From Garrison State to Nation-State: Political Power and the Russian Military Under Gorbachev and Yeltsin
Why has the military not intervened in the post-communist political arena since the advent of democracy in Russia? Do lowered levels of professionalism actually lead to higher levels of intervention? Through a systematic exploration of professionalism within the Russian military, this study addresses these important questions. Moran suggests that by examining the notion of subjective fragmentation, both Gorbachev and Yeltsin utilized a highly effective, yet potentially troublesome, form of civil-military control. Findings that overall levels of praetorian behavior on the part of the Russian military have declined in this period, in spite of declining levels of military professionalism, challenge one of the most basic theoretical assumptions of civil-military relations.
Since 1991, post-communist Russia has exhibited all of the classic indicators of a society ripe for a military takeover. Not only have institutional interests of the Russian officer corps been gravely threatened, but surveys conducted within it have found a general lack of sympathy for democratic values. Furthermore, Russia's weak civil society is accompanied by high levels of corruption, rampant crime, secessionist movements, a significant terrorist threat, and a general disrespect for the rule of law. Even further augmenting the chances of a military coup d' DEGREESD'etat, public opinion polls of civilians have found that the military is one of the most trusted institutions in the country--so trusted, in fact, that many Russian citizens have expressed support for a military takeover. Moran explains why the military has not capitalized on these factors.
The Senoi Praaq is a Malaysian special forces unit originally created in 1956 by the British colonial authorities to fight communism during the Malayan Emergency. The term Senoi Praaq, which roughly translates as war people, stems from the Semai language and is the basis of a colorful legend in Malaysia. The unit is largely comprised of non-Malay tribal peoples known collectively as the Orang Asli of Peninsular Malaysia. Jumper details Senoi Praaq inception as a private army and its subsequent development into an affiliate of the Royal Malaysian Police (RMP) in this fast paced and often graphic account of irregular warfare as it applies to counterinsurgency.
The unit began as a creature of British Military Intelligence and fought in the deep jungle as Special Air Service (SAS) proteges, eventually replacing the latter upon Malaysian independence from Great Britain. They then served as mercenaries employed by the United States Central Intelligence Agency in Vietnam and later fought on Borneo during Malaysia's own undeclared war with Indonesia. Today the unit remains under arms and heads up a large paramilitary apparatus maintained in conjunction with conventional military forces. Malaysia's capacity to project force throughout South East Asia should not be underestimated, Jumper warns. The Senoi Praaq is a unique fighting force upon which Malaysia may rely to preserve her sovereignty.