Erasmus’ Annotations began as marginal comments in his own copy of the New Testament and were subsequently published in 1516 as a supplement to the Novum Instrumentum. His annotations were intended to justify his changes based on the Greek text. In each successive edition, published between 1516 and 1535, the Annotations grew in size and scope providing Erasmus with the opportunity to defend his translations in the face of growing criticism from orthodox Catholic theologians. This volume notes the editorial changes made in the five editions and also provides the reader with information about the patristic, medieval and contemporary sources consulted by Erasmus, and about the evolving relations with contemporary critics. The Annotations played a pivotal role in the development of sixteenth-century biblical exegesis and mark a significant stage in the evolution of humanist biblical scholarship.