The Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection: Or, The Preservation of Favored Races in the Struggle for Life, Volume 1

Rand, McNally
6
3.8
6 total
Loading...

Additional Information

Publisher
Rand, McNally
Read more
Published on
Dec 31, 1872
Read more
Pages
218
Read more
Read more
Best For
Read more
Language
English
Read more
Content Protection
This content is DRM free.
Read more

Reading information

Smartphones and Tablets

Install the Google Play Books app for Android and iPad/iPhone. It syncs automatically with your account and allows you to read online or offline wherever you are.

Laptops and Computers

You can read books purchased on Google Play using your computer's web browser.

eReaders and other devices

To read on e-ink devices like the Sony eReader or Barnes & Noble Nook, you'll need to download a file and transfer it to your device. Please follow the detailed Help center instructions to transfer the files to supported eReaders.
On the Origin of Species, published on 24 November 1859, is a work of scientific literature by Charles Darwin which is considered to be the foundation of evolutionary biology. Its full title was On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life. For the sixth edition of 1872, the short title was changed to The Origin of Species. Darwin's book introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. It presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution. Darwin included evidence that he had gathered on the Beagle expedition in the 1830s and his subsequent findings from research, correspondence, and experimentation.

Various evolutionary ideas had already been proposed to explain new findings in biology. There was growing support for such ideas among dissident anatomists and the general public, but during the first half of the 19th century the English scientific establishment was closely tied to the Church of England, while science was part of natural theology. Ideas about the transmutation of species were controversial as they conflicted with the beliefs that species were unchanging parts of a designed hierarchy and that humans were unique, unrelated to other animals. The political and theological implications were intensely debated, but transmutation was not accepted by the scientific mainstream.


The book was written for non-specialist readers and attracted widespread interest upon its publication. As Darwin was an eminent scientist, his findings were taken seriously and the evidence he presented generated scientific, philosophical, and religious discussion. The debate over the book contributed to the campaign by T. H. Huxley and his fellow members of the X Club to secularise science by promoting scientific naturalism. Within two decades there was widespread scientific agreement that evolution, with a branching pattern of common descent, had occurred, but scientists were slow to give natural selection the significance that Darwin thought appropriate. During the "eclipse of Darwinism" from the 1880s to the 1930s, various other mechanisms of evolution were given more credit. With the development of the modern evolutionary synthesis in the 1930s and 1940s, Darwin's concept of evolutionary adaptation through natural selection became central to modern evolutionary theory, and it has now become the unifying concept of the life sciences.


Summary of Darwin's theory:


Darwin's theory of evolution is based on key facts and the inferences drawn from them, which biologist Ernst Mayr summarised as follows:
• Every species is fertile enough that if all offspring survived to reproduce the population would grow (fact).
• Despite periodic fluctuations, populations remain roughly the same size (fact).
• Resources such as food are limited and are relatively stable over time (fact).
• A struggle for survival ensues (inference).
• Individuals in a population vary significantly from one another (fact).
• Much of this variation is inheritable (fact).
• Individuals less suited to the environment are less likely to survive and less likely to reproduce; individuals more suited to the environment are more likely to survive and more likely to reproduce and leave their inheritable traits to future generations, which produces the process of natural selection (inference).
• This slowly effected process results in populations changing to adapt to their environments, and ultimately, these variations accumulate over time to form new species (inference).

VOLUME I
PREFACE
LIFE AND LETTERS OF CHARLES DARWIN.
VOLUME I.
CHAPTER 1.I. — THE DARWIN FAMILY.
CHAPTER 1.II. — AUTOBIOGRAPHY.
CHAPTER 1.III. — REMINISCENCES OF MY FATHER'S EVERYDAY LIFE.
CHAPTER 1.IV. — CAMBRIDGE LIFE.
CHAPTER 1.V. — THE APPOINTMENT TO THE 'BEAGLE.'
CHAPTER 1.VI. — THE VOYAGE.
CHAPTER 1.VII. — LONDON AND CAMBRIDGE.
1836-1842.
CHAPTER 1.VIII. — RELIGION.
CHAPTER 1.IX. — LIFE AT DOWN.
1842-1854.
CHAPTER 1.X. — THE GROWTH OF THE 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES.'
Chapter I. "On the kind of intermediateness necessary, and the number
Chapter II. "The gradual appearance and disappearance of organic
Chapter III. "Geographical Distribution." Corresponds to Chapters XI.
Chapter IV. "Affinities and Classification of Organic beings."
Chapter V. "Unity of Type," Morphology, Embryology.
Chapter VI. Rudimentary Organs.
These three chapters correspond to Chapter XII. of the 'Origin.'
Chapter VII. Recapitulation and Conclusion. The final sentence of the
CHAPTER 1.XI. — THE GROWTH OF THE 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES.'
LETTERS, 1843-1856.
CHAPTER 1.XII. — THE UNFINISHED BOOK.
MAY 1856 TO JUNE 1858.
CHAPTER 1. XIII. — THE WRITING OF THE 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES.'
JUNE 18, 1858, TO NOVEMBER, 1859.
CHAPTER 1.XIV. — BY PROFESSOR HUXLEY.
ON THE RECEPTION OF THE 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES.'
VOLUME II.
CHAPTER 2.I. — THE PUBLICATION OF THE 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES.'
OCTOBER 3, 1859, TO DECEMBER 31, 1859.
CHAPTER 2.II. — THE 'ORIGIN OF SPECIES' (continued).
1860.
CHAPTER 2.III. — SPREAD OF EVOLUTION.
1861-1862.
CHAPTER 2.IV. — THE SPREAD OF EVOLUTION.
'VARIATION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS'
CHAPTER 2.V. — THE PUBLICATION OF THE 'VARIATION OF ANIMALS AND PLANTS UNDER DOMESTICATION.'
JANUARY 1867, TO JUNE 1868.
CHAPTER 2.VI. — WORK ON 'MAN.'
1864-1870.
CHAPTER 2.VII. — PUBLICATION OF THE 'DESCENT OF MAN.'
WORK ON 'EXPRESSION.'
CHAPTER 2.VIII. — MISCELLANEA
CHAPTER 2.IX. — MISCELLANEA (continued)
CHAPTER 2.X. — FERTILISATION OF FLOWERS.
CHAPTER 2.XI. — THE 'EFFECTS OF CROSS- AND SELF-FERTILISATION
IN THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM.'
CHAPTER 2.XII. — 'DIFFERENT FORMS OF FLOWERS ON PLANTS OF THE SAME SPECIES.'
1877.
CHAPTER 2.XIII. — CLIMBING AND INSECTIVOROUS PLANTS.
CHAPTER 2.XIV. — THE 'POWER OF MOVEMENT IN PLANTS.'
1880.
CHAPTER 2.XV. — MISCELLANEOUS BOTANICAL LETTERS.
1873-1882.
CHAPTER 2.XVI. — CONCLUSION.

©2018 GoogleSite Terms of ServicePrivacyDevelopersArtistsAbout Google
By purchasing this item, you are transacting with Google Payments and agreeing to the Google Payments Terms of Service and Privacy Notice.