Public sector entrepreneurship refers to innovative public policy initiatives that generate greater economic prosperity by transforming a status-quo economic environment into one that is more conducive to economic units engaging in creative activities in the face of uncertainty. In today’s economy, public sector entrepreneurship affects that transformation primarily by increasing the effectiveness of knowledge networks; that is, by increasing the heterogeneity of experiential ties among economic units and the ability of those same economic units to exploit such diversity. Through policy initiatives that are characterized by public sector entrepreneurship, there will be more development of new technology and hence more innovation throughout the economy.
The United States has supported research and development activity on both the applied and basic research levels for most of its history. The importance of public sector research has often been discussed but its effectiveness has not been adequately reviewed. The need for evaluation of public sector research and development activity is critical in today's political environment to assist policymakers with resource allocation. Methodology for evaluating public sector research and development activity is described and illustrated by the author using in-depth case studies drawn from the research programs at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. These cases range from newly formed federal laboratory research initiatives to well-established research programs. Managerial and evaluative guidelines are enunciated.
This work should be of interest to scholars who deal with economics in general, public policy, science policy, and public administration. In addition, practitioners in public administration and managers of public sector research laboratories on federal and state levels should find the information useful. Those who depend on research and development done with public sector money or who use it to supplement their research programs will also be interested.
While Link and Boger cover the mechanical science of business valuation, they also concentrate on the intuitive art of valuation, emphasizing the distinction between the two. Based on more than three decades of valuation experience and teaching of the associated methodologies, they give the novice valuator an understanding of the elements of art and science in the practice of business valuation and an appreciation that both elements are important. A valuable tool for students and professionals dealing with business valuation issues.
Edited by two of the world’s leading entrepreneurship scholars, this comprehensive volume offers a platform for understanding and future research that is both state-of-the-art and authoritative. It expands on how modern entrepreneurship has developed, with a focus on the key "makers" of the field – including theories, such as social psychology; concepts, such as neuroeconomics; and types, such as political entrepreneurship.
The contributions to the collection are grouped into three sections:Emergence of Entrepreneurship Research Theories in Modern Entrepreneurship Concepts and Makers in Modern Entrepreneurship
This companion is essential reading for students and academics interested in entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial management and business management.
There is a growing consensus in the field of economics that knowledge, technological knowledge in particular, is one of the most relevant resources of wealth, yet it is one of the most difficult and complex activities to understand or even to conceptualize. The economics of knowledge is an emerging field that explores the generation, exploitation, and dissemination of technological knowledge. Technological knowledge cannot any longer be regarded as a homogenous good that stems from standardized generation processes. Quite the opposite, technological knowledge appears more and more to be a basket of heterogeneous items, resources, and even experiences. All of these sources, which are both internal and external to the firm, are complementary, as is the interplay between a bottom-up and top-down generation processes. In this context, the interactions between the public research system, private research laboratories, and various networks of learning processes, within and among firms, play a major role in the creation of technological knowledge.
In this Handbook special attention is given to the relationship among technological knowledge and both upstream scientific knowledge and related downstream resources. By addressing the antecedents and consequences of technological knowledge from both an upstream and downstream perspective, this Handbook will become an indispensable tool for scholars and practitioners aiming to master the generation and the use of technological knowledge.
Technology infrastructure, either in the narrow or broad sense, is not well understood as an element of a sector’s technology platform or of a national innovation system. Similarly misunderstood are the processes by which such infrastructure is embodied in standards or diffused through various institutional frameworks. In fact, because of the public and quasi-public good nature of technology infrastructure, firms as well as public-sector agencies under invest in it, thus inhibiting long-term technological advancement and economic growth.
This volume of essays brings together a collection of papers from eminent scholars on all of the various dimensions of technology infrastructure mentioned above. To our knowledge, it is the first such collection of papers and we expect this scholarship to become the foundation for future research in this area.
This book was published as a special issue of Economics of Innovation and New Technology.