Dynamical systems theory and flow control are two research areas of great current interest. These and other special situations are among the topics covered in this volume. Each article emphasizes the use of experiments to achieve better physical understanding of a particular class of flow problems. The topics covered were chosen because of their importance to the field, recent appeal, and potential for future development. The articles are comprehensive and coverage is pedagogical with a bias towards recent developments.
These two volumes contain the proceedings of the workshop on the Institute for Computer Instability and Transition, sponsored by Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) and the Langley Research Center (LaRC), during May 15 to June 9, 1989. The work shop coincided with the initiation of a new, focused research pro gram on instability and transition at LaRC. The objectives of the workshop were to (i) expose the academic community to current technologically important issues of instability and transition in shear flows over the entire speed range, (ii) acquaint the academic com munity with the unique combination of theoretical, computational and experimental capabilities at LaRC and foster interaction with these facilities, (iii) review current state-of-the-art and propose fu ture directions for instability and transition research, (iv) accelerate progress in elucidating basic understanding of transition phenomena and in transferring this knowledge into improved design methodolo gies through improved transition modeling, and (v) establish mech anisms for continued interaction. The objectives (i) to (iii) were of course immediately met. It is still premature to assess whether ob jectives (iv) and (v) are achieved. The workshop program consisted of tutorials, research presenta tions, panel discussions, experimental and computational demonstra tions, and collaborative projects.
The European Drag Reduction Meeting has been held on 15th and 16th November 1990 in London. This was the fifth of the annual European meetings on drag reduction in engineering flows. The main objective of this meeting was to discuss up-to-date results of drag reduction research carried out in Europe. The organiser has adopted the philosophy of discussing the yesterday's results rather than the last year's results. No written material has therefore been requested for the meeting. It was only after the meeting the submission of papers was requested to the participants, from which 16 papers were selected for this proceedings volume. The meeting has attracted a record number of participants with a total of 52 researchers from seven European countries, U. K. , France, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Switzerland and U. S. S. R. as well as from Japan, Canada and Australia. The subjects covered in this proceedings volume include riblets, LEBUs (Large Eddy Break-Up device), surface roughness, compliant surfaces and polymer additives. Riblets seem to be one of the most extensively studied devices in the past years. Reflecting this situation in the European community, there are six papers on riblets covering their practical applications to aircraft and to a model ship, near-wall coherent structure of the boundary layer and effects of flow three-dimensionality. Possibility of heat-transfer enhancement with riblets and potential use in the laminar flow are also investigated. An analytical model is developed for the boundary-layer with a LEBU device.
Current interest in a variety of low Reynolds number applications has focused attention on the design and evaluation of efficient airfoil sections at chord Reynolds numbers from about 100,000 to about 1,000,000. These applications include remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs) at high altitudes, sailplanes, ultra-light man-carrying/man powered aircraft, mini-RPVs at low altitudes and wind turbines/propellers. The purpose of this conference was to bring together those researchers who have been active in areas closely related to this subject. All of the papers presented are research type papers. Main topics are: Airfoil Design and Analysis, Computational Studies, Stability and Transition, Laminar Separation Bubble, Steady and Unsteady Wind Tunnel Experiments and Flight Experiments.
This volume contains a selection of the papers presented at the Fourth Symposium on Numerical and Physical Aspects of Aerodynamic Flows, which was held at the California State University, Long Beach, from 16-19 January 1989. It includes the Stewartson Memorial Lecture of Professor J. H. Whitelaw, and is divided into three parts. The first is a collection of papers that describe the status of current technology in two- and three-dimensional steady flows, the second deals with two- and three-dimensional unsteady flows, and the papers in the third address stability and transition. Each of the three parts begins with an overview of current research, as described in the following chapters. The individual papers are edited versions of the selected papers originally submitted to the symposium. Four years have passed since the Third Symposium, and certain trends be come clear if one compares the papers contained in this volume with those of previous volumes. There are more three- than two-dimensional problems consid ered in Part 1 and the latter address more difficult problems than in the past, for example, the extension to higher angles of attack, to transonic flow, to leading edge ice accretion, and to thick hydrofoils. The large number of papers in the first part reflects the emphasis of current research and development and the needs of industry.
The last two decades have witnessed an intensifying effort in learning how to manage flow turbulence: it has in fact now become one of the most challenging and prized techno logical goals in fluid dynamics. The goal itself is of course not new. More than a hundred years ago, Reynolds already listed factors conducive to laminar and to turbulent flow (including among them curvature and acceleration). Further more, it is in retrospect clear that there were several early instances ot successful turbulence management. Examples are the reduction in drag achieved with a ring-trip placed on the front of a sphere or the insertion of a splitter-plate behind a circular cylinder; by the early 1950s there were numerous exercises at boundary layer control. Although many of these studies were interesting and suggestive, they led . to no spectacularly successful practical application, and the effort petered out in the late 1950s. The revival of interest in these problems in recent years can be attributed to the emergence of several new factors. First of all, fresh scientific insight into the structure of turbulence, in particular the accumulated evidence for the presence of significant order in turbulent flow, has been seen to point to new methods of managing turbulence. A second major reason has been the growing realisation that the rate at which the world is consuming its reserves of fossil fuels is no longer negligible; the economic value of greater energy effi ciency and lower drag has gone up significantly.
In 1976 a similar titled IUTAM Symposium (Structure of Turbulence and Drag Reduction) was held in Washington . However, the progress made during the last thirteen years as weil as the much promising current research desired a second one this year. In Washington drag reduction by additives and by direct manipulation of the walls (compliant walls and heated surfaces) were discussed. In the meantime it became evident that drag reduction also occurs when turbulence is influenced by geometrical means, e.g. by influencing the pressure distribution by the shape of the body (airfoils) or by the introduction of streamwise perturbances on a body (riblets). In the recent years turbulence research has seen increasing attention being focused on the investigation of coherent structures, mainly in Newtonian fluids. We all know that these structures are a significant feature of turbulent flows, playing an important role in the energy balance in such flows. However their place in turbulence theories as weil as the factors influencing their development are still poorly understood. Consequently, the investigation of phenomena in which the properties of coherent structures are alte red provides a promising means of improving our understanding of turbulent flows in general.
Research on laminar flow and its transition to turbulent flow has been an important part of fluid dynamics research during the last sixty years. Since transition impacts, in some way, every aspect of aircraft performance, this emphasis is not only understandable but should continue well into the future. The delay of transition through the use of a favorable pressure gradient by proper body shaping (natural laminar flow) or the use of a small amount of suction (laminar flow control) was recognized even in the early 1930s and rapidly became the foundation of much of the laminar flow research in the U.S. and abroad. As one would expect, there have been many approaches, both theoretical and experimental, employed to achieve the substantial progress made to date. Boundary layer stability theories have been formu lated and calibrated by a good deal of wind tunnel and flight experiments. New laminar now airfoils and wings have been designed and many have been employed in aircraft designs. While the early research was, of necessity, concerned with the design of subsonic aircraft interest has steadily moved to higher speeds including those appropriate to planetary entry. Clearly, there have been substantial advances in our understanding of transition physics and in the development and application of transition prediction methodolo gies to the design of aircraft.
This volume contributes to one of the most important topics of Fluid Mechanics in future and presents recent research results on control theory and applied control methods. Understanding and handling of control methods of nonlinear systems, typical of Fluid Mechanics, is the key to reduce losses and to improve the efficiency and safety of technical processes.
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