Shifting Roles and Functions of Regional and Local Labour Market Observatories Across Europe

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Over the years, regional and local labour market observatories have provided reliable and targeted labour market information and intelligence for regional and local decision-makers. Recent developments show that they are increasingly expected to fulfil tasks beyond mere data provision and analysis. Hence, they are emerging as interpreters, evaluators and mediators in regional and local governance and development efforts. Their participation in the planning, implementation and evaluation processes creates spaces for new alliances, cooperations and networks. However, the observatories often lack essential resources for fulfilling their complex new tasks. Stable sources of financing and employees with a solid and up-to-date skills base are essential for regional and local observatories to meet the new requirements. However, acknowledging their contribution to regional and local governance and development processes as well as adequate opportunities for exchange with different actors across Europe are equally important. How do the changing framework conditions affect the functions of regional and local labour market observatories? To what extent do shifts in their roles take place? Which patterns of changes can be observed across different European countries? How stable are the new arrangements and where do the observatories need support? This publication explores the shifts in the roles and functions of regional and local labour market observatories in different European countries as well as the framework conditions influencing their operating and further development.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Rainer Hampp Verlag
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Published on
Dec 31, 2013
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Pages
252
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ISBN
9783866189645
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Business & Economics / Management
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Eligible for Family Library

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The experience of regional and local labour market observatories shows that information on some aspects of the labour market - such as the demand for skilled labour in certain sectors or spatial units - is difficult to obtain. In the recent years, ICT-related innovations have created new forms and types of data that can be used for enhancing the efficiency in several areas of economic activity. So far, the vast amount of unstructured data contained in the World Wide Web - Big Data - has been largely unexploited. However, as the available technology provides increasingly cost-effective solutions, it has become possible to provide services that have formerly been too expensive. Therefore, applying Big Data in labour market monitoring can provide innovative insights into the functioning of labour markets. Also the process data of Public Employment Services or Statistical Offices constitute a promising source of large amounts of data. The results of the analyses based on the different sources of data can be used to improve the efficiency of the labour market at large and the provision of services by governments and private enterprises. However, the attempts to use Big Data in the context of labour market monitoring have been relatively rare so far, even though a growing interest can be observed among researchers and practitioners alike. Against this background, the issues of collecting, elaborating, analysing and disseminating the information available on the Web urgently needed to be addressed - as did the associated ethical and legal issues concerned with data ownership and protection. This year's Anthology of the EN RLMM covers these issues from the viewpoint of labour market researchers and practitioners in labour market observatories from different European regions and localities. The contributions provide first insights into new models and tools of labour market monitoring based on the usage of Big Data.
Regional factors are important for the economy and employment in highly competitive, international markets. As a precondition for the functioning of regional labour markets, adequate information has to be generated and transformed into new knowledge – for all actors involved.

Regional Labour Market Monitoring can be seen as an approach to meet these requirements. A variety of projects in this area have been set up in several European countries. Their common purpose is to develop and implement sets of indicators to measure the current regional labour market and to provide information over its development into the future. Both the regional labour force and business enjoy the benefits from this activity.

This anthology gives an idea of the diversity of European approaches to monitoring of regional labour markets. It renders different concepts and instruments representing the region in which they are used.

Keywords: Labour Market, Monitoring, Regional Economy, Information

The Authors

Dr. Christa Larsen is a social scientist and Senior Researcher at the Institute for Economics, Labour and Culture (IWAK) in Frankfurt am Main. Her current work concentrates on regional labour market monitoring, regionalised analyses of labour markets for health workers, systems for information and diagnoses of labour markets, and regional prognoses.

Waldemar Mathejczyk is a social scientist and Senior Researcher at the Institute for Economics, Labour and Culture (IWAK) in Frankfurt am Main. His research activities are focussed on labour market, safety and health at work, and working conditions. Prof. Dr. Alfons Schmid is Professor for Economics at the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University of Frankfurt am Main and Scientific Director of the Institute for Economics, Labour, and Culture (IWAK) in Frankfurt am Main. His main areas of research are regional developments of employment and labour market, new information technology and impacts on employment situations, regional competitiveness, and attitudes in the context of welfare state.
Von der Nutzung neuer Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien werden erhebliche Auswirkungen auf , Struktur und Funktionsweise der Arbeitsmärkte erwartet. Im Rahmen einer repräsentativen quantitativen Betriebsbefragung wurden diese Erwartungen bestätigt. Die Bedeutung dieser Technologien für die externe und interne Arbeitskräfteallokation auf dem bundesdeutschen Arbeitsmarkt ist ausgeprägt. Eine Segmentierung in Teilarbeitsmärkte besteht aber weiterhin.

Zwar hat der externe elektronische Teilarbeitsmarkt die größte Bedeutung, der interne Arbeitsmarkt spielt aber nach wie vor eine wichtige Rolle, er entwickelt sich tendenziell in einen unternehmensinternen Arbeitsmarkt. Elektronische Arbeitsnetze sind entgegen den Erwartungen von untergeordneter Bedeutung. Die durch sinkende Transaktionskosten erwartete Vermarktlichung von Teilarbeitsmärkten besteht bei einer Nutzung der neuen Technologien nicht wie erwartet.

Anhand einer konzeptionellen Unterscheidung von Koordinationsform und Organisationsform wurde gezeigt, dass die drei Koordinationsformen Wettbewerb, Hierarchie und Kooperation auf den externen Arbeitsmärkten ebenso existieren wie auf internen Arbeitsmärkten. Auf diesen Teilarbeitsmärkten besteht eine differenzierte Koordinierung, die nicht der in der Literatur prognostizierten Mehr Markt am Arbeitsmarkt entspricht. Die Studie zeigt, dass es empirisch und theoretisch weiterer Arbeiten bedarf, um eine Koordinationstheorie des Arbeitsmarktes zu etablieren, die die Kombination der drei Koordinationsformen auf den Teilarbeitsmärkten erklärt.
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