The last two decades have witnessed an intensifying effort in learning how to manage flow turbulence: it has in fact now become one of the most challenging and prized techno logical goals in fluid dynamics. The goal itself is of course not new. More than a hundred years ago, Reynolds already listed factors conducive to laminar and to turbulent flow (including among them curvature and acceleration). Further more, it is in retrospect clear that there were several early instances ot successful turbulence management. Examples are the reduction in drag achieved with a ring-trip placed on the front of a sphere or the insertion of a splitter-plate behind a circular cylinder; by the early 1950s there were numerous exercises at boundary layer control. Although many of these studies were interesting and suggestive, they led . to no spectacularly successful practical application, and the effort petered out in the late 1950s. The revival of interest in these problems in recent years can be attributed to the emergence of several new factors. First of all, fresh scientific insight into the structure of turbulence, in particular the accumulated evidence for the presence of significant order in turbulent flow, has been seen to point to new methods of managing turbulence. A second major reason has been the growing realisation that the rate at which the world is consuming its reserves of fossil fuels is no longer negligible; the economic value of greater energy effi ciency and lower drag has gone up significantly.
The thrust of modern research on turbulence in fluids is concerned with coherent structures and modelling. Riblets have been shown to reduce drag, and the papers presented in this volume tackle the main question of the mechanism responsible for this behaviour in turbulent flow. The contributions in this volume were presented at the Sixth Drag Reduction Meeting held at Eindhoven during November 1991. This volume will be a useful reference work for engineers, physicists and applied mathematicians interested in the topic of fluid turbulence.
Dynamical systems theory and flow control are two research areas of great current interest. These and other special situations are among the topics covered in this volume. Each article emphasizes the use of experiments to achieve better physical understanding of a particular class of flow problems. The topics covered were chosen because of their importance to the field, recent appeal, and potential for future development. The articles are comprehensive and coverage is pedagogical with a bias towards recent developments.
This volume contributes to one of the most important topics of Fluid Mechanics in future and presents recent research results on control theory and applied control methods. Understanding and handling of control methods of nonlinear systems, typical of Fluid Mechanics, is the key to reduce losses and to improve the efficiency and safety of technical processes.
The International Union of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (IUTAM) decided in 1992 to sponsor the fourth Symposium on Laminar-Turbulent Transition, Sendai/Japan, 1994. The objectives of the present Symposium were to deepen the fundamental knowledge of stability and laminar turbulent transition in three-dimensional and compressible flows and to contribute to recent developing technologies in the field. This Symposium followed the three previous IUTAM-Symposia (Stuttgart 1979, Novosibirsk 1984 and Toulouse 1989). The Scientific Committee selected two keynote lectures and 62 technical papers. The Symposium was held on the 5th to 9th of September, 1994, at the Sendai International Center in Sendai. The participants were 82 scientists from 10 countries. The keynote lectures have critically reviewed recent development of researches concerning the laminar-to-turbulent transition phenomena from the fundamental and the application aspects. Many papers presented were concerned about the detailed mechanism of the boundary layer transition (receptivity, secondary instability, turbulent spot and bypass transition). Particular emphasis was further placed on the transition of three-dimensional boundary layers on rotation systems and on swept wings. Attention was also given to compressible hypersonic flows.
In 1976 a similar titled IUTAM Symposium (Structure of Turbulence and Drag Reduction) was held in Washington . However, the progress made during the last thirteen years as weil as the much promising current research desired a second one this year. In Washington drag reduction by additives and by direct manipulation of the walls (compliant walls and heated surfaces) were discussed. In the meantime it became evident that drag reduction also occurs when turbulence is influenced by geometrical means, e.g. by influencing the pressure distribution by the shape of the body (airfoils) or by the introduction of streamwise perturbances on a body (riblets). In the recent years turbulence research has seen increasing attention being focused on the investigation of coherent structures, mainly in Newtonian fluids. We all know that these structures are a significant feature of turbulent flows, playing an important role in the energy balance in such flows. However their place in turbulence theories as weil as the factors influencing their development are still poorly understood. Consequently, the investigation of phenomena in which the properties of coherent structures are alte red provides a promising means of improving our understanding of turbulent flows in general.
The subject of laminar-turbulent transition is of considerable practical importance and has a wide range of engineering applications. For this reason, the International Union of Applied Mechanics decided to sponsor a third Symposium on "Laminar-Turbulent Transition", which would be organised by the ONERA Toulouse Research Center and held at "Ecole Nationale Superieure de l'Aeronautique et de l'Espace" in 1989. It was supposed that like the two previous IUTAM Symposia (Stuttgart 1979 and Novosibirsk 1984) the symposium would be devoted to experimental of laminar-turbulent transition In fluids, i.e. the and theoretical studies physical problem of transition and mathematical modelling in shear flows. The contributed papers were selected by the Scientific Committee from extended abstracts. The larger number of highly qualified papers submitted for presentation led us to include in the program poster sessions, which could be held during morning, lunch and afternoon breaks, and to take the decision that the symposium should last five days (from Monday 11 to Friday 15 September). An excursion on Wednesday offering a well deserved rest and the occasion of new personal exchanges between the participants seems to have been appreciated by all. The symposium consisted of 8 invited lectures and 62 contributed pa pers presented either on oral or poster sessions.
The book covers the following main topics: turbulence structure, transition, dynamical systems in relation to transition, turbulent combustion and mixing, turbulence affected by body forces, turbulence modeling, drag reduction, and novel experimental techniques.
These two volumes contain the proceedings of the workshop on the Institute for Computer Instability and Transition, sponsored by Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE) and the Langley Research Center (LaRC), during May 15 to June 9, 1989. The work shop coincided with the initiation of a new, focused research pro gram on instability and transition at LaRC. The objectives of the workshop were to (i) expose the academic community to current technologically important issues of instability and transition in shear flows over the entire speed range, (ii) acquaint the academic com munity with the unique combination of theoretical, computational and experimental capabilities at LaRC and foster interaction with these facilities, (iii) review current state-of-the-art and propose fu ture directions for instability and transition research, (iv) accelerate progress in elucidating basic understanding of transition phenomena and in transferring this knowledge into improved design methodolo gies through improved transition modeling, and (v) establish mech anisms for continued interaction. The objectives (i) to (iii) were of course immediately met. It is still premature to assess whether ob jectives (iv) and (v) are achieved. The workshop program consisted of tutorials, research presenta tions, panel discussions, experimental and computational demonstra tions, and collaborative projects.
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