Optical Phenomena in Semiconductor Structures of Reduced Dimensions

Nato Science Series E

Book 248
Springer Science & Business Media
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Remarkable advances in semiconductor growth and processing technologies continue to have a profound impact on condensed-matter physics and to stimulate the invention of novel optoelectronic effects. Intensive research on the behaviors of free carriers has been carried out in the two-dimensional systems of semiconductor heterostructures and in the one and zero-dimensional systems of nanostructures created by the state-of-the-art fabrication methods. These studies have uncovered unexpected quantum mechanical correlations that arise because of the combined effects of strong electron-electron interactions and wave function confinement associated with reduced dimensionality. The investigations of these phenomena are currently at the frontiers of condensed-matter physics. They include areas like the fractional quantum Hall effect, the dynamics of electrons on an ultra short (femtosecond) time scale, electron behavior in quantum wires and dots, and studies of electron tunneling phenomena in ultra small semiconductor structures. Optical techniques have made important contributions to these fields in recent years, but there has been no coherent review of this work until now.
The book provides an overview of these recent developments that will be of interest to semiconductor materials scientists in university, government and industrial laboratories.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Dec 6, 2012
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Pages
454
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ISBN
9789401119122
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Physics / Condensed Matter
Science / Physics / Electricity
Science / Physics / Electromagnetism
Science / Physics / General
Science / Physics / Optics & Light
Technology & Engineering / Lasers & Photonics
Technology & Engineering / Materials Science / General
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The second half of this century will remain as the era of proliferation of electronic computers. They did exist before, but they were mechanical. During next century they may perform other mutations to become optical or molecular or even biological. Actually, all these aspects are only fancy dresses put on mathematical machines. This was always recognized to be true in the domain of software, where "machine" or "high level" languages are more or less rigourous, but immaterial, variations of the universaly accepted mathematical language aimed at specifying elementary operations, functions, algorithms and processes. But even a mathematical machine needs a physical support, and this is what hardware is all about. The invention of hardware description languages (HDL's) in the early 60's, was an attempt to stay longer at an abstract level in the design process and to push the stage of physical implementation up to the moment when no more technology independant decisions can be taken. It was also an answer to the continuous, exponential growth of complexity of systems to be designed. This problem is common to hardware and software and may explain why the syntax of hardware description languages has followed, with a reasonable delay of ten years, the evolution of the programming languages: at the end of the 60's they were" Algol like" , a decade later "Pascal like" and now they are "C or ADA-like". They have also integrated the new concepts of advanced software specification languages.
Science and Technology of Polymer Colloids G.W. Poehlein, R.H. Ottewill, J.W. Goodwin (editors) Polymer colloids, more commonly known as latexes, are important in the manufacture of synthetic elastomers, commodity polymers, surface coatings, adhesive and numerous specialty products. The significant growth of the commercial production of polymer latexes during the past decade has been due to a number of factors. First, water-based systems, especially paints and coatings, avoid many of the environ mental problems associated with the solvent-based systems. Second, polymer colloid products can be custom designed to meet a wide range of application requirements. Third, large scale emulsion polymeri zation proceeds smoothly and controllably with a wide range of monomers to produce stable polymer colloids of high molecular weight. Polymer colloids are also important in functional scientific studies. This importance arises from the spherical shape of the particles, range of attainable particle diameters and the uniformity of their size distribution, and the possibility of controlling and character izing the particle surface. Polymer colloids are useful as size standards in microscopy and in instrument calibration, and as carriers in antibody-enzyme diagnostic tests. As suspensions of uniform spherical particles, they are ideal experimental systems to test the series of colloidal phenomena as stability and coagulation, electric kinetic or rheological proper ties, and light scattering. In recent years, polymer colloids have received attention as models for many-body molecular phenomena, including the order-disorder transitions and the mechanics of crystalline phases.
Nikola Tesla was a major contributor to the electrical revolution that transformed daily life at the turn of the twentieth century. His inventions, patents, and theoretical work formed the basis of modern AC electricity, and contributed to the development of radio and television. Like his competitor Thomas Edison, Tesla was one of America's first celebrity scientists, enjoying the company of New York high society and dazzling the likes of Mark Twain with his electrical demonstrations. An astute self-promoter and gifted showman, he cultivated a public image of the eccentric genius. Even at the end of his life when he was living in poverty, Tesla still attracted reporters to his annual birthday interview, regaling them with claims that he had invented a particle-beam weapon capable of bringing down enemy aircraft.

Plenty of biographies glamorize Tesla and his eccentricities, but until now none has carefully examined what, how, and why he invented. In this groundbreaking book, W. Bernard Carlson demystifies the legendary inventor, placing him within the cultural and technological context of his time, and focusing on his inventions themselves as well as the creation and maintenance of his celebrity. Drawing on original documents from Tesla's private and public life, Carlson shows how he was an "idealist" inventor who sought the perfect experimental realization of a great idea or principle, and who skillfully sold his inventions to the public through mythmaking and illusion.


This major biography sheds new light on Tesla's visionary approach to invention and the business strategies behind his most important technological breakthroughs.

The NATO Special Programme Panel on Condensed Systems of Low Dimensionality began its work in 1985 at a time of considerable activity in the field. The Panel has since funded many Advanced Research Workshops, Advanced Study Institutes, Cooperative Research Grants and Research Visits across the breadth of its remit, which stretches from self-organizing organic molecules to semiconductor structures having two, one and zero dimensions. The funded activities, especially the workshops, have allowed researchers from within NATO countries to exchange ideas and work together at a period of development of the field when such interactions are most valuable. Such timely support has undoubtedly assisted the development of national programs, particularly in the countries of the alliance wishing to strengthen their science base. A closing Workshop to mark the end of the Panel's activities was organized in Marmaris, Turkey from April 23-27, 1990, with the same title as the Panel: Condensed systems of Low Dimensionality. This volume contains papers presented at that meeting, which sought to bring together chemists, physicists and engineers from across the spectrum of the Panel's activities to discuss topics of current interest in their special fields and to exchange ideas about the effects of low dimensionality. As the following pages show, this is a topic of extraordinary interest and challenge which produces entirely new scientific phenomena, and at the same time offers the possibility of novel technological applications.
Just over 25 years ago the first laser-excited Raman spectrum of any crystal was obtained. In November 1964, Hobden and Russell reported the Raman spectrum of GaP and later, in June 1965, Russell published the Si spectrum. Then, in July 1965, the forerunner of a series of meetings on light scattering in solids was held in Paris. Laser Raman spectroscopy of semiconductors was at the forefront in new developments at this meeting. Similar meetings were held in 1968 (New York), 1971 (Paris) and 1975 (Campinas). Since then, and apart from the multidisciplinary biennial International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy there has been no special forum for experts in light scattering spectroscopy of semiconductors to meet and discuss latest developments. Meanwhile, technological advances in semiconductor growth have given rise to a veritable renaissance in the field of semiconductor physics. Light scattering spectroscopy has played a crucial role in the advancement of this field, providing valuable information about the electronic, vibrational and structural properties both of the host materials, and of heterogeneous composite structures. On entering a new decade, one in which technological advances in lithography promise to open even broader horirons for semiconductor physics, it seemed to us to be an ideal time to reflect on the achievements of the past decade, to be brought up to date on the current state-of-the-art, and to catch some glimpses of where the field might be headed in the 1990s.
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