernst Mayr summarised as follows:
• Every species is fertile enough that if all offspring survived to reproduce the population would grow (fact).
• Despite periodic fluctuations, populations remain roughly the same size (fact).
• Resources such as food are limited and are relatively stable over time (fact).
• A struggle for survival ensues (inference).
• Individuals in a population vary significantly from one another (fact).
• Much of this variation is inheritable (fact).
• Individuals less suited to the environment are less likely to survive and less likely to reproduce; individuals more suited to the environment are more likely to survive and more likely to reproduce and leave their inheritable traits to future generations, which produces the process of natural selection (inference).
• This slowly effected process results in populations changing to adapt to their environments, and ultimately, these variations accumulate over time to form new species (inference).