Government competition policies relating liberalization

GRIN Verlag
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Essay from the year 2006 in the subject Business economics - Economic Policy, grade: 4,0 (gut), University of Pécs (Faculty of Business and Economics), course: Business Economics, 13 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: “Almost all market competitors are firms – business organizations (social groupings) that are, for the most part, internally cooperative, not competitive. Firms are the principal suppliers and buyers of most products and services, while consumers (households) generally buy only final goods (...). Typical market transactions involve competition among firms. Many of these firms, including subtypes such as labour unions, can legally own and exchange property and differentiate and isolate their legal liability as a group from the inability of their members.” The competitive-cooperative market system is controlled by formal social regulations we call competition policy. This term refers to the body of laws of a state which govern the extent, and ability, to which bodies can economically compete. They hence to restrict practises that can pull down market competition such as monopoly or cartel. Most nations have an own legal competition framework, and there is a general agreement on what is and what is not acceptable behaviour. “In general, liberalization refers to a relaxation of previous government restrictions, usually in areas of social or economic policy. (...) Most often, the term is used to refer to economic liberalization, especially trade liberalization or capital market liberalization, policies often referred to as neoliberalism. One of the world’s most open trade ad investment regime is the one of the United States. However, a liberalized and deregulated market has to be supported by rules of the game to ensure competition. But although economic liberalization often is associated with privatization, the two can be quite separate processes. As an example, in the European Union the gas and electricity markets were liberalized a few years ago, instituting a system of competition; but some of the leading European energy companies (such as EDF or Vattenfall) remain partially or complete in public ownership. “Liberalized and privatized public services may be dominated by just a big few big companies, particularly in sectors with high capital costs, or high sunk cost, such as water, gas and electricity. In some cases they may remain legal monopolies, at least for some part of the market” (i.e. parts of postal service in Germany a few years ago).
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Publisher
GRIN Verlag
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Published on
Dec 5, 2007
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Pages
17
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ISBN
9783638871235
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Language
English
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Genres
Business & Economics / Economics / General
Political Science / Public Policy / Economic Policy
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Eligible for Family Library

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Christian Nicke
Essay from the year 2006 in the subject Business economics - Economic Policy, grade: 4,0 (gut), University of Pécs (Faculty of Business and Economics), course: Entrepreneurship Studies, 24 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: It seems helpful to me, first to clarify the two most important terms of the title of this essay. The first term is “regional policy” that includes two parts that should be explained: region and special policy for regions. Regions Regions are marked through a number of special criteria: o “singleness (unique position) o otherness (differentiation criteria) o commonness (culture, traditions, landscape) o collective identity (shared history, doom) o regional awareness (feeling of belonging together, identification) o government’s organisation (administration, policy) o elected representation (self-determination, -administration) o homogeneity (socio-economical, cultural, ethnical) o functional togetherness (networks) o power-connection (domination, dependency, interconnections) o inter-organisational networks (socio-economical milieu) o openness (cross-linking, knowledge-transfer) o global competitiveness (competition, networks)” The policy that especially affects the concerns of regions is called “regional policy”. Regional policy aims to support the planned development of regions in the way of coordinated measure setting. As regional policy is embedded in the nationwide policy, it aims from the viewpoint of the national government to • maximise economic growth and • minimise social costs As development of regions always includes entrepreneurship to create regional value, I would like to collect state of the art knowledge about how regional policy can support entrepreneurship. Here the question appears, what could been understand under regional policy. Regional policy Regional policy is the sum of law, strategies and measures for setting and influencing a framework and processes in particular areas of a nation through the government. With special regional policy government seeks to reduce spatial disparities in economic. The last term I would like to introduce for my essay is Entrepreneurship. In this context, entrepreneurship is not each business activity in a wider understanding of the term but I mean the field of founding new enterprises based on an idea for providing products or services that are not available in or near the region yet.
Christian Nicke
Essay from the year 2007 in the subject Business economics - Economic Policy, grade: 5,0 (sehr gut), University of Pécs (Faculty of Business and Economics), course: Public Policy II, 24 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: As first approach to the topic it seems helpful to me to define which factors make a region. In general the literature mentions three ways how regions could be differentiated: • Definition through enumeration, i.e. with examples • Definition in the negative through enumeration of “non-regions” • Definition on basis if constructive criteria Most common in literature is the last approach, meanwhile the European Union in particular also follows the first possibility for defining the regions within the E.U. As a workable definition of a region the following definition on basis of constructive criteria is suggested: Regions A region is a geographical part of a whole economy that could be identified by means of political and administrative institutions. As constructive criteria a region is defined through free trade between certain regions, mobility of production factors, consistent currency, fiscal and macro-economic policy and shared (superior) institutions. The wider a nations’ area is and the more regions a nation contains, the bigger the chance that the regions have different levels of economic development and economic power. The overall development of an economy is the sum of the development of the individual regions, more exactly the sum of individual economies. From this follows that the economic power of the certain regions must be bettered should the macroeconomic development be improved. This cognition lead to the development of a special field of public policy: regional (economic) policies. Regional policy should achieve two major goals: • maximise economic growth and • minimise social costs As I would show in the next chapter, regional (economic) policy includes a number of instruments. From this the definition of regional policy is as follows: Regional policy Regional policy is the sum of law, strategies and measures for setting and influencing a framework and processes in particular areas of a nation through the government. With special regional policy government seeks to reduce spatial disparities in economic.
Christian Nicke
Essay from the year 2006 in the subject Business economics - Supply, Production, Logistics, grade: 5,0 (sehr gut), University of Pécs (Faculty of Business and Economics), course: Marketing III, 13 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: No innovation or invention in the last decades had a stronger impact on our daily live than the development of the World Wide Web (www, also called “Internet”). Personal computers appeared in offices at the beginning of the 1980es in greater quantities. However, each workstation could used only for its own or within limited networks (for instance within one division of a company). On the other hand, like so often, U.S. military researcher, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) initiated in 1973 a research program to investigate techniques and technologies for interlinking packet networks of various kinds. The objective of this research programme was to develop communication protocols that are essential for the communication between computers and that should allow transparent communication across multiple, linked packet networks. In 1986, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) initiated the development of the NSFNET which, today, provides a major backbone communication service for the internet. Later, the networks began becoming public and emerged. By the end of 1991, the Internet has grown to include about 5’000 networks in over three dozen countries, serving over 700’000 host computers used by over 4’000’000 people. But this was only starting the incredible growth of the web community. Growth rates in Internet access and use of more than 150 per cent per year are still possible ( i.e.: in 2003 the growth in using Internet was 123.8% in Hungary and 166.7% in Malta). So it is not a surprise, that in developed Western European countries about 50% of the whole population in surveys mention the use of the web. As the table in the appendix shows, the share of Internet user is going to align nearly the number of landline telephone extensions.
Christian Nicke
Essay from the year 2006 in the subject Business economics - Supply, Production, Logistics, grade: 5,0 (sehr gut), University of Pécs (Faculty of Business and Economics), course: Marketing III, 13 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: No innovation or invention in the last decades had a stronger impact on our daily live than the development of the World Wide Web (www, also called “Internet”). Personal computers appeared in offices at the beginning of the 1980es in greater quantities. However, each workstation could used only for its own or within limited networks (for instance within one division of a company). On the other hand, like so often, U.S. military researcher, the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) initiated in 1973 a research program to investigate techniques and technologies for interlinking packet networks of various kinds. The objective of this research programme was to develop communication protocols that are essential for the communication between computers and that should allow transparent communication across multiple, linked packet networks. In 1986, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) initiated the development of the NSFNET which, today, provides a major backbone communication service for the internet. Later, the networks began becoming public and emerged. By the end of 1991, the Internet has grown to include about 5’000 networks in over three dozen countries, serving over 700’000 host computers used by over 4’000’000 people. But this was only starting the incredible growth of the web community. Growth rates in Internet access and use of more than 150 per cent per year are still possible ( i.e.: in 2003 the growth in using Internet was 123.8% in Hungary and 166.7% in Malta). So it is not a surprise, that in developed Western European countries about 50% of the whole population in surveys mention the use of the web. As the table in the appendix shows, the share of Internet user is going to align nearly the number of landline telephone extensions.
Christian Nicke
Essay from the year 2006 in the subject Business economics - Economic Policy, grade: 4,0 (gut), University of Pécs (Faculty of Business and Economics), course: Entrepreneurship Studies, 24 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: It seems helpful to me, first to clarify the two most important terms of the title of this essay. The first term is “regional policy” that includes two parts that should be explained: region and special policy for regions. Regions Regions are marked through a number of special criteria: o “singleness (unique position) o otherness (differentiation criteria) o commonness (culture, traditions, landscape) o collective identity (shared history, doom) o regional awareness (feeling of belonging together, identification) o government’s organisation (administration, policy) o elected representation (self-determination, -administration) o homogeneity (socio-economical, cultural, ethnical) o functional togetherness (networks) o power-connection (domination, dependency, interconnections) o inter-organisational networks (socio-economical milieu) o openness (cross-linking, knowledge-transfer) o global competitiveness (competition, networks)” The policy that especially affects the concerns of regions is called “regional policy”. Regional policy aims to support the planned development of regions in the way of coordinated measure setting. As regional policy is embedded in the nationwide policy, it aims from the viewpoint of the national government to • maximise economic growth and • minimise social costs As development of regions always includes entrepreneurship to create regional value, I would like to collect state of the art knowledge about how regional policy can support entrepreneurship. Here the question appears, what could been understand under regional policy. Regional policy Regional policy is the sum of law, strategies and measures for setting and influencing a framework and processes in particular areas of a nation through the government. With special regional policy government seeks to reduce spatial disparities in economic. The last term I would like to introduce for my essay is Entrepreneurship. In this context, entrepreneurship is not each business activity in a wider understanding of the term but I mean the field of founding new enterprises based on an idea for providing products or services that are not available in or near the region yet.
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